Damned Heretics

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Qualified outsiders and maverick insiders are often right about the need to replace received wisdom in science and society, as the history of the Nobel prize shows. This blog exists to back the best of them in their uphill assault on the massively entrenched edifice of resistance to and prejudice against reviewing, let alone revising, ruling ideas. In support of such qualified dissenters and courageous heretics we search for scientific paradigms and other established beliefs which may be maintained only by the power and politics of the status quo, comparing them with academic research and the published experimental and investigative record.

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Many people would die rather than think – in fact, they do so. – Bertrand Russell.

Skepticism is dangerous. That’s exactly its function, in my view. It is the business of skepticism to be dangerous. And that’s why there is a great reluctance to teach it in schools. That’s why you don’t find a general fluency in skepticism in the media. On the other hand, how will we negotiate a very perilous future if we don’t have the elementary intellectual tools to ask searching questions of those nominally in charge, especially in a democracy? – Carl Sagan (The Burden of Skepticism, keynote address to CSICOP Annual Conference, Pasadena, April 3/4, 1982).

It is really important to underscore that everything we’re talking about tonight could be utter nonsense. – Brian Greene (NYU panel on Hidden Dimensions June 5 2010, World Science Festival)

I am Albert Einstein, and I heartily approve of this blog, insofar as it seems to believe both in science and the importance of intellectual imagination, uncompromised by out of date emotions such as the impulse toward conventional religious beliefs, national aggression as a part of patriotism, and so on.   As I once remarked, the further the spiritual evolution of mankind advances, the more certain it seems to me that the path to genuine religiosity does not lie through the fear of life, and the fear of death, and blind faith, but through striving after rational knowledge.   Certainly the application of the impulse toward blind faith in science whereby authority is treated as some kind of church is to be deplored.  As I have also said, the only thing ever interfered with my learning was my education. My name as you already perceive without a doubt is George Bernard Shaw, and I certainly approve of this blog, in that its guiding spirit appears to be blasphemous in regard to the High Church doctrines of science, and it flouts the censorship of the powers that be, and as I have famously remarked, all great truths begin as blasphemy, and the first duty of the truthteller is to fight censorship, and while I notice that its seriousness of purpose is often alleviated by a satirical irony which sometimes borders on the facetious, this is all to the good, for as I have also famously remarked, if you wish to be a dissenter, make certain that you frame your ideas in jest, otherwise they will seek to kill you.  My own method was always to take the utmost trouble to find the right thing to say, and then to say it with the utmost levity. (Photo by Alfred Eisenstaedt for Life magazine) One should as a rule respect public opinion in so far as is necessary to avoid starvation and to keep out of prison, but anything that goes beyond this is voluntary submission to an unnecessary tyranny, and is likely to interfere with happiness in all kinds of ways. – Bertrand Russell, Conquest of Happiness (1930) ch. 9

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John P. Moore Brings Down The AIDS Paradigm (Part 2)

May 30th, 2007

Moore redeems himself by helping Duesberg destroy crux of HIV∫AIDS theory

Scores studies for ignoring obvious: HIV acts as vaccine against itself

John Moore, quiet Truthteller

samsonbigmaybe.jpgAs we were saying, the other day we made a remarkable discovery in the scientific literature of HIV∫AIDS.

John Moore, it turns out, has justified our obstinate faith in his exemplary character as a scientist in one of our most distinguished medical institutions by publishing a paper which finds the heart of the paradigm empty, and its claims of a virus overcoming the resistance of the body provably void.

Moore as paradigm assassin

To put it bluntly, John P. Moore Ph.D. has written a paper which tears out the thumping heart of his entire campaign in defense of the beleaguered paradigm and throws it to the paradigm attack dogs he is usually occupied with trying to kick as hard as he possibly can.

The title of this quietly seminal work is a question: “Is there enough gp120 in the body fluids of HIV-1 infected individuals to have biologically significant effects?”

The minireview can be found in Virology, 323 (2004) pp1-8, and is written with P. J. Klasse, who is also at the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, W-805, New York NY 10021 (Fax 212 746 8340 jpm2003@med.cornell.edu).

Gp120 is the envelope glycoprotein of the vaunted Human Immunodeficiency Virus, which Moore in public is strenuous in insisting is the valid root cause of the statistically burgeoning AIDS pandemic reported by the New York Times and the Council of Foreign Relations and other very established sources of public advice to be spreading around the world and threatening the security of almost every nation.

Private science

Apparently he is not saying the same thing off stage, however. It seems the paper was a review more or less intended for the private reading of the HIV virologist’s club, and not for the general public or even the edification of journalists and science writers.

This double think is standard behavior for the well funded members of the HIV∫AIDS elite. They profess one thing in public, and like to carry on their real discussion behind the scenes, talking more realistically among themselves about their stock in trade, the belief that HIV somehow causes AIDS, and wondering aloud how it could possibly be reconciled with the stream of contradictory studies pouring forth very year, without unsympathetic interlopers present who might notice the dissonance between public confidence and private admissions about the missing heart of the paradigm.

Secretly supporting the HIV critics

For the admissions of Moore’s paper in the course of its review and conclusion are of exactly that kind. They unmistakably deny the possibility that HIV will have any significant effect on the body after antibodies clear it from the bloodstream, for the simple reason that there just isn’t enough left in the blood to have any biological effect. That is the answer to the question in his title that Moore himself gives. In doing so, he removes the essential prop of the entire HIV∫AIDS system.

Moore himself thus stands revealed as the HIV∫AIDS dissidents best friend, a man who from the heart of the establishment has had the courage to state that the emperor paradigm has no clothes. Moore, in fact, turns out to be a second Duesberg.

This is a very brave man, a man whose urge to investigate, find and announce the truth cannot be gainsayed by considerations of affiliation or funding, or even having, in the form of a notorious Op Ed piece, taken a firm stand for falsity in the pages of the New York Times.

Moore, the new Duesberg?

However, we realize that few readers are going to take this from us on faith, after all Moore has put the dissidents through, including even trying to attack their jobs through phoning up their employers. So we are happy to give chapter and verse, from this paper and a couple of others.

What we will reveal will suggest to the historians among us that when Duesberg gets his combined double Nobel for the solution to AIDS and for peace, it is not impossible that standing beside him proudly will be the once perfidious Moore, newly revealed here as the savior of AIDS patients from mismedication and deliverer of the world from the lethal infection of the AIDS meme.

Uprooting the foundation

So let’s see what the paper says. First of all, in this pathbreaking Virology review, Moore debunks the papers over the past decade in which gp 120, the surface envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1, has been added to cells in vitro, ie to human T cells in a lab dish, on the false assumption that this mimics the effect of gp120 in the live bloodstream. He writes that

“the outcome is generally that gp120 can kill a target cell or perturb its normal functions, and it is assumed that what is observed in vitro [in the lab] is relevant in vivo [in the body].”

The purpose of Moore’s review, in fact, is to see whether this is correct or not. Is there enough gp120 in the blood in vivo to do anything? Or are HIV researchers overlooking the effects of antibodies, which may block the effects seen in the lab dish and prevent them from occurring in the body?

Since this is the function of antibodies, all present may already feel they know the answer, which is Yes, HIV lab researchers evaluating the effect of gp120 have been overlooking the effects of protective antibodies in the live bloodstream.

Antibodies defeat HIV

Seventeen years after Peter Duesberg said the same thing, this indeed is the answer that Moore will arrive at. In the living patient antibodies defeat HIV and clear it from the blood stream so effectively that it can have no effect on T cells or anything else. End of story. HIV is not a lethal invader of the body biological, it is quickly seen off by the immune system of a healthy person.

“Our intent is to question whether such an extrapolation is reasonable on quantitative grounds, particularly when the presence of antibodies (Abs) in the plasma of HIV-1-infected persons is taken into account.”

Overestimates of gp120 in the blood

Moore first cites a bunch of studies to show the range of gp120 concentrations used in experiments, which have varied from 1pM to 1uM. Naturally some of these have found toxic effects, since if you add enough of anything to a culture you’ll get a toxic effect, and contamination with bacteria is common in labs, yielding endotoxins from their walls. But the problem here, he says, is that the papers everyone has relied on for the past decade or more overestimate the amount of gp120 in the blood of HIV+ people.

“Two papers are usually cited to suggest that gp120 concentrations used in vitro resemble those in bodily fluids, specifically plasma… Our impression is that these papers are often either cited incorrectly or misunderstood.”

He goes into more detail, which we will hide from those uninterested in the details.

The papers are Gilbert et al, (Enzyme-linked immunoassay for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein 120, in the Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 29 (1), pp 142-147) 1991, and Oh et al (Identification of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein in the serum of AIDS and ARC patients, in the Journal of AIDS 5 (3) , pp 251-256) 1992. Both are rejected by Moore as misleading, and he looks more favorably in a later paper, Gilbert et al, 2003 (Long term safety analysis of preventive HIV-1 vaccine evaluated in AIDS vaccine evaluation group NIAID-sponsored Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials, Vaccine 21 (21-22), 2933-2947).

“Oh et al detected gp120 in a majority of AIDS patients’ sera in the range 0.1-0.8 nM. No gp120 was found in the sera of HIV-1 infected individuals with AIDS related complex (ARC). Thus, only in sera from people at the late clinical stages of infection, when HIV-1 antigen levels tend to rise, was free gp120 ever, apparently, detectable. However, gp120 in complex with antibody (Ab) was found in a larger proportion of sera, a point to which we shall return.”

Translation: Oh’s finding is that only when people got really sick and their immune system was having trouble coping was any free viral envelope protein detectable floating around in the bloodstream.

Otherwise, the viral envelope protein was only detected with antibodies attached, indicating as other studies have shown that the immune system does such a good job knocking out HIV with antibodies that there isn’t a detectable level in an AIDS patient’s bloodstream until they fall really ill, when the immune system is crippled and lets some HIV run loose for lack of antibodies.

Interestingly, this is going to be Moore’s final message, though he actually rejects the findings of this paper by Oh. Our interpretation of his conclusion might be phrased as follows, though we are not giving you an actual Moore quotation: In general, a healthy immune system knocks out HIV and its proteins, period, and there is no need for any vaccine, thank you very much. Yours truly, John Moore.

In his corrective review Moore then compares the Gilbert study of 2003, a different paper from a different Gilbert, where gp120 was detected only in the range 2-20 pM, and only in a minority of AIDS and ARC patients who were p24 antigenemic, ie with concentrations one to two orders of magnitude lower than the Oh study. The two studies (Oh 1991 and Gilbert 2003) do not agree with each other, therefore, and shouldn’t be cited as if they did, he says:

In contrast, Gilbert et al. (2003) detected gp120 only in the range 2–20 pM, and then only in a minority of sera from p24-antigenemic AIDS and ARC patients. The plasma gp120 concentrations detected by Oh et al. were thus one to two orders of magnitude higher than those described by Gilbert et al. (2003). Hence, the two papers should not be cited as agreeing with each other.

He then describes the methods used in each to see why the difference, and in a confused discussion finds that Oh used a method which is “questionable at best” in its ability to detect and quantify gp120 in plasma, and undoubtedly the later Gilbert study is right to lower the estimate of gp120 concentration in the bloodstream. He concludes a slew of papers have been written by the HIV∫AIDS club based on erroneous assumptions that over estimate gp120 concentrations in plasma, especially when the level of viremia is considered (even at high levels, eg a million per milliliter, the protein is hardly found – it’s 2-4 orders of magnitude lower ie 100 to 10,000 times lower than the claimed levels used in experiments).

Moore confesses – he found it first and failed to publish!

Moore moves on to discuss the level of viremia in plasma and what does he have to say? Why, that Gilbert et al.(2003) had tried mixing gp120 with human serum only to find it significantly reduced the gp120 signal and that if you add a lot of HIV positive blood, the gp120 is entirely knocked out by the antibodies in the plasma!

Not only Gilbert, moreover, has found this. Moore himself now confesses he observed the same effect many years ago in experiments which he never published!

Why didn’t Moore publish sooner?

In other words, Moore found many years ago that human antibodies thoroughly stymied the virus by attaching to the free viral envelope gp120, and thus no doubt to the virions, and somehow failed to publish this finding! Could it be that he was not anxious to spoil the global vaccine initiative led by his long time pal and sponsor David Ho, and tactfully restrained himself from putting into print what would have stymied Ho by showing there was no need for a vaccine against HIV at all, since it vaccinated against itself very well. Surely not?

Surely there must have been some less political motive for Moore’s odd lack of publication of this stupendous result, which would have raised the curtain of fear from around the Virus to demonstrate that it was rendered powerless by the natural responses of any healthy person?

The many millions that would have escaped the shame, despair, fear of death and prison, and the general self deteriorating panic that overcame them on hearing they were under a death sentence from an undetectable virus, one that eventually works its deadly magic in a way as yet unknown to science to bring them down with ghastly internal and external rot and speed them into the grave after a lull of apparently healthy life of ten or twenty years or more from the time of infection, these millions might wish he had spoken up earlier on a more prominent stage.

But they can at least be grateful to John P. Moore for at last if rather belatedly publicizing to the few readers of this obscure Virology paper his watershed finding, which fits so well the analysis of Peter Duesberg seventeen years earlier which pointed out exactly the same thing, since it was by then already demonstrated in the literature that no one was bothering to read any more.

But since Duesberg’s papers have proved to be apparently too difficult to read and respond to by his peers such as Robert Gallo, Anthony Fauci, and David Baltimore, who are far too busy saving lives, it apparently took a minor officer of the paradigm propaganda and promotion army in the service of HIV to come right out and say it, and confirm Duesberg’s point, after 17 years.

Here’s the beef

Anyone who doubts what we have to say must read it for themselves, of course. So here is the following paragraph of John P. “Truthteller” Moore’s breakthrough review, which can now be compared to those of Peter Duesberg if not in literary quality or analytical cogency at least in its power to affect events, for this is what the world has been waiting for, confirmation from the HIV paradigm A team that HIV (all its interactions depend on this protein, gp120) is defeated by human antibodies, and there is no need for the billion dollar global vaccine effort which has so far resulted in more than twenty ineffectual stabs at producing a vaccine to engender antibodies to defeat HIV, antibodies which HIV itself does very well at exciting all by itself, to a level that already utterly defeats its supposed depredations because the HIV is entirely neutralized and reduced to a harmless level in the blood which is undetectable without PCR, which is the only way the negligible and biologically irrelevant quantities of the viral sequence in human blood can be magnified geometrically into something significant and detectable.

Here it is, the paragraph which makes history, and in our opinion places John Moore one step closer to a Nobel side by side with Peter Duesberg for having the public spirit, the guts and the undeniable truthtelling urge to inform the world of the reality of the harmlessness of HIV, whatever the dispproval, scorn, calumny and rejection which may now be heaped upon his irremediably scientific head by David Ho, Bob Gallo, Anthony Fauci, and David Baltimore, the nobles of the court of HIV∫AIDS, where the Emperor HIV is now revealed to have no clothes of pathogenicity at all.

A related issue, approached by Oh et al and addressed more directly by Gilbert et al (2003) is that of interference by plasma antibodies. Gilbert et al (2003) found that mixing gp120 with control human serum significantly decreased the subsequent signal and that high titers of HIV-1+ sera could abrogate the signal completely. One of us (J.P.M.) observed much the same effect in unpublished experiments many years ago, using a capture enzyme immunoassay based on Ab D7324 and a polyclonal anti-gp120 serum. Thus, when a known amount of gp120 was spiked into different HIV-1+ sera, the anti-gp120 Abs present interfered significantly with gp120 detection, and to an extent that varied greatly between the sera. Indeed, it was impossible to judge from the assay readout what amount of gp120 had been added to the different HIV-1+ sera. Therefore, any estimation of how much gp120 was naturally present in the HIV-1+ sera was clearly problematic. The same concerns apply to p24 antigen quantification in the presence of plasma anti-p24 antibodies: only when immune complexes are dissociated, for example by the use of heat, can p24 concentrations be properly determined (Schupbach and Boni, 1993).(Emphasis added.)

Translation: Mixing human HIV+ blood with viral envelope gp120 results in its complete effective eradication by the HIV antibodies in the serum, So if you expect to measure the level of gp120 in the blood of a healthy human, don’t bother. Same applies to p24, another component of HIV and an antigen that antibodies also neutralize out of sight. All you will get to measure is antibodies (Abs).

Which is precisely what “AIDS tests”, tests for HIV, actually measure – antibodies! Surprise!

Moore’s inner tension

An even bigger surprise is that the estimable Moore cannot resist fessing up he found this out years ago by experimenting and failed to alert the public and other scientists to his discovery by publishing his result.

Clearly the pressures against this exemplary truthteller must have been immense to prevent this innately high integrity scientist from doing his duty in this regard, and so we redouble our praise for his giving in to the impulse at long last. What measure of pyschological inner conflict was playing out in Moore’s combative psyche during this process we cannot gauge, but we do know that the decision to go public cannot have been undertaken lightly.

A Samson of whistleblowers

For here Moore is undermining the chief pillar of the paradigm he has so vociferously supported in the last couple of years. He is in effect a whistleblower in the game in which he has been a chief player. Among whistleblowers he is now joining the exalted ranks of whistleblowers who have changed history.

He is in fact a Samson of whistleblowers, whose muscular arms have been wrapped around the biggest and thickest pillar of the temple of HIV∫AIDS, and with a final heave has uprooted it from the marble floor and tossed its broken halves away from him as the entire edifice has come apart above him, threatening to kill him at the same time as the horrified high priests whose armed guard he has recently commanded.

Why Moore went ballistic

Of course it appears that having let this tiger sized cat out of the bag in the narrow confines of a journal read only by the HIV club Moore seems to have chickened out, abandoned his new policy of public acknowledgement of real science and conducted ever more fierce attacks on HIV critics in his Times Op Ed piece, his AIDSTruth.org site and in email warfare with Harvey Bialy. Could it be that Fauci et al made it perfectly clear that he had gone too far? Surely not. After all, the AIDS generals have never been very keen on discussing the reality behind HIV and AIDS science in public themselves, so why should they encourage Moore to be so loud in his denials?

We conclude that it must have been the torment of having his brief moment in the fresh air of honest science curtailed that twisted Moore into some kind of psychological pretzel of inner conflict, and led to his recent ungentlemanly conduct in making excessive remarks even including the humble host of this untrumpeted blog, using such undignified words as “slime” and so forth.

Only the torment of inner conflict can account for this unexpected phase of Moore’s fine career, in which he has temporarily left behind the civility inculcated into his combative character by Downing, his respectable Cambridge college.

We want to encourage him to choose the Dr Jekyll side of his recently Mr Hyde character by supporting him completely in pursuing his 2004 path of honest admission in every way we can. We would encourage him by noting that Robert Gallo confirmed what he has said in his testimony to the Adelaide court which helped block the appeal of Parenzee against his jail sentence (see earlier posts). Gallo admitted that HIV was ineffectual against antibodies in a normal healthy person. But then so did Robin Weiss, the British equivalent of Robert Gallo, back in 1985 (R. A. Weiss et al, Neutralization of HTLV-III by sera of AIDS and AIDS-risk patients, Nature 316:69-72, 1985). Of course, the party line since then has been that HIV mutates too fast for antibodies to keep up. Not true, according to at least one mainstream paper which finds that the body’s antibodies keep up very well with HIV’s mutant escapism (D. D. Richman et al. Rapid evolution of the neutralizing antibody response to HIV type 1 infection. Proc. Nat. Ac. Sci.100:4144-4149, 2003.

Nails in the HIV coffin lid

Moore makes other confirming points in the article, just in case anyone thinks we are quoting selectively and giving a false impression. Here are the main ones:

The methods that have been used to date are not any use in estimating how much gp120 there is in the blood of HIV+ people:

Taken together, the uncertainty about the efficiency of gp120 capture, the extent of cross-reactivity of the detecting Abs with any gp120 present in plasma (at least in the assay used in Oh et al), and the interference by plasma anti-gp120 Abs, all but preclude any accurate estimate of plasma gp120 concentrations by the methods that have been used to date….The limitations of the published assays need to be taken into account when these papers are cited (Gilbert et al 2003 and Oh et al).

His guess is that these papers probably overestimated gp120 levels in plasma in vivo by two to four orders of magnitude (100x-10,000x).

It can be calculated that a plasma viral load of 10^6 virions/ml – a high level for chronic HIV-1 infection – corresponds to only 0.03-0.07 pM of virion associated gp120 and 2-3 pM p24. While this concntration of virion-associated p24 is somewhat below the upper range of p24 of total p24 in plasma (Ledergerber et al 2000) this gp120 concentration is between two (Gilbert et al, 1991) and four (Oh et al, 1992) orders of magnitude lower than the often cited values.

For, as he has already noted, the plasma antibodies neutralize most of the gp120:

We noted above that plasma anti-gp120 Abs mask the detection and quantification of gp120. The same antibodies have a very significant effect on the receptor interactions of any gp120 that is present in plasma. Abs to gp120 are usually present at high enough concentrations in plasma to bind up most of the gp120 present.

The antibodies in plasma are sufficient to prevent pretty much all binding of gp120 to CD4 or the co-receptors:


Thus, in the presence of undiluted HIV-1+ plasma, as occurs in vivo, there would be effectively no binding of gp120 monomers to CD4 or the co-receptors. This is rarely accounted for in the design and interpretation of in vitro studies with recombinant gp120, but it always should be.

Moore goes on to say that perhaps antibodies would be less effective on gp120 hiding in the central nervous system or other tissue locales, where they are present only at low levels. There is no way of telling what the outcome might be, he says. But it seems plausible that gp120 could be present in places other than the blood at much higher concentrations than in the plasma, for example, the interstitial spaces in lymph nodes. Such possibilities are hard to imitate in experiments, so he is forced to “conclude that the relevant gp120 concentrations are essentially unknown.”

The bottom line

The bottom line is that the levels of gp120 present in plasma in vivo “are far below” the levels where they have significant effects on cells in vitro ie in the lab. And any experiments must take into account the effects of antibodies which are present in vivo.

As noted above, HIV-1 positive serum antibodies will have much the same effect as the specific MAbs (monoclonal antibodies), and their presence in vivo must be taken into account.

Oops! Moore tries to cloak his realism

Having reached this rather startling set of conclusions, amounting to an admission that the paradigm “HIV causes AIDS” is a non starter given the power of human antibodies.to wipe out the virus in the blood, and its proteins, Moore then does a pretty dance to salvage his respectability with his HIV∫AIDS cohorts before he is cast into as deep a dungeon as Peter Duesberg for giving wrong answers to the scientific Inquisition.

We do not argue that gp120 could never have a biological effect on cells in vivo via receptor-mediated interactions. Nor is it impossible that virions could influence cellular processes in vivo independently of receptor-mediated fusion events.

We do, however, argue that it is not an adequate mimic of in vivo biology simply to add free gp120 (or virions) to target cells in vitro in amounts that are apparently several orders of magnitude greater than in body fluids…(The two decade-old) papers are not consistent with each other, and the more frequently cited study, by Oh et al, has serious design flaws that may cast doubt on the gp120 concentrations it promulgates. The much lower gp120 concentrations recorded by Gilbert et al (2003) are likely to be closer to true levels. And the presence of plasma anti-gp120 Abs that block receptor binding should inform the design of in vitro experiments…. Some of these considerations apply, of course, to other studies of similar design that use high concentrations of other HIV-1 proteins, such as Tat and Vpr, in vitro, in the hope that this is relevant to pathogenesis.

Sadly, as you can see, it seems that Moore could not bring himself to deny his result for very long, and immediately stated it again, just to clinch it in the minds of all listeners.

What’s more, he broadened it to make sure that readers understood that what he was saying applied not only to the envelope protein gp120 of HIV but other major proteins and the virions themselves (virions are free floating virus outside the cell; provirus is its embodiment inside the cell DNA). Antibodies deal with all these variations, it is clear, if they are found in the bloodstream.

Gentlemen, your experiments are worthless

In other words, Come on guys, stop doing experiments trying to gauge the supposed destructive effect of HIV virions or its proteins on CD4 cells in the blood by throwing gp120 or any of the others into a dish of target cells when in the body there are antibodies which defeat HIV and its proteins before it can do anything to speak of.

Doing such experiments is rather like planning the Normandy invasion of the Second World War but leaving out the Germans. In the case of HIV this is likely to be even more misleading because in every healthy human there are enough German antibodies to repel boarders and throw the English and the Americans HIV virions and proteins back into the sea. An invasion by HIV is a D Day which rapidly turns into a Dunkirk.

Bravo! John P. “Truthteller” Moore for pointing to this long ignored truth.

Here is the paper, for reference: Is there enough gp120 in the body fluids of HIV-1-infected individuals to have biologically significant effects?

doi:10.1016/j.virol.2004.03.003

Minireview

Is there enough gp120 in the body fluids of HIV-1-infected individuals to have biologically significant effects?

P. J. Klasse and John P. Moore,
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, USA
Received 16 January 2004; Revised 17 February 2004; accepted 2 March 2004. Available online 26 April 2004.

“Is there enough gp120 in the body fluids of HIV-1-infected individuals to have biologically significant effects?” [Virology 323 (2004) 1–8]
Virology, Volume 327, Issue 1, 15 September 2004, Pages 155-155
P.J. Klasse and John P. Moore

Over the past decade, many publications have described experiments in which the recombinant monomeric form of the gp120 surface envelope (Env) glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been added to cells in vitro (Fig. 1). The ensuing cellular responses (e.g., activation of signal transduction pathways resulting in cytokine release, chemotaxis, proliferation, anergy, or apoptosis) are monitored. The outcome is generally that gp120 can kill a target cell or perturb its normal functions, and it is assumed that what is observed in vitro is relevant in vivo. Our intent is to question whether such an extrapolation is reasonable on quantitative grounds, particularly when the presence of antibodies (Abs) in the plasma of HIV-1-infected persons is taken into account. We cite only a small selection from this abundant literature, to illustrate the range of active gp120 concentrations reported.

Fig. 1. (a) The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) complex consists of trimers of non-covalently linked heterodimers of an outer, receptor-binding moiety, gp120, anchored to a transmembrane protein gp41, which is involved in the fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane. The gp120 moiety is shown (left) interacting with the four-domain receptor, CD4. This binding induces a conformational change that facilitates the interaction of gp120 with a coreceptor, CCR5 for R5 virus and CXCR4 for X4 virus (right). The interactions of gp120 with CCR5 and CXCR4 are weak in the absence of CD4. (b) A monomer of gp120 is shown to undergo interactions corresponding to those in (a). This scheme is reproduced in many experiments making use of monomeric recombinant gp120. A significant degree of binding and many experimental effects are only obtained at much higher concentrations than what could realistically be present in extracellular fluids in vivo (top). A complex between gp120 and soluble CD4 is shown to interact with a coreceptor on the cell surface. In the absence of CD4, the affinity of gp120 for CCR5 or CXCR4 is low (bottom, left). Specific antibodies prevent gp120 from binding to CD4; this also precludes further, downstream contact with the coreceptor (bottom, right). The blocking effect of antibodies is likely to occur in vivo except in certain tissues where their concentration is lower, such as the central nervous system. (c) An HIV-1 virion is shown schematically. The Env trimers of heterodimers (gp120 and gp41) stud the phospholipid bilayer that surrounds the viral Gag proteins and RNA genome. The copy-number ratio of the Gag to Env in virions is 50.

In the in vitro experiments, the gp120 concentrations vary from 1 pM to 1 μM (ca. 0.12 ng/ml to 120 μg/ml, as 1 nM ≈ 0.12 μg/ml, e.g. Arthos et al., 2002; Chirmule et al., 1990; Davis et al., 1997; Esser et al., 2001; Goldman et al., 1994; Herbein et al., 1998; Hesselgesser et al., 1998; Huang et al., 2001; Kanmogne et al., 2001; Keswani et al., 2003; Kornfeld et al., 1988; Mann et al., 1987; Masci et al., 2003; Munshi et al., 2003; Oyaizu et al., 1990; Schneider-Schaulies et al., 1992; Tamma et al., 1997; Vlahakis et al., 2003; Wahl et al., 1989; Weinhold et al., 1989; Weissman et al., 1997 and Yao et al., 2001). Sometimes biological effects occur only at the higher end of the range, although particularly in neuronal cell systems lower gp120 concentrations can be active. In those systems, the primary effects may be partly on microglial cells, which are reported to amplify secondary effects on neurons (cf. Garden, 2002; Kaul and Lipton, 1999 and Keswani et al., 2003, reviewed in Kaul et al., 2001).

Historical measurements of plasma gp120 concentrations

Two papers are usually cited to suggest that the gp120 concentrations used in vitro resemble those in body fluids, specifically plasma (Gilbert et al., 1991 and Oh et al., 1992). Our impression is that these papers are often either cited incorrectly or misunderstood. What do they, in fact, report? Oh et al. detected gp120 in a majority of AIDS patients’ sera in the range 0.1–0.8 nM. No gp120 was found in the sera of HIV-1-infected individuals with AIDS-related complex (ARC). Thus, only in sera from people at the late clinical stages of infection, when HIV-1 antigen levels tend to rise, was free gp120 ever, apparently, detectable. However, gp120 in complex with antibody (Ab) was found in a larger proportion of sera, a point to which we shall return. In contrast, Gilbert et al. (2003) detected gp120 only in the range 2–20 pM, and then only in a minority of sera from p24-antigenemic AIDS and ARC patients. The plasma gp120 concentrations detected by Oh et al. were thus one to two orders of magnitude higher than those described by Gilbert et al. (2003). Hence, the two papers should not be cited as agreeing with each other.

Both papers rely on capture enzyme-immunoassays to quantify gp120. The assay of Gilbert et al. (2003) uses a soluble form of CD4, the primary receptor for gp120 (see Fig. 1), to capture gp120 onto a solid phase. The bound gp120 is then detected with a polyclonal sheep Ab raised against a peptide from the C terminus of gp120 of the T-cell line-adapted isolate IIIB. This antibody, D7324, cross-reacts strongly with gp120s from multiple HIV-1 strains, particularly within subtype B but also outside it (Moore and Jarrett, 1988 and Moore et al., 1994b). As soluble CD4 is pan-reactive with properly folded gp120s, the assay used by Gilbert et al. (2003) is relatively little affected by gp120 sequence diversity. In contrast, Oh et al. employed a polyclonal serum to gp120 of the IIIB isolate for capture, with a monoclonal Ab (MAb) to the V3 loop of IIIB gp120 as the detection reagent. Details of the specificity of the latter MAb are not provided, but it is stated “to have 10–15% cross-reactivity with other strains”. Regardless of whether this value refers to the extent of binding or the proportion of test gp120s that it reacted with, it is now well understood that the recognition of gp120 from primary viruses by IIIB-specific V3-loop MAbs is usually poor. The cross-reactivity capabilities of the assay used by Oh et al., and hence its ability to detect and quantify gp120 in plasma, is, therefore, questionable at best. This assay would be expected to underestimate plasma gp120 content by failing to recognize gp120 from the infecting strain. However, its results suggest that gp120 is present in plasma at surprisingly high concentrations, both relative to what was found by Gilbert et al. (2003) and to viremia, as discussed below.

A related issue, approached by Oh et al. and addressed more directly by Gilbert et al. (2003), is that of interference by plasma antibodies. Gilbert et al. (2003) found that mixing gp120 with control human serum significantly decreased the subsequent signal and that high titers of HIV-1+ sera could abrogate the signal completely. One of us (J.P.M.) observed much the same effect in unpublished experiments many years ago, using a capture enzyme immunoassay based on Ab D7324 and a polyclonal anti-gp120 serum. Thus, when a known amount of gp120 was spiked into different HIV-1+ sera, the anti-gp120 Abs present interfered significantly with gp120 detection, and to an extent that varied greatly between the sera. Indeed, it was impossible to judge from the assay readout what amount of gp120 had been added to the different HIV-1+ sera. Therefore, any estimation of how much gp120 was naturally present in the HIV-1+ sera was clearly problematic. The same concerns apply to p24 antigen quantification in the presence of plasma anti-p24 antibodies: only when immune complexes are dissociated, for example by the use of heat, can p24 concentrations be properly determined (Schupbach and Boni, 1993).

Taken together, the uncertainty about the efficiency of gp120 capture, the extent of cross-reactivity of the detecting Abs with any gp120 present in plasma (at least in the assay used by Oh et al.), and the interference by plasma anti-gp120 Abs, all but preclude any accurate estimate of plasma gp120 concentrations by the methods that have been used to date. Of note is that Gilbert et al. (2003) found no correlation between plasma p24 and gp120 concentrations, which may reflect differences in the extent of Ab complexing with the two antigens. The limitations of the published assays need to be taken into account when these papers are cited, particularly in respect of the high gp120 concentrations reported by Oh et al.

Alternative estimates of plasma gp120 concentrations

What concentrations of gp120 could be expected in HIV-1+ plasma? Plasma concentrations of the viral Gag protein (Fig. 1) p24 provide a useful guide. Most plasma p24 antigen is normally Ab-complexed or virion-associated. But after its release as a free protein, it is detected at concentrations <40 pM (Ledergerber et al., 2000), that is, just above the 2–20 pM reported for free gp120 by Gilbert et al. (2003). If virions were the only source, gp120 concentrations would be 40- to 60- fold lower than those of p24 (Chertova et al., 2002; Layne et al., 1992 and Zhu et al., 2003). It can be calculated that a plasma viral load of 106 virions/ml—a high level for chronic HIV-1 infection—corresponds to only 0.03–0.07 pM of virion-associated gp120 and 2–3 pM p24. While this concentration of virion-associated p24 is somewhat below the upper range of total p24 in plasma (Ledergerber et al., 2000), this gp120 concentration is between two (Gilbert et al., 1991) and four (Oh et al., 1992) orders of magnitude lower than the often cited values.

Gp120 that is not associated with virions could potentially be derived from infected cells. The envelope glycoprotein complex (Fig. 1) is produced and processed via the secretory pathway, whereas the Gag precursor is synthesized on free ribosomes in the cytoplasm. Although virions incorporate approximately 50-fold fewer Env than Gag molecules when they bud from cellular membranes (see Fig. 1c) (Chertova et al., 2002), we do not know the ratio of Gag to Env in infected cells in vivo. It could be argued that the majority of Env never exits from the secretory pathway, and that significant additional amounts of gp120 is released from dead or moribund cells as “viral debris” (Parren et al., 1997). However, some of this debris would not interact with receptors and such lysed cells would also release p24. Hence, it is hard to explain how gp120 proteins capable of receptor binding could be present at higher concentrations than p24.

The effect of plasma antibodies on gp120–receptor interactions

We noted above that plasma anti-gp120 Abs mask the detection and quantification of gp120. The same antibodies have a very significant effect on the receptor interactions of any gp120 that is present in plasma. Abs to gp120 are usually present at high enough concentrations in plasma to bind up most of the gp120 present. The ratio [Ab]/Kd determines their degree of binding to gp120, in accordance with the law of mass action (Klasse and Sattentau, 2002). Anti-gp120 Ab concentrations have been estimated to be in the micromolar range (Binley et al., 1997); so for high-affinity binding (Kd < 10 nM), the occupancy of gp120 by Abs should approach saturation. And the titers of Abs able to inhibit the binding of gp120 to CD4 (and hence indirectly to CCR5 or CXCR4) are in the range 1:100 to 1:1000 in HIV-1+ sera (Callahan and Norcross, 1989 and Moore et al., 1994a). Thus, in the presence of undiluted HIV-1+ plasma, as occurs in vivo, there would be effectively no binding of gp120 monomers to CD4 or the co-receptors. This is rarely accounted for in the design and interpretation of in vitro studies with recombinant gp120, but it always should be. Less complexing of gp120 by Abs would occur in some tissue locales. For example, Abs are present only at low levels in the central nervous system, even when HIV-1 infection causes intrathecal Ab production and blood–brain barrier leakage (Goudsmit et al., 1987 and Kaul et al., 2001). In general, Ab concentrations in different tissues are likely to vary considerably from those of gp120 and virus. Predicting the net effects of variations in relative and absolute concentrations of Ab, gp120 and virus is a complex task that we do not attempt here. Concentration of gp120 in tissues The putative levels of gp120 measured, or plausibly present, in plasma are far below some of those that have significant effects on cells in vitro. But could the latter concentrations nevertheless be biologically relevant by matching those in compartments other than blood? The gp120 concentrations in, for example, the interstitial spaces of lymph nodes or other solid organs are unknown. Nevertheless, if the greater density of cells, the smaller extracellular space and the possibly slower dilution kinetics were quantitatively factored in, it seems plausible that gp120 could be present within interstitial lymph node spaces at concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than in plasma. Furthermore, if small secluded spaces are created during cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1 and HTLV-1, the so-called virological synapses (Igakura et al., 2003 and Jolly et al., 2004), then viral proteins may be present at high local concentrations in those clefts. In vitro studies involving Env-producing cells may, therefore, be more realistic than those using soluble, recombinant gp120 (Castedo et al., 2001; Castedo et al., 2002 and Jekle et al., 2003). However, the gp120 concentration gradients produced by such cells are difficult to assess. And membrane-associated Env may differ from soluble gp120 in, for example, its qualitative effects on T-cell activation (Schwartz et al., 1994). Another relevant complication is that gp120 from X4 viruses, but not R5 viruses, binds to heparan-sulphate glycosoaminoglycan (GAG) moieties of proteoglycans, and thereby can be retained within tissues both in the extracellular matrix and on cell surfaces (Moulard et al., 2000 and Ugolini et al., 1999). GAGs are present on the surface of many cell types (Ugolini et al., 1999). An analogy may be drawn between gp120 and chemokines that, in vivo, do not seem to act as free proteins. Chemokines, instead, interact with G-protein-coupled receptors while in the form of surface-bound GAG complexes that establish haptotactic gradients in tissues (Proudfoot et al., 2003). Such potentially modulating effects of the tissue environment complicate the rational design and interpretation of in vitro experiments, which by necessity simulate in vivo conditions imperfectly. We conclude that the relevant gp120 concentrations in the organism are essentially unknown. Affinity of gp120 for its receptors and the influence of receptor occupancy Ultimately, any consequences of local concentrations of gp120 depend on its affinity for the relevant receptors and the degree of binding required for signals to be transduced. Several effects of gp120 are mediated through CD4 binding, either directly or indirectly through subsequent CD4-dependent interactions with a chemokine coreceptor. The Kd of gp120 binding to CD4 is in the range 1–10 nM (Ashkenazi et al., 1990; Ivey-Hoyle et al., 1991; Moebius et al., 1992 and Moore, 1990). That is higher even than the concentrations reported by Oh et al. and 1000-fold higher than those found by Gilbert et al. (2003). However, gp120 may also bind with high affinity to DC-SIGN and other C-type lectin receptors (Geijtenbeek et al., 2002 and Turville et al., 2002), as well as to the GAG moieties of proteoglycans (Moulard et al., 2000 and Ugolini et al., 1999). Although the latter interactions of soluble monomeric X4 gp120 are readily reversible (Mondor et al., 1998b), binding to such accessory attachment molecules could raise the effective gp120 concentrations available for other receptor interactions. Quite distinct degrees of binding, or occupancies, of cellular receptors may be required to exert the different effects on the target cells that we are discussing. But generally, the occupancy can be estimated from the formula [[gp120]/Kd]/[[1 + [gp120]]/Kd] (Klasse and Moore, 1996). Thus, for 99% occupancy, the concentration of gp120 must be >100-fold above Kd. That means 0.1–1 μM for CD4 binding. Indirect effects of gp120 on T-cell activation, mediated by blocking the interactions of antigen-MHC class II with CD4 and the T-cell receptor (Chirmule et al., 1995), would quite plausibly require the binding of gp120 to a large proportion of CD4 molecules. Some effects involving signaling via cell-surface receptors are, in principle, different. Thus, much lower occupancies, produced by gp120 concentrations close to or below Kd (Munshi et al., 2003) could conceivably be effective. Most biological effects would nevertheless require a detectable occupancy. Hence, we face a double conundrum: either active concentrations of gp120 are above Kd for receptor binding, which may not be realistic under in vivo conditions; or they are lower, which makes it difficult to explain how substantial binding could be achieved.

Some effects of gp120 are suggested to occur independently of CD4 (for example, Iyengar et al., 1999). The affinity of gp120 for CCR5 and CXCR4 in the absence of CD4 is usually found to fall below the limit of detection. Thus, there was no detectable X4 gp120 binding to CXCR4 at concentrations as high as 0.25–0.5 μM (Doranz et al., 1999 and Mondor et al., 1998a), and little binding of R5 gp120 to CCR5 at 0.4–0.5 μM (Trkola et al., 1996 and Wu et al., 1996). There is, however, one starkly contrasting report of higher-affinity gp120 binding (Kd ≈ 70 nM) to CXCR4 on CD4-negative, differentiated neuronal cells (Hesselgesser et al., 1997). The binding of soluble-CD4–gp120 complexes to CCR5 has a Kd of 4 nM (Doranz et al., 1999 and Wu et al., 1996), and to CXCR4 of 200 nM (Babcock et al., 2001). Despite the poor or controversial capacity of gp120 to interact directly with CCR5 or CXCR4, a pathophysiological role for the interaction of gp120 with these molecules on neurons and astrocytes has been proposed (Kaul et al., 2001). If the highest reported gp120–CXCR4 affinity is accurate (Hesselgesser et al., 1997), then the dose dependence of X4 gp120-mediated apoptotic effects via CXCR4 on CD4− neuronal cells is as expected, that is, a significant and increasing response from 20 nM to 1 μM (Hesselgesser et al., 1998). But whether that extremely high concentration range is relevant in vivo remains to be confirmed. In contrast, much lower concentrations of gp120 (0.1–200 pM) have also been found to be neurotoxic, with and without intermediary effects on Schwann and glial cells (Keswani et al., 2003 and Meucci et al., 1998). The occupancy of CXCR4 at gp120 concentrations in the sub-nanomolar range would be immeasurably low (<0.1%), even if we assume that the Kd ≈ 70 nM (Hesselgesser et al., 1997).

It is possible to investigate whether gp120 is bound to cells from HIV-1-infected individuals, and at what occupancy, ex vivo. The presence of gp120 attached to CD4 on the T-cell surface ex vivo has been inferred, although not directly detected (Amadori et al., 1992). But there is also a converse finding of the failure to detect specific masking of the gp120-binding site on CD4 on T cells from HIV-1-infected individuals (Kunkl et al., 1994). Resolving whether gp120 is detectable on the surface of CD4+ (or CD4−) cells ex vivo would help clarify gp120’s pathogenic role.

The outstanding task, then, is to assess and explain the occupancy of receptors by gp120 in vivo and what effects that has on the cells.

Use of virions in vitro

Some in vitro experiments have used virus-like particles or inactivated virions to study HIV-1-induced apoptosis, for comparison with the effects of recombinant soluble gp120 (Esser et al., 2001; Vlahakis et al., 2003 and Yao et al., 2001). When virus for this use is concentrated by several orders of magnitude, considerations apply that are similar to those for monomeric gp120: how well does the virion concentration used in vitro reflect what is present in vivo? Can virion densities rise to particularly high levels in certain locales, such as interstitial spaces in lymph nodes, and there exert the effects observed in vitro? The affinity of virions for target cells is unknown but liable to be the net outcome of two opposing influences. The receptor-interactive surfaces on the gp120 subunits are relatively inaccessible in the context of the virion-associated Env trimer, which will reduce the functional affinity of the interaction. Countering this, is the polyvalency effect of multiple trimers interacting with multiple receptors (as partly illustrated for murine leukemia virus; Yu et al., 1995). The binding of X4 virions to heparan sulphate proteoglycans on the cell surface is indeed more avid than that of monomeric gp120 (Mondor et al., 1998b).

Inactivated virus with a content of 0.4 nM of p24 (Esser et al., 2001), or even as high as 4 nM (Vlahakis et al., 2003), has been used in vitro. This corresponds to 8–80 pM virion-associated gp120. The degree of receptor binding that may ensue at these levels of virion-associated Env cannot be rationally predicted at present. But the maximal virus-induced apoptotic effect could not be mimicked by the corresponding amounts of monomeric gp120 or heat-denatured virions, and it required the presence of MHC class II on the virion (Esser et al., 2001). However, in another experimental system, HIV-1-induced cytolysis occurred regardless of the presence of MHC class II (LaBonte et al., 2003). Cytolysis is an alternative mechanism of cell death to apoptosis induced by receptors, and cytolysis are alternative mechanisms of cell death, cytolysis requires fusogenic Env protein, and affects only the infected cell (LaBonte et al., 2003).

The relative relevance of the experimental use of soluble Env, inactivated virions and fusogenic replicating virus to the pathogenesis of AIDS needs to be elucidated.

Improving the design of experiments using gp120

How could the design of in vitro studies using monomeric gp120 be improved (see Box 1)? The possible presence of biologically active contaminants, including endotoxins in gp120 preparations from commercial and other sources should always be considered. The use of anti-gp120 MAbs specifically to prevent gp120-CD4 or -coreceptor binding is a prudent control. As noted above, HIV-1+ serum antibodies will have much the same effect as the specific MAbs, and their presence in vivo must be taken into account. Gp120 point mutants defective for CD4 or coreceptor binding provide further controls. Thereby one can at least determine whether the consequences of sprinkling gp120 on mammalian cells depend on receptor binding, or whether they are merely attributable to contaminants in the protein preparation.

Conclusions

We do not argue that gp120 could never have a biological effect on cells in vivo via receptor-mediated interactions. Nor is it impossible that virions could influence cellular processes in vivo independently of receptor-mediated fusion events.

We do, however, argue that it is not an adequate mimic of in vivo biology simply to add free gp120 (or virions) to target cells in vitro in amounts that are apparently several orders of magnitude greater than in body fluids. Moreover, it is not appropriate to justify the amounts of gp120 used by reference to the two decade-old papers that purport to measure free gp120 in the plasma of HIV-1-infected people. These papers are not consistent with each other, and the more frequently cited study, by Oh et al., has serious design flaws that may cast doubt on the gp120 concentrations it promulgates. The much lower gp120 concentrations recorded by Gilbert et al. (2003) are likely to be closer to true levels. And the presence of plasma anti-gp120 Abs that block receptor binding should inform the design of in vitro experiments (see Box 1). Controls for gp120 purity and for the specificity of the interactions with CD4, chemokine receptors and GAGs should also be included in experimental protocols. Some of these considerations apply, of course, to other studies of similar design that use high concentrations of other HIV-1 proteins, such as Tat and Vpr, in vitro, in the hope that this is relevant to pathogenesis.

Box 1. Criteria for establishing the biological relevance of experiments using gp120 in vitro

1. Experimental concentration ranges shown to be relevant to the particular tissue compartment modeled.
2. Specificity of the receptor interactions demonstrated by use of gp120 deletion mutants or Abs blocking receptor binding.
3. Demonstration that the requisite receptor occupancy can be obtained under experimental conditions.
4. Inclusion of anti-gp120 Abs with a binding capacity (concentration and affinity) corresponding to that in the relevant tissue compartment.
5. Comparison of effects of recombinant gp120 with those of realistic levels of virions.

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Maciej Paluch for preparation of the illustrations and to André Marozsan for discussions. This work was supported by NIH grants AI36082, AI39420 and AI41420. J.P.M. is a Stavros S. Niarchos Scholar. The Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the Weill Medical College gratefully acknowledges the support of the William Randolph Hearst Foundation.

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Corresponding author. Joan and Sanford I. Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, 1300 York Avenue, W-805, New York, NY 10021. Fax: +1-212-746-8340.

Virology
Volume 323, Issue 1, 20 May 2004, Pages 1-8
Copyright © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

John P. Moore Brings Down the AIDS Paradigm (Part I)

May 30th, 2007

Scientist has attacked critics nastily, but can’t change core of innate honesty

Endorses core of dissident doubts, then hides sabotage behind facade of belligerent loyalty to paradigm

Psychological torment detected by observers

moore1.jpgRather deplorably, John P. Moore of Cornell has received a certain amount of ragging and even contempt for his efforts to defend the HIV∫AIDS paradigm against all comers.

Scientists and journalists who passionately criticize the unprecedented raft of inconsistencies in the science of the supposed global HIV∫AIDS pandemic, and the shameless rationalizations used to shore up its ideology, tend to think badly of Moore. They imagine he has abandoned his personal integrity to act as chief goon for his mentors and patrons in the field, which include the renowned David Ho, whose efforts at developing a vaccine against HIV have become ever more ineffectual as time and money spent has expanded.

moore.jpgThis is why one site (You Bet Your Life) put together this shockingly impolite composite of John Moore’s photo and an image of a macaque. which is the kind of monkey that Moore tests HIV microbicides on at Cornell. The artwork is by the irrepressible science critic Harvey Bialy, whose email tangles with Moore are legendary.

Bialy’s jaundiced view of Moore is certainly understandable in the light of the embattled Cornell researcher’s disrespect for dissidents on the Web and in email, including one to this writer, whom he first saluted for our literary prowess (as he saw it) and civil debating style but then suddenly informed in email that we were “homophobic” and “covered with slime” for being so. Our sin was not to condemn someone else’s “homophobia”, it seemed. Moore has put up a brief libel to that effect on his paradigm promoting site, AIDSTruth, to tell the world his inaccurate assessment, an act which in itself is flattering to the content of this humble blog, since it shows that he is unable to disagree with our site on any scientific basis.

NAR articles are generally well enough written to accurately reflect the dangers of AIDS denialist sites in their capacity to mislead and hurt innocent, vulnerable people, particularly those infected with HIV who are seeking answers and information about what choices to make.

(Moore’s email to NAR – click Tab below:)
We referenced the NAR site in our article in the IAS Newsletter Article, posted on AIDSTruth, because the NAR articles are generally well enough written to accurately reflect the dangers of AIDS denialist sites in their capacity to mislead and hurt innocent, vulnerable people, particularly those infected with HIV who are seeking answers and information about what choices to make. It seemed worth alerting AIDS health care professionals to the existence of the NAR site, so that they can take steps to counter its misleading (although generally well presented) information.

Anthony Liversidge is a much smarter and more dignified man … I guess (he) understands all this too, which is why he maintains the NAR site to a standard that is satirical but generally not abusive and offensive (you should not, however, interpret this comment as meaning I have ANY respect for his opinions, which are based on misunderstandings about HIV science).

(later email reversing his respect) We will be adding a specific comment regarding your site’s role in, and exploitation of, (some other writers’) homophobic attacks (in email) on a gay man. That sort of conduct is utterly shameful, and goes far, far beyond what is acceptable, even on the internet. For you to not only not condemn what happened, but to go so far as to exploit it, shames you and your web site, something that will be duly noted. The slime of offensive conduct sticks, Mr. Liversidge, and it has stuck to you as well, I’m afraid. You should be thoroughly ashamed of your behavior. I had regarded you as somewhat more civilized than Bialy, but I was in error – you are cut from the same cloth..

The Nancy Padian page

jekyll-and-hyde.jpgIn fact, the inaccuracies and weakness of the defenses of the paradigm mounted at AIDSTruth is widely celebrated by connoisseurs of paradigm challenges, and it is a useful reference source for critics of HIV∫AIDS that we recommend as often as the NIAID page The Evidence that HIV causes AIDS, and the Durban Declaration, as examples of the modest quality of reasoning sufficient to support disbursement of tens of billions in research funding by the NIAID in the last two decades..

The prime example is AIDS elite researcher Nancy Padian’s effort to explain away the results of her paradigm defeating study, the biggest and longest look at HIV transmission between the sexes, which did not find a single instance of HIV transmission in sex between many (47) discordant heterosexual couples who took no precautions whatsoever for up to six years. As noted in an earlier post the belated excuses made by Padian for publishing a study which exploded the central pillar of the hypothesis that the world is suffering from a global heterosexual AIDS pandemic were not convincing, to say the least.
(Read them at HIV heterosexual transmission and the “Padian papermyth”
HIV heterosexual transmission and the “Padian paper myth”

One of the more egregious myths perpetrated by AIDS denialists is that HIV is not heterosexually transmitted.

Part of the “evidence” that underlies this myth is a 1997 paper by Dr. Nancy Padian and her colleagues at the University of California, San Francisco (Padian NS, Shiboski SC, Glass SO, Vittinghoff E. 1997. Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Northern California: results from a ten-year study. Am J Epidemiol 146, 350-357) (1). The denialists either misinterpret or misunderstand this paper. Some internet sites/Blogs even go so far as to suggest that the “HIV/AIDS establishment” (sic) finds Dr. Padian’s work inconvenient and has suppressed it, to the detriment of her professional career. The following commentary from Dr. Padian addresses HIV heterosexual transmission, discusses what her seminal 1997 paper does actually say and, ipso facto, speaks to the absurdity of the notion that her work has been suppressed, or is inconvenient to other AIDS researchers.

Heterosexual transmission of HIV
Nancy Padian, PhD
University of California, San Francisco
HIV is unquestionably transmitted through heterosexual intercourse. Indeed, heterosexual intercourse is now responsible for 70-80% of all HIV transmissions worldwide (2). The current likelihood of male to female infection after a single exposure to HIV is 0.01-0.32% (2, 3), and the current likelihood of female to male infection after a single exposure is 0.01-0.1% (2). These estimates are mostly derived from studies in the developed world. However, a man or a woman can become HIV-positive after just one sexual contact. In developing countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa, several factors (co-infection with other sexually transmitted diseases, circumcision practices, poor acceptance of condoms, patterns of sexual partner selection, locally circulating viral subtypes, high viral loads among those who are infected, etc.) can increase the likelihood of heterosexual transmission to 20% or even higher (4). Evidence that specifically documents the heterosexual transmission of HIV comes from studies of HIV-discordant couples (i.e., couples in a stable, monogamous relationship where one partner is infected and the other is not); over time, HIV transmission occurs (5). Other studies have traced the transmission of HIV through networks of sexual partners (6-9). Additional evidence comes from intervention studies that, for example, promote condom use or encourage reductions in the numbers of sexual partners: the documented success of these interventions is because they prevent the sexual transmission of HIV (1,10,11).

In short, the evidence for the sexual transmission of HIV is well documented, conclusive, and based on the standard, uncontroversial methods and practices of medical science. Individuals who cite the 1997 Padian et al. publication (1) or data from other studies by our research group in an attempt to substantiate the myth that HIV is not transmitted sexually are ill informed, at best. Their misuse of these results is misleading, irresponsible, and potentially injurious to the public.

A common practice is to quote out of context a sentence from the Abstract of the 1997 paper: “Infectivity for HIV through heterosexual transmission is low”. Anyone who takes the trouble to read and understand the paper should appreciate that it reports on a study of behavioral interventions such as those mentioned above: Specifically, discordant couples were strongly counseled to use condoms and practice safe sex (1,12). That we witnessed no HIV transmissions after the intervention documents the success of the interventions in preventing the sexual transmission of HIV. The sentence in the Abstract reflects this success — nothing more, nothing less. Any attempt to refer to this or other of our publications and studies to bolster the fallacy that HIV is not transmitted heterosexually or homosexually is a gross misrepresentation of the facts and a travesty of the research that I have been involved in for more than a decade.

If safe sex practices are followed, and if there are no complicating factors such as those mentioned above, the risk of HIV transmission can be as low as our studies suggest…IF. But many people misunderstand probability: they think that if the chance of misfortune is one in six, that they can take five chances without the likelihood of injury. This “Russian Roulette” misapprehension is dangerous to themselves and to others. Furthermore, complicating factors are often not evident or obvious in a relationship, so their perceived absence should not be counted on as an excuse not to practice safe sex.

Finally, it is a complete fallacy to allege or insinuate that this work has been “suppressed” or “ignored” by the AIDS community or unsupported by UCSF or any other institution with which I have worked. To the contrary, these findings have been seen as central and seminal to the problem of heterosexual transmission rates and the development of interventions to lower the rate of transmission and infection worldwide, many of which are being conducted by my research group. The success of my working group has been fueled, not hindered, by our research on the heterosexual transmission of HIV, attested to by our long record of peer-reviewed publications.

Nancy Padian is a Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences at the University of California and she has worked on the heterosexual transmission of HIV since 1984. She is a frequent participant in annual NIH Office of AIDS Research planning workshops and has chaired the workshop on international research for the last four years. She is an elected member to the Institute of Medicine and the American Epidemiology Society. She served as vice-chair of the University of California task force on AIDS and currently directs international research for UCSF Global Health Sciences, the UCSF AIDS Research Institute and she is co-director of the Center for Reproductive Health Research and Policy.

1. Padian NS, Shiboski SC, Glass SO, Vittinghoff E. Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Northern California: results from a ten-year study. Am J Epidemiol 1997;146:350-7.

2. Downs AM, De Vincenzi I. Probability of heterosexual transmission of HIV: relationship to the number of unprotected sexual contacts. European Study Group in Heterosexual Transmission of HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1996 Apr 1;11(4):388-95.

3. Wiley JA, Herschhkorn SJ, Padian NS. Heterogeneity in the probability of HIV transmission per sexual contact: the case of male-to-female transmission in penile-vaginal intercourse. Stat Med 1989;8:93-102.

4. Gray RH, Wawer MJ, Brookmeyer R, Sewankambo NK, Serwadda D, Wabwire-Mangen F, Lutalo T, Li X, vanCott T, Quinn TC; Rakai Project Team. Probability of HIV-1 transmission per coital act in monogamous, heterosexual, HIV-1-discordant couples in Rakai, Uganda. Lancet. 2001 Apr 14;357(9263):1149-53.

5. Ellerbock TV, Lieb S, Harrington PE, et al. Heterosexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus infection among pregnant women in a rural Florida community. N Engl J Med 1992;327:1704-9.

6. Hunter DJ. AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa: the epidemiology of heterosexual transmission and the prospects for prevention. Epidemiology. 1993 Jan;4(1):63-72. Review.

7. Venkataramana CB, Sarada PV. Extent and speed of spread of HIV infection in India through the commercial sex networks: a perspective. Trop Med Int Health. 2001 Dec;6(12):1040-61.

8. Adimora AA, Schoenbach VJ, Doherty IA. HIV and African Americans in the southern United States: sexual networks and social context. Sex Transm Dis. 2006 Jul;33(7 Suppl):S39-45.

9. Latora V, Nyamba A, Simpore J, Sylvette B, Diane S, Sylvere B, Musumeci S. Network of sexual contacts and sexually transmitted HIV infection in Burkina Faso. J Med Virol. 2006 Jun;78(6):724-9.

10. Ghys PD, Diallo MO, Ettiegne-Traore V, Kale K, Tawil O, Carael M, et al. Increase in condom use and decline in HIV and sexually transmitted diseases among female sex workers in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire, 1991-1998. AIDS 2002;16(2):251-58.

11. Katzenstein DA, McFarland W, Mbizo M, Latif AS, Machekano R, Parsonnet J, et al. Peer education among factory workers in Zimbabwe: providing a sustainable HIV prevention intervention. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference on AIDS, Geneva, June 28-July 3, 1998.

12. Padian NS, O’Brien TR, Chang Y, Glass S, Francis DP. Prevention of heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus through couple counseling. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1993 Sep;6(9):1043-8 All in all, a very silly defense, but expected in the light of Padian’s response at the NIAID HIVNET party last year, when we congratulated her on her distinguished contribution to clarifying the (non)viability of the paradigm. “Well, there’s more (tranmission) in Africa,” she said faintly.

John Moore – hidden dissident?

This continual exposure at AIDSTruth of the problems inherent in the paradigm defense (in this case an unabashed contradiction of its zero result for couples who did not take precautions) has led some conspiracy minded theorists to suspect that the distinguished macaque researcher at Cornell is actually a secret supporter of the dissident view in HIV∫AIDS, since he expends so much energy drawing attention to HIV critical luminaries and their objections, and to the gross weakness of his scientific defenses against them.

Still, given Deadly Quackery, Moore’s embarrassingly propagandistic Op Ed tilt against “denialists” in the New York Times last year (a newspaper whose record on HIV∫AIDS stands as the most massive and egregious example of its distaste for fact checking), his enthusiasm for insulting dissidents in his AIDSTruth headlines, most recently the very accurate mathematician Rebecca Culshaw, and in email with Darin Brown, Harvey Bialy and others, and his notorious comment in email to Michael Geiger of HEAL San Diego that his idea of the rules of this debate was “all out war”,

From: John P. Moore, PhD
To: Michael Geiger
Sent: Saturday, January 27, 2007
Subject: Re: Shame on you JP!

Thanks Geiger! What you sent contains useful information we can use against you people! And we will!

“Dan” has it exactly right when he says:

“If they are able to “justify” their actions, it’s most likely because they simply see this as WAR. War against the “denialists”. Nothing more.
When you’re in a war, there are no rules.”

This IS a war, there ARE no rules, and we WILL crush you, one at a time, completely and utterly (at least the more influential ones; foot-soldiers like you aren’t worth bothering with).
John

it is understandable that many have concluded John P. Moore is no friend of truth in science.

His standards of (non) debate in science are particularly disappointing as stated on his page at AIDSTruth which details his principles of (non) engagement of HIV∫AIDS critics, Answering AIDS Denialists and AIDS Lies:

We will not engage in any public or private debate with AIDS denialists or respond to requests from journalists who overtly support AIDS denialist causes. …Our time is better spent conducting research into HIV/AIDS and/or educating the general public about the facts about this virus and the deadly disease it causes.”

All in all, John Moore’s public face is that of a junior high priest of the HIV∫AIDS faith, who views all paradigm critics as damned heretics, and who serves as the leader of the Threat Response Team of activists and minor scientists that springs into action to apply as much intellectual and social violence as possible to defeat any intelligent investigation of the almost endless paradoxes, flaws and inconsistencies of the global AIDS meme.

But is this the real Moore, or only a facade?

The real Moore emerges

jekyllhyde.jpegSince the redoubtable microbicide tester is English born and bred, not to mention a graduate of Downing College, Cambridge, it seemed unlikely to us that John is really as belligerent as he pretends to be, especially since that university is so good at transforming crude provincial geniuses into what passes for gentlemen nowadays.

– hiding in the literature

So we went as is our habit at NAR to the scientific literature to ascertain the truth of the matter, and were happily relieved to find two seminal papers published by our renowned lab rat which testified to his honesty, integrity, and innate urge to acknowledge the truth in science ie making fundamental points supporting the accuracy of the many professional reviews rejecting the sense and evidence on which the HIV∫AIDS theoretical house of cards is built.

This was an amazing discovery, admittedly, but one which is typical of the HIV∫AIDS literature, which is something like a repository for trade secrets, written by insiders for insiders, which outsiders usually don’t try and gain access to, but if they do, they will find all kinds of revelations, which will turn their world upside down, by showing that HIV∫AIDS club members quite often show each other discoveries that they otherwise keep quiet, and make admissions they would never make in more public venues.

To find out the truth about Moore, one has to go tho the literature, just as one must to find out the truth about HIV∫AIDS. In public.Moore may be Mr Hyde, but in the quiet cloisters of the top professional journals he is Mr Honest Jekyll himself.

We will detail the treasure we found in our next post, since the hour is late, the post too long already, and oblivion beckons…..

City on a Hill Reports HIV War

May 29th, 2007

UC Santa Cruz student paper covers AIDS Paradigm Scrap without bias

Joshua Nicholson fairly briefs readers on HIV dissent

freepress.jpgA student at the University of California at Santa Cruz reported on the AIDS paradigm war three weeks ago, and did a better and more balanced job that the New York Times. Congratulations to Joshua Nicholson, who covered Is HIV Truly the Cause of AIDS? New Research Could Suggest Otherwise with remarkable despatch and balance for City on a Hill, the Santa Cruz student paper.

Is HIV Truly the Cause of AIDS?
New Research Could Suggest Otherwise
By Joshua Nicholson

HIV is not the cause of AIDS. This statement may seem foolish — and wrong — to many, but for Peter Duesberg and a growing number of AIDS dissidents it is the reality.

In his office at UC Berkeley sits Duesberg, a professor of molecular and cell biology. Above him hangs his award for 1971 California Scientist of the year. It serves to remind him of his brilliance and success. Duesberg, a world-renowned biologist who at age 33 gained tenure at Berkeley, is known for isolating the first cancer gene in 1970.

Among other awards, he was the recipient of the seven-year National Institute of Health Outstanding Scientific Investigator grant.

Despite multiple failed proposals, a new grant application to Phillip Morris now sits in front of him. The prestigious scientist gave up his fairytale career when he began to question HIV as the cause of AIDS.
Duesberg proposed the hypothesis that recreational drugs, antiviral chemotherapy, and malnutrition are the cause of AIDS. In his proposal he says that AIDS is not infectious, it is highly non-random, and that HIV cannot be found in AIDS patients.

In defense of his argument, he points to the fact that there was no reported case of a doctor or health care worker contracting AIDS, rather than just HIV, from 1981 to 2004.

The fact that AIDS is highly non-random in the U.S. and Europe, unlike every other viral epidemic, suggests that a virus does not cause it. Duesberg explains that about two-thirds of AIDS patients in the U.S. and Europe are male homosexuals who have used nitrite inhalants, amphetamines, cocaine and other aphrodisiac and psychoactive drugs for years. A third of AIDS patients are intravenous drug users.

Lastly, he says that HIV cannot even be found in AIDS patients.

“There is no viral load, only antibodies,” said Duesberg. “The load is generated on the bench by the scientist.”…..

Allen attributes the lack of awareness to journalists who, “instead of disturbing the status quo about something as big and important as the HIV/AIDS fraud, they learn to put these kinds of stories in the ‘UFO bin’ and avoid them.” Consequently, if they don’t, they face becoming “unemployed and blacklisted,” something that Allen has dealt with personally over the years.

Lauritsen describes the persistent belief and lack of representation on Duesberg’s side of the HIV/AIDS hypothesis to be fueled by money. Researchers who believe HIV to be the cause of AIDS “are dupes of the public relations firms employed by the pharmaceutical companies,” he said.

“In 1987, he [Duesberg] had the scientific authority and the courage to express his considerable doubt,” De Harven said. “This was not agreeable to the ears of the ‘AIDS business’ that was developing at that time, with considerable financial interest from big-pharma.”

As a result, he said, “Peter Duesberg has been radically ostracized by the orthodox establishment of medical science, his research funding being terminated.”

Duesberg thinks HIV is a harmless passenger virus. “It is like a passenger on an airplane. It is there but it does not determine the departure time or how the plane is flown, the pilot does.”

Will the scientific community ever come to agreement with Duesberg’s claims?

“Time is the best ally I have,” said Duesberg. He reasoned that his claims were not accepted because too much time and money have already been invested. “HIV/AIDS researchers cling to HIV like passengers of the Titanic clinging to a lifeboat.”

If he is right, Lauritsen said, our conventional notion of HIV being the cause of AIDS could possibly be “ the greatest blunder and the greatest hoax in medical history — an epidemic of incompetence and an epidemic of lies.”


Is HIV Truly the Cause of AIDS?
New Research Could Suggest Otherwise
By Joshua Nicholson

HIV is not the cause of AIDS. This statement may seem foolish — and wrong — to many, but for Peter Duesberg and a growing number of AIDS dissidents it is the reality.

In his office at UC Berkeley sits Duesberg, a professor of molecular and cell biology. Above him hangs his award for 1971 California Scientist of the year. It serves to remind him of his brilliance and success. Duesberg, a world-renowned biologist who at age 33 gained tenure at Berkeley, is known for isolating the first cancer gene in 1970.

Among other awards, he was the recipient of the seven-year National Institute of Health Outstanding Scientific Investigator grant.

Despite multiple failed proposals, a new grant application to Phillip Morris now sits in front of him. The prestigious scientist gave up his fairytale career when he began to question HIV as the cause of AIDS.
Duesberg proposed the hypothesis that recreational drugs, antiviral chemotherapy, and malnutrition are the cause of AIDS. In his proposal he says that AIDS is not infectious, it is highly non-random, and that HIV cannot be found in AIDS patients.

In defense of his argument, he points to the fact that there was no reported case of a doctor or health care worker contracting AIDS, rather than just HIV, from 1981 to 2004.

The fact that AIDS is highly non-random in the U.S. and Europe, unlike every other viral epidemic, suggests that a virus does not cause it. Duesberg explains that about two-thirds of AIDS patients in the U.S. and Europe are male homosexuals who have used nitrite inhalants, amphetamines, cocaine and other aphrodisiac and psychoactive drugs for years. A third of AIDS patients are intravenous drug users.

Lastly, he says that HIV cannot even be found in AIDS patients.

“There is no viral load, only antibodies,” said Duesberg. “The load is generated on the bench by the scientist.”

In contrast, conventional pathogenic viruses are abundant and antibodies have not yet neutralized them. He points to recent research in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) done by Rodriguez, et. al. from 2006, in which they found the “viral load” to have no correlation with AIDS. HIV RNA “loads” are high, low, or undetectable in asymptomatic carriers and AIDS.

The television show “AIDS: The World is Dying for the Truth” began with the words, “In the course of human history, never before has a force either natural or man-made had a more devastating impact on the human race than a small virus (HIV).” The fear and desperation in these words has remained unwavering since they were first spoken in 1988. The fear is with good reason, as the AIDS pandemic has resulted in an estimated 32 million deaths.

Stephen Allen, AIDS dissident and producer of the documentary “HIV-AIDS: Fact or Fraud?,” has been following the AIDS epidemic since 1980, when it was thought of as a “strange gay disease.”

The disease and its cause was first announced on April 23,1984 by Secretary of Health and Human Services Margaret Heckler. It was announced in absence of any peer-reviewed experiments or articles. Alongside her stood Ph.D. Robert Gallo, co-discoverer of HIV. A prediction that a vaccine would be available within two years followed soon after the announcement. Now, 23 years later, the world is still without a vaccine and without a cure.

Currently, $22.8 billion for the 2007 federal budget for HIV/AIDS activities is awaiting congressional approval. Research will make up 12 percent of the amount, at $2.6 billion dollars.

“I originally believed the 1984 press conference had nailed the cause, and that the blood supply was now going to be safe,” Allen said in an email to City On a Hill Press.

Allen had accepted Heckler’s speech, as most of the world did that day. What changed his mind?

“The thing that really started me thinking, was the way they kept extending the latency period from HIV infection to AIDS and then to death,” Allen said. The average time from HIV infection to AIDS is 10 years.

“Whatever the virus could possibly do, it would have done in a few days,” Duesberg said. “HIV replicates in 24 hours; there is nothing slow about it.”

Doctor Phillip Berman, head of the Department of Biomolecular Engineering at UC Santa Cruz, feels that the “controversy has long been resolved.”

“ The ‘coup de grâce’ for the Duesberg hypothesis was the success of the current anti-viral drugs,” he said.

In 1995, Berman co-founded Vaxgen, a biopharmaceutical company aimed at developing a HIV vaccine. He served as senior vice president of research and development until February 1, 2004, when both he and co-founder Donald P. Francis left after Vaxgen began to broaden its research portfolio.

They went on to create Global Solutions for Infectious Diseases, a nonprofit organization, and continued the search of a HIV vaccine. The timing also coincided with an experimental HIV vaccine, AIDSVAX, which had failed its drug trials, showing no advantages to vaccinated persons.

Etienne De Harven, M.D., president of Rethinking Aids, said that on the other hand, “highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) did not give a ‘coup de grâce’ to the alternative, chemical hypothesis initially formulated by Peter Duesberg.”

He explained that, “as AIDS patients get dangerously ill, they suffer most frequently from ‘opportunistic infections’ that have no direct, causal relationship with HIV.”

A recent find published in the UK medical journal The Lancet in 2006 by May, et. al., showed that under HAART, rapid clinical improvement is frequently observed while a decline in mortality is not.

“This is no proof of any possible role of antiretroviral drugs against HIV,” De Harven said.

He feels the visible improvement is “because HAART contains ‘anti-proteases’ molecules that are known to be highly effective against both Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia(PCP) and Candidiasis.” These are the two most common opportunistic infections in AIDS patients.

The success of the drugs that Berman referred to is no success at all, explained Henry Bauer, Professor Emeritus of Chemistry from Virgina Tech and author of the new book The Origin, Persistence, and Failings of HIV/AIDS Theory.

He argues, like Duesberg, “that the antiretroviral drugs are killing rather than curing.” He supports this argument by pointing to a common cause of death in AIDS patients.

“In the 1980s, [AIDS patients] died soon after diagnosis because of opportunistic infections,” said Bauer. “Nowadays, people with AIDS tend to die from liver failure or heart failure, both of which are typical results of toxic medications.”

Or, as Duesberg put it: “It is AIDS by prescription.”

Dr. Mary Zavanelli, who teaches the UCSC course “Biology of AIDS,” believes that questioning the orthodoxy is necessary to the scientific process and that Duesberg’s ideas “were reasonable questions to ask with the amount of information we had 20 years ago.”
However, she defends the position that HIV causes AIDS.

“The direct correlation of how fast someone gets ill to the amount of HIV is one good piece of evidence in favor of the HIV hypothesis,” Zavanelli said.

On the other side, AIDS dissident John Lauritsen, who has authored numerous books on the subject, believes that Zavanelli’s claim is wrong. Calling the assertions “ignorant of what the ‘viral load’ tests do and do not do.”

Lauritsen cited a quote in which Kary Mullis, the inventor of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) said, “quantitative PCR is an oxymoron.”

PCR is a method scientists use for amplifying small pieces of DNA. In this case it is being used to quantify the amount of HIV RNA.

Many students are unaware of the debate on the HIV/AIDS theory. When 10 biology students on campus were asked if they had heard of the alternative HIV/AIDS hypothesis, all but one answered no. The overwhelming belief that HIV causes AIDS has persisted, and even in the academic arena, most are unaware of alternative claims.

Ryan Alanzalon, a third-year molecular cell and developmental biology major who recently served as a TA for Zavanelli’s class, sums up the pervading belief of students who have studied AIDS.

“HIV disables the immune system by destroying the all-too-important helper T cells, which are central to proper immune system function,” he said.

Allen attributes the lack of awareness to journalists who, “instead of disturbing the status quo about something as big and important as the HIV/AIDS fraud, they learn to put these kinds of stories in the ‘UFO bin’ and avoid them.” Consequently, if they don’t, they face becoming “unemployed and blacklisted,” something that Allen has dealt with personally over the years.

Lauritsen describes the persistent belief and lack of representation on Duesberg’s side of the HIV/AIDS hypothesis to be fueled by money. Researchers who believe HIV to be the cause of AIDS “are dupes of the public relations firms employed by the pharmaceutical companies,” he said.

“In 1987, he [Duesberg] had the scientific authority and the courage to express his considerable doubt,” De Harven said. “This was not agreeable to the ears of the ‘AIDS business’ that was developing at that time, with considerable financial interest from big-pharma.”

As a result, he said, “Peter Duesberg has been radically ostracized by the orthodox establishment of medical science, his research funding being terminated.”

Duesberg thinks HIV is a harmless passenger virus. “It is like a passenger on an airplane. It is there but it does not determine the departure time or how the plane is flown, the pilot does.”

Will the scientific community ever come to agreement with Duesberg’s claims?

“Time is the best ally I have,” said Duesberg. He reasoned that his claims were not accepted because too much time and money have already been invested. “HIV/AIDS researchers cling to HIV like passengers of the Titanic clinging to a lifeboat.”

If he is right, Lauritsen said, our conventional notion of HIV being the cause of AIDS could possibly be “ the greatest blunder and the greatest hoax in medical history — an epidemic of incompetence and an epidemic of lies.”

Published on: 2007-05-10An excellent performance, produced by the author’s drawing on the help of David Crowe of Alberta Reappraising AIDS, who clearly guided him to the main actors in the drama, with the exception of the Perth group.

We wondered who Joshua Nicholson was, and what had enabled the estimable editors of the City on a Hill paper to evade the AIDS meme and the usual hostility to reporting the other side of AIDS science. Duesberg is family, but there are enough of his colleagues that feel less than fraternal to discourage similar efforts in the past.

So we wrote to the editors and passed a few remarks of encouragement at the same time. This rather intemperate letter was published along with two others, one from Noreen Martin. We regret that we weren’t given the option of editing it for tone, though it is accurate:

Congratulations on printing a fresh look at HIV/AIDS and the atrocious way Peter Duesberg and other science critics have been treated for pointing to the unacceptable flaws and holes in the conventional wisdom, which has been defended purely by politics and propaganda for over twenty years, as any serious review of the scientific literature will show. In fact, so overwhelming is the flow of negative research disproving this paradigm recently that it is difficult to think that the scientists and science officials concerned are not knowing liars in this regard, as so many concerned patients and other professionals have concluded over the years.

The piece was a deft summary of the important points to be made on this topic and the author and yourselves are to be congratulated on writing and running it, notwithstanding the kneejerk, ignorant letters that are bound to fill your mailbox from AIDS activists and other defenders of the faith, many of them financed by drug companies exploiting the situation.

These militants are fond of attacking critics who are trying to enlighten them by accusing them of being “dangerous” heretics who might try to put people off taking AIDS drugs, which is exactly the point, as the recent study has shown. For reasons that have nothing to do with the virus these drugs show a temporary improvement (they substitute for the immune system in attacking parasitical infections) but they eventually seriously injure and even kill those who take them (half the patients with AIDS who die annually in the States now die of drug effects which are not on the list of AIDS symptoms).

Noreen Martin wrote:

I want to commend you for the story by Joshua Nicholson about AIDS. It was well-written and covered some valid points in the flaws of modern science. Many of us, know as AIDS Rethinkers, are fighting the battle to get the truth out to the world. We hail from all walks of life with one common goal, to get this travesty turned around.

Most people do not start out as “rethinkers” but after most of us have been thrust into the situation, we read and learn about our disease and when we cannot get two and two to equal four in this case, we swim upstream and go against the mainstream.
I myself, had full-blown AIDS, took the meds for awhile and when I became a “rethinker,” I stopped them. I have been off of them for 15 months now and I am extremely healthy, doing what “they” say cannot be done.

I have since written two books, Surviving AIDS and Cancer and Life After AIDS to help get the truth out, especially to those who desperately need it.

I would encourage your paper to keep on writing and searching for the truth in this matter. It will take many of us doing our part to make a change in this matter.

Yours in health,
Noreen Martin

Balance was provided by one Gregory Rowe, who feared that Joshua Nicholson has fallen into “group counterthink”. He was persuaded by Peter Duesberg’s reasoning until he declined to such a point – despite never taking recreational drugs, living in rural France breathing fresh air, eating French food, and studying Buddhist meditation – he felt he had to take the “meds”, and Bingo! his whole life turned around even though they now “wreak havoc” with his body.

Thank you for your piece questioning status quo AIDS thinking. I think it’s always important to question cultural assumptions, group-think, and corporate manipulation. It’s no big secret that BigPharma drives a lot of research and influences many peer-review processes we call science.

But I’m afraid Joshua Nicholson may have fallen into group-counterthink on his article on HIV.

I have lived with AIDS for over 20 years. I don’t know if the labs ever isolated HIV in me and don’t care. I have never done recreational drugs. I lived in very comfortable rural France for 20 years, eating food from never more than 100 KM around. I received spiritual teaching from a nearby Tibetan Buddhist monastery; had very little stress, long vacations and breathed fresh air every day. And still my immune system (T-4 cells) went south. I watched my ecosystem gradually fall apart and I developed skin infections, coughs, stomach ailments. All that time I did not want to betroth pharmacy.

Alas I have to have the humility to admit that I began taking those pills and my whole life turned around. As much as it doesn’t fit into my vision of healthy living, they saved my life.

I do agree that the meds I take today wreak havoc on my body and hope to be free of them now that my immune system is intact.

If Mr. Duesberg lends a cause and effect relationship to lifestyle and AIDS why doesn’t he design a study to prove it?

I’m afraid the outcome might contradict with his fantasized image of gay debauchery.

Gregory Rowe
San Francisco, CA

As an example of how little HIV patients look into a matter which is life and death in its consequences, this anecdote is discouraging.

However, it is clear that no one else is reading into HIV∫AIDS science, either, even those who teach it to other students:

Many students are unaware of the debate on the HIV/AIDS theory. When 10 biology students on campus were asked if they had heard of the alternative HIV/AIDS hypothesis, all but one answered no. The overwhelming belief that HIV causes AIDS has persisted, and even in the academic arena, most are unaware of alternative claims.

Ryan Alanzalon, a third-year molecular cell and developmental biology major who recently served as a TA for Zavanelli’s class, sums up the pervading belief of students who have studied AIDS.

“HIV disables the immune system by destroying the all-too-important helper T cells, which are central to proper immune system function,” he said.

Believing this at such a late stage in the game, when in over twenty years there has been no evidence produced for this belief and when the best minds in HIV apologia have been unable to come up with any mechanism how this could possibly happen, is evidence that the scientific literature is as valued at Santa Cruz as the Cantatas of Bach which ended up being sold as paper to wrap fish.

Praise for the two woman editors of City on a Hill and their exemplary reporter is thus doubly due.

Thank you so much for your support. We are very proud to have run this feature, and are pleased (and somewhat surprised) that we have received mostly positive feedback.

All of our writers are responsible for choosing their story topics, and they receive guidance along the way from one of our two managing editors.

Again, thank you for your email and please feel free to contact Josh about his feature.

-Claire Walla
Co-Editor in Chief, City on a Hill Press

Libyan nurses ransomed

May 27th, 2007

$500,000 each may be enough from the European Union

Slander charges dismissed

libyaburse1.jpgThe five Libyan nurses and Palestinian doctor have been ransomed for $3 million so far by the EU, according to a report today, which suggests these catastrophic victims of scientific ignorance and Libyan politics may be freed soon.

They were sentenced to death by firing squad earlier this month.

A verdict is due today on a separate matter, the accusation that they have slandered the Tripoli police by reporting that beatings, electric shocks and dogs were used to extract their confessions. Will they have to recant to gain freedom?

Whatever happens, the whole episode will stand in the archives of AIDS nuttiness as a warning to dissidents not to hope for too much from politicians, even if the politicians involved in this outrage are provincials by world standards.

The disgraceful episode is a prime example of how politics at the highest level ignores even mainstream science when there is something to be gained, and the lives and welfare of individuals are of no great account in the calculations of the great, except where they can be traded for money or political advantage.

When will Clinton jump?

libyanurse.jpgWe conclude that the only thing likely to motivate the two Clintons, Obama and other opportunistic politicans riding the HIV∫AIDS bandwagon to jump off it is the imminent implosion of the paradigm, which seems unlikely to occur before a well publicised and hard fought court case in the US.

But that seems inevitable at some point, if current trends to prosecuting HIV positive heterosexuals for murder with a deadly weapon continues.

The story is here – Libyan body sees sign of end to AIDS death row saga
(AFP)

Khaleej Times

27 May 2007

Libyan body sees sign of end to AIDS death row saga

TRIPOLI – A Libyan organisation headed by the son of leader Moamer Kadhafi said on Sunday the saga of AIDS-affected children and six foreign medics condemned to death for allegedly deliberately injecting them with tainted blood, may soon be resolved.

‘Indications of an impending solution to this crisis have appeared after negotiations in Brussels on May 10 between representatives of the families of Libyan children stricken with AIDS and the European Union,’ said a statement from the Kadhafi Foundation headed by Saif Al Islam.

‘Representatives of the families have welcomed with satisfaction the results of these negotiations, and rays of hope for a rapid resolution of this crisis have appeared,’ foundation official Saleh Abdessalam said in the statement.

He said the Kafhafi Foundation ‘is trying to bring together the points of view of the Libyan families’ representatives and those of the international community.’

Libyan sources told AFP recently that the discreet negotiations could enable the six condemned medics to avoid the death penalty.

The five Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor have been in prison for more than eight years and were condemned to death in May 2004 after being convicted of infecting 438 children with tainted blood at a Benghazi hospital, 56 of whom have since died.

The sentence against the nurses — Kristiana Valcheva, Nassia Nenova, Valia Cherveniachka, Valentina Siropoulo and Snejana Dimitrova — and Doctor Ashraf Ahmad Juma was upheld last December.

They are now awaiting a final verdict on their appeal against the death penalty. The hearing was expected early in May but has been delayed to a date yet to be determined, which sources close to the case say may mean a solution is in sight.

Last week, the families of the infected children said they would meet British Prime Minister Tony Blair next week during a visit by him to Libya as part of an African farewell tour before he leaves office on June 27.

They said they hoped a meeting would ‘relaunch the European initiative aimed at ending the drama and reaching an equitable solution that satisfies all parties.’

No confirmation of the visit was forthcoming from London, which does not announce the prime minister’s engagements in advance for security reasons.

Bulgarian Foreign Minister Ivailo Kalfin said this month the European Union had so far contributed between two million and 2.5 million euros (2.7 million to 3.3 million dollars) to an international fund set up in 2005.

He said the money was to help the treatment of children afflicted with AIDS and to train Libyan doctors. ‘This is not money given as compensation,’ he said.

Bulgaria has insisted that the detained nurses are innocent and that compensation is not justified. Foreign health experts suggested the AIDS epidemic in Libya’s second city of Benghazi had been sparked by poor hygiene.

A Libyan court is also due to give its verdict on Sunday in a separate case against the medics who are accused of slandering the police by claiming they had been tortured while in custody.

The accused insist that their confessions in the trial were forced from them under torture, including beatings, electric shocks and being threatened with dogs. Update:
Slander charges dismissed

The Libyan court dismissed the charges of slander in ten minutes today (Sun May 27), which bodes well for the nurses and doctor, we’d say. After all, it effectively admits that torture was used on the unhappy sextet during the eight years in hell that was their reward for ministering unto the health of Libyan children.

Presumably the Libyan officers and doctor thought they could get some of the EU money being dispensed as ransom.

The verdict comes as the Libyan Supreme Court is considering the final appeal of the death sentences and as the families of the children are negotiating a settlement with the European Commission that may allow the six to be pardoned.

It is easy to imagine how embarrassing this must be to educated Libyans in Libya or abroad. Perhaps they may be interested in hearing how the United States and almost all Western governments are behaving in almost as irresponsible, venal and vindictive manner in HIV∫AIDS as their own dictator.

Even the torture has its counterpart in the excruciating treatment of good scientists who raise their voice against the AIDS meme.
The New York Times
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May 28, 2007
Libya Court Clears 6 of Slander in H.I.V. Case
By MATTHEW BRUNWASSER

SOFIA, Bulgaria, May 27 — A Libyan court on Sunday acquitted five Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor on charges of slander.

The six were accused of making false accusations that Libyan officials had tortured them to extract confessions in an investigation into H.I.V. infections at a children’s hospital in Benghazi where they worked.

In that case, the defendants were found guilty of intentionally infecting 426 children with H.I.V., the virus that causes AIDS, and have twice been sentenced to death, in May 2004 and December 2006. They have been in jail since 1999. International AIDS experts have concluded that the virus predated the nurses’ arrival and was probably spread by contaminated needles.

“The court dismisses the accusations,” Judge Salem Hamrouni said of the slander charges in a hearing on Sunday that lasted 10 minutes, Reuters reported.

A spokesman for the Bulgarian Foreign Ministry, Dimitar Tsanchev, expressed his satisfaction with the result.

“This will allow an overall solution to be found for this painful case, which has lasted more than eight years,” Mr. Tsanchev said. “We are very satisfied with the activity in recent weeks on behalf of the parties involved, in which the European Commission has played a leading role.”

The verdict comes as the Libyan Supreme Court is considering the final appeal of the death sentences and as the families of the children are negotiating a settlement with the European Commission that may allow the six to be pardoned.

On Sunday, before the verdict was announced, the Qaddafi Foundation, headed by Saif al-Islam, son of the Libyan leader, Muammar el-Qaddafi, issued a statement saying a resolution may be reached soon, Agence France-Presse reported. Mr. Islam has said before that the nurses and doctor will not be killed.

In previous years, unidentified Libyan officials had been quoted in the news media as saying that the nurses could be freed if Bulgaria paid compensation of $10 million per child, the same amount that Libya agreed to pay each of the families of the people killed in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, in 1988, for which Libya has accepted responsibility.

Bulgaria has refused to speak about “compensation” because it maintains that the nurses are innocent.

Unofficially, Bulgaria has been willing to help organize and donate to a humanitarian fund to provide medical care for the sick children, create modern health facilities in Benghazi and help the families financially. European Union member states, the United States and Libya have also contributed to the fund.

“Our main political instrument is the solidarity of our European partners,” Prime Minister Sergei Stanishev of Bulgaria said at a conference last week in Rome, The Associated Press reported.

The slander charges were brought by two Libyan police officers in February. They were later joined by another officer and a doctor.

Albany spotlights AIDS lore

May 26th, 2007

New York Assembly fights over whether accused rapists should be tested

Examination of paradigm logic in courts and legislatures will grow

albany.JPGIn line with our prediction that the days of the HIV∫AIDS paradigm are numbered, because the implications will increasingly be fought over in the courts and the legislatures, we see from the New York Times yesterday that an HIV Testing Bill Starts War Among Assembly Democrats..

The debate over the issue, including a lengthy private meeting this week among Democrats who control the Assembly, reflects conflicting concerns about the health of rape victims and about the civil liberties of suspects who have not yet been tried. Backers of the measure say victims should have all the information they can get before they decide whether to take the powerful cocktail of medications to fight the AIDS virus.

A “powerful cocktail of medications” is a phrase that implies that the medications may not be that pleasant and life enhancing to take without a very good reason to do so, an admission that suggests that reporter Danny Hakim is not totally au fait with the Times policy of worshipping the HIV∫AIDS paradigm and its promoters as if butter wouldn’t melt in their mouths, and there is nothing to worry about once one takes ones “meds”, the very same meds which are causing half of the AIDS deaths in the US at the present time.

But the main point of noticing this item is to present it as one of the exhibits in a new department of the Museum of Paradigms Past, which is sure to be a rapidly expanding showcase of court cases and political disputes that are going to focus attention on the flawed logic of the HIV∫AIDS paradigm and spotlight its inconsistencies and questionable claims.

For as the implications of this non-science (pron. ‘nonsense’) spread into legislative disputes and court challenges, of which the recent case in Adelaide was but the first of a growing number (several are in the works, including one in Toronto), more and more defense lawyers are going to be led to see through the transparently gimcrack hypothesis which is thoroughly disproved by its own literature, the mainstream papers which are often written by its chief proponents, which increasingly embarrass them by turning out to contradict their very premise, the paradigm that it is HIV that causes AIDS symptoms, and not drugs, malnutrition and familiar diseases.

aidstest.jpgLawyers live by reason and in our experience have no trouble seeing the suspect nature of the HIV∫AIDS case, and the possible explanation for the misleading testimony of the paradigm promoters in their self interest in the continuation of record funding for a complaint that is 33 times less important in causing deaths than cancer.

We confidently predict that this news item will be the first of many to see the debate over what we really need to do about AIDS, and what is to be trusted or not to be trusted in its ideology, spreading ever wider into the courts and legislatures of the world.

The New York Times
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May 25, 2007
H.I.V. Testing Bill Starts ‘War’ Among Assembly Democrats
By DANNY HAKIM

ALBANY, May 24 — Gov. Eliot Spitzer and a majority of state lawmakers are backing a bill requiring H.I.V. testing of suspects indicted on rape charges. Nevertheless, its chances of passage are unclear, as the legislation is the subject of contentious debate in the Assembly.

The bill has more than enough votes to pass the Assembly, judging from its voluminous list of co-sponsors. But it remains to be seen whether the Assembly leadership allows it to come up for a vote, though prospects appear to be more favorable than in previous years.

“This year, it seems to be on course to at least get to the floor and it could very well succeed there, based on the number of sponsors on the bill,” said Assemblyman Joseph R. Lentol, a Brooklyn Democrat who opposes the bill and is chairman of the Codes Committee, which must clear it.

The debate over the issue, including a lengthy private meeting this week among Democrats who control the Assembly, reflects conflicting concerns about the health of rape victims and about the civil liberties of suspects who have not yet been tried. Backers of the measure say victims should have all the information they can get before they decide whether to take the powerful cocktail of medications to fight the AIDS virus. The federal government has made a small amount of grant money available to states that adopt such a measure.

A spokesman for the Assembly speaker, Sheldon Silver, said on Thursday that Mr. Silver was not available for comment because of the Jewish holiday of Shavuot.

Paul Larrabee, a spokesman for Mr. Spitzer, said, “The governor believes that a victim of a rape or a sexual assault needs to know as soon as possible the H.I.V. status of their attacker. This information is critical to both the physical and emotional well-being of the victim.”

Given that the bill was submitted by the governor’s Division of Criminal Justice Services, and given its history of support in the Republican-led Senate, it appears that the measure will succeed or fail based on the outcome in the Assembly. By all accounts, the internal debate over the issue has been intense.

“There’s a big war on this issue in the Assembly,” said Nettie Mayersohn, a Queens Democrat and the chief sponsor of the bill. “This is a decision that should be made by the woman and not by the legislators in Albany.”

Mr. Lentol and other opponents stress, among other things, that the bill might give rape victims a false sense of security if the suspects in their attacks test negative. Those who have contracted the virus often do not test positive right away. He said he feared that rape victims would stop taking their antiviral medications prematurely.

“The test may come back negative but it might be the wrong guy, or he might be in a window period where he hasn’t tested positive,” Mr. Lentol said.

“I know that to some people, especially some women, it could be viewed as a paternalistic kind of thing, that she should have all the information at her disposal,” he continued. But he said he viewed keeping potentially misleading information from victims as coming out “on the side of protecting a person’s health, no matter who they are.”

Others argued that requiring tests of those who are indicted, but not convicted, would set a troublesome precedent. Under current law, H.I.V. tests are not required until after conviction.

“Everyone wants to protect the victims of sexual assault, and there’s no question about that,” said Assemblyman Keith L. T. Wright, a Manhattan Democrat. “But we run a very slippery slope if we start testing people just by virtue of indictment.

“There really are no protections for privacy with those tests,” he added. “The D.A. would have that information, and who knows, maybe the newspapers.”

Ms. Mayersohn said a provision for victim counseling in her bill would ensure that victims understand the uncertainties of testing. She said victims or their representatives should be presumed to be capable of making well-informed decisions, and “understand about the window period, that there is a small chance that the guy might be H.I.V. positive but in the early stages.”

“She and her doctor are going to decide whether she is going to continue the medication or stop the medication,” she added.

A bill identical to Ms. Mayersohn’s has been introduced in the Senate. Mark Hansen, a spokesman for Senator Joseph L. Bruno, the Republican majority leader, said, “It’s consistent with bills we’ve passed before.”

Of course, given current trends around the world to count HIV antibodies as a deadly weapon, and to threaten anyone with jail for murder who, knowing they test positive for HIV antibodies, sleeps with a woman without telling her, it is hard to endorse the movement led by the UN and the CDC to test everybody in the country.

Indeed, as far as we know, it is still generally forbidden for anyone who is HIV positive to enter the States as a visitor or immigrant. SIECUS Policy Updates – December 2006

Bush Orders Easing of Travel Restrictions on HIV-Positive Foreigners

On December 1st, World AIDS Day, President Bush issued an executive order to the Secretary of State that may ultimately change rules that prohibit HIV-positive foreigners from entering the United States unless they are granted a special waiver. Bush’s order does not change current immigration law but initiates a rule-making process that could create a categorical waiver for business or tourist visas for up to 60 days. The United States is one of only approximately 15 countries worldwide that place a travel ban on HIV-positive foreigners, including China, Iraq, Russia, and Saudi Arabia.1

A travel ban waiver for HIV-positive foreigners has been in place since 1993 when Congress enacted the National Immigration and Nationality Act. According to the Act, foreigners traveling to the United States, including those not requiring a visa for entry, who reveal that they have a “communicable disease of public health significance,” are barred from entering the United States. Congress included HIV as a dangerous communicable disease, despite recommendations from the Department of Health and Human Services that only infectious tuberculosis should be used to exclude foreign visitors and immigrants.2

Under current regulations, travelers can apply to a U.S. Embassy for a short-term waiver for either up to 10 or 30 days in order to attend conferences, conduct business, receive medical treatment, or visit family members.3 The Department of State also has the authority to issue “blanket waivers” for HIV-positive travelers who are attending certain U.S. conferences or international sporting events.4 Earlier this year, for example, the federal government designated the Gay Games 2006 as a special event for which participants could apply for the blanket waiver.5 Once a traveler has asked to be included under a blanket waiver, however, the individual must obtain a waiver every time he/she wishes to enter the United States.6

Advocates have severely criticized the ban as violating human rights and have pointed to the potentially deleterious effects for travelers who return to their nations of origin with a marked passport disclosing their HIV status.7 Additionally, several British studies have illustrated the adverse effects of the current policy on visitors’ mental health as well as on their adherence to HIV drug protocols as travelers may purposefully not bring medication with them as part of an effort to hide their HIV status.

President Bush’s order has received praise from the HIV/AIDS community as an initial step in removing all restrictions on HIV-positive immigrants. “It’s a step away from a terribly discriminatory and inappropriate policy, but it doesn’t go far enough,” explained Leonard Rubenstein, executive director of Physicians for Human Rights. “If you want to remove stigma from AIDS, you have to go for the whole distance and eliminate all restriction on entry to the United States for people with HIV.”8

Representative Barbara Lee (D-California) has said that she will introduce legislation in the 110th Congress to overturn the ban.9

For more information about the current travel ban, see Global Health Council’s Policy Brief: End Restriction on Travel to theOn December 1st, World AIDS Day, President Bush issued an executive order to the Secretary of State that may ultimately change rules that prohibit HIV-positive foreigners from entering the United States unless they are granted a special waiver. Bush’s order does not change current immigration law but initiates a rule-making process that could create a categorical waiver for business or tourist visas for up to 60 days. The United States is one of only approximately 15 countries worldwide that place a travel ban on HIV-positive foreigners, including China, Iraq, Russia, and Saudi Arabia.10

A travel ban waiver for HIV-positive foreigners has been in place since 1993 when Congress enacted the National Immigration and Nationality Act. According to the Act, foreigners traveling to the United States, including those not requiring a visa for entry, who reveal that they have a “communicable disease of public health significance,” are barred from entering the United States. Congress included HIV as a dangerous communicable disease, despite recommendations from the Department of Health and Human Services that only infectious tuberculosis should be used to exclude foreign visitors and immigrants.11

Under current regulations, travelers can apply to a U.S. Embassy for a short-term waiver for either up to 10 or 30 days in order to attend conferences, conduct business, receive medical treatment, or visit family members.12 The Department of State also has the authority to issue “blanket waivers” for HIV-positive travelers who are attending certain U.S. conferences or international sporting events.13 Earlier this year, for example, the federal government designated the Gay Games 2006 as a special event for which participants could apply for the blanket waiver.14 Once a traveler has asked to be included under a blanket waiver, however, the individual must obtain a waiver every time he/she wishes to enter the United States.15

Advocates have severely criticized the ban as violating human rights and have pointed to the potentially deleterious effects for travelers who return to their nations of origin with a marked passport disclosing their HIV status.16 Additionally, several British studies have illustrated the adverse effects of the current policy on visitors’ mental health as well as on their adherence to HIV drug protocols as travelers may purposefully not bring medication with them as part of an effort to hide their HIV status.

President Bush’s order has received praise from the HIV/AIDS community as an initial step in removing all restrictions on HIV-positive immigrants. “It’s a step away from a terribly discriminatory and inappropriate policy, but it doesn’t go far enough,” explained Leonard Rubenstein, executive director of Physicians for Human Rights. “If you want to remove stigma from AIDS, you have to go for the whole distance and eliminate all restriction on entry to the United States for people with HIV.”17

Representative Barbara Lee (D-California) has said that she will introduce legislation in the 110th Congress to overturn the ban.18

For more information about the current travel ban, see Global Health Council’s Policy Brief: End Restriction on Travel to the US by People with HIV at www.globalhealth.org.
So we would probably decline an “AIDS test” even if offered one for free. though we speak only for ourselves, of course, since this is a medical matter and one has to have a medical license to offer any medical advice to others. This is not to say that we agree that a positive HIV test has any significant scientific or medical meaning, since the scientific literature says otherwise.

Of course, universal testing makes no sense as public policy since it will yield far too many false positives, as this relatively nonscientific but enlightened commentator, one Mike Adams, wrote in his post at Newstarget a couple of years ago, Mandatory AIDS testing proposal is public health lunacy. Any reader who agrees with the underlying GIGO theme of this blog that nutrition is a key to human health – Garbage In Garbage Out – will find Adams’ take interesting.

So if you have mandatory nationwide testing, you’re going to get a lot of people who are inappropriately diagnosed with AIDS and who get scared out of their minds and start taking anti-AIDS prescription drugs, which of course boosts the profits of prescription drug companies. If all of this sounds like some grand conspiracy, don’t worry, it isn’t. It’s more like a bunch of bumbling medical authorities making silly suggestions about testing the entire population for a disease that isn’t even close to the top of the list of public health concerns. The mainstream media has blown the AIDS myths all out of proportion. Let me explain…

With that said, consider how crazy this whole AIDS testing proposal is: conventional doctors want to violate your body by forcing you to take a test for a disease that’s largely fictional, which will undoubtedly produce false positives, which will earn you the label of “diseased,” which will practically force you into a regime of high-cost AIDS drugs, which will enrich the pharmaceutical companies and, meanwhile, transfer even more power to doctors who could then DEMAND that you submit to all sorts of additional tests.


NewsTarget
Solutions for personal and planetary health:
Based on a newly published report, some doctors are now actually calling for the nationwide, mandatory testing of all adults for AIDS. When I hear ridiculous public health ideas like this one, I have to stop and consider: what’s the real motive behind this? It seems clear to me that the motive for this one is to sell more AIDS drugs. Because the first thing that will happen if you start testing the entire adult population for AIDS is you will get a lot of false positives.

In fact, there are an increasing number of doctors who say that AIDS isn’t even caused by HIV. There’s a great book on this subject by Dr. Gary Null called “AIDS: A second opinion,” where Dr. Null says that AIDS is really just an immuno-suppressed state. There’s no hard, scientific diagnosis for AIDS in the medical community: a doctor can assemble a list of symptoms related to poor immune system function and call that AIDS.

So if you have mandatory nationwide testing, you’re going to get a lot of people who are inappropriately diagnosed with AIDS and who get scared out of their minds and start taking anti-AIDS prescription drugs, which of course boosts the profits of prescription drug companies. If all of this sounds like some grand conspiracy, don’t worry, it isn’t. It’s more like a bunch of bumbling medical authorities making silly suggestions about testing the entire population for a disease that isn’t even close to the top of the list of public health concerns. The mainstream media has blown the AIDS myths all out of proportion. Let me explain…

I’m not saying that the HIV virus doesn’t exist or that lots of people aren’t suffering from immune system suppression. But what I am saying is that the label “AIDS” is rather loosely applied to a great number of people who are really only suffering from correctable biological side effects of making poor lifestyle decisions (food choice, diet, lack of exercise, use of recreational drugs). If you’d like to see some supporting information from doctors and researchers who have looked into the AIDS question in great detail, check out Dr. Peter Duesberg’s website. Dr. Duesberg is the professor of Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of California, Berkeley, and is one of the most outspoken whistleblowers on myths about AIDS. There’s also a great book on Amazon called, What if everything you thought you knew about AIDS was wrong?” that goes into more detail.

I’ve personally talked to several people who were diagnosed with AIDS and then later found out that they didn’t really have AIDS at all. All they had was a suppressed immune system, and by changing their diet and taking a few herbs, including immune boosting substances such as reishi mushrooms, garlic and a variety of rainforest herbs, were able to restore full immune system function and no longer showed any symptoms of AIDS whatsoever. In fact, when they went back to another doctor and asked to be checked out for AIDS, they were told they didn’t have AIDS and that they’d never had AIDS.

So to me, this whole idea of testing the entire nation for AIDS is utterly ridiculous, because you’re going to get a whole lot of false positives. And besides, there are far more important things to be testing for.

Why don’t we test people in this country for nutritional deficiencies? That would do a lot more good than testing people for AIDS; we have well over half the population now suffering from chronic vitamin D deficiencies, and that number is even higher in those with dark skin pigmentation because of its UV blocking effect. Why don’t we test people for that? I’ll tell you why we don’t: because if you test the country for vitamin D and you find that half the population doesn’t have enough vitamin D, then you can’t sell them overpriced pharmaceutical products to solve their “disease.” To solve the vitamin D problem, the only thing the people need to do is start drinking cod liver oil by the tablespoon, or exposing their skin to natural sunlight on a regular basis.

Our medical community doesn’t test for nutritional deficiencies because nobody makes any money when the tests come back positive. Anybody can sell nutritional supplements, of course, but what I mean is that there’s no controlling interest of the drugs that would be used to treat vitamin D deficiencies as in the case of AIDS. AIDS drugs are patented, so they can be controlled and marked up to produce tremendous profits. Hence the push for AIDS testing.

But you can bet that if vitamins were patented and controlled by Big Pharma, we’d have nationwide, mandatory testing of nutritional deficiencies rolled out almost overnight. When there’s money to be made, the diagnostic tests will magically appear to create demand for those products. After all, nobody needs AIDS drugs if they aren’t labeled with the AIDS disease name. If you want to create demand for AIDS drugs, you first have to point your finger at a bunch of people and tell them they have AIDS. (And most people are stupid enough to actually believe their doctors on this one, go figure…)

The same scheme worked with ADD and Ritalin. The organized medicine industry just flat-out invented a fictitious disease and created a billion dollar industry selling drugs to “treat” it. Why wouldn’t the same gig work with AIDS, too? Heck, why not create a whole slew of fictional diseases like Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and milk people for money selling quack treatments through the channels of organized medicine? In fact, that’s exactly what’s happening. (Or, if that doesn’t work, you can always just redefine diseases. A year ago, if your LDL cholesterol was 110, you were considered normal. Today, you’re considered diseased and will be put on a statin drug. Same LDL cholesterol, new definition. Neat medical shell game, huh?)

So whenever I hear someone suggesting that we should require mandatory testing for a certain disease, I have to ask myself: what’s the economic incentive here? Are there other diseases or vitamin deficiencies that we should be testing as a higher priority? Because you could do a lot more good in this country and dramatically reduce health care costs by testing for nutritional deficiencies like magnesium, zinc, vitamin D or the B vitamins. If you want to talk about public health, let’s talk about public health that works. Let’s talk about being able to prevent diseases with a nickel’s worth of nutritional supplements per day per person. Because that’s what you can do with simple vitamins and minerals. Zinc alone, if given to expectant mothers, can reduce the incidence of low birth weight infants by nearly one third. Vitamin D supplementation can prevent prostate cancer, breast cancer, osteoporosis and many other disorders. And magnesium, of course, can greatly improve cardiovascular health and actually help prevent heart attacks. And we haven’t even talked about the healthy oils and how supplementing with omega-3 fatty acids or macadamia nut oil can greatly enhance cardiovascular health while improving nervous system function.

If you want to talk about public health and what kind of testing we should be doing, let’s start with the things that can create the greatest positive public health impact. But you see, those aren’t the things that the health authorities want to test for, because once again, they really have no desire to send a bunch of people to the health food stores to buy nutritional supplements. It’s all about testing only for those things they can treat with drugs, surgery or radiation.

That’s why there’s the big push for mammograms, by the way. Mammograms actually cause breast cancer because they emit so much radiation. Dr. John Gofman, author of Radiation from Medical Procedures in the Pathogenesis of Cancer and Ischemic Heart Disease, says that 83 percent of all breast cancer is actually caused by mammograms and other forms of medical radiation. (Read more about the uselessness of mammograms here.)

Yet there’s always this breast cancer prevention push, and there’s a message that if you don’t get mammograms, you’re not taking care of your health. Why do you think mammograms are so heavily pushed by organized medicine? It’s because if you come up with a positive, they’ve got drugs to treat breast cancer. And that’s the first thing you’re going to be shuffled off to do if your test comes back positive: you’re going to find yourself talking to an oncologist who’s likely to recommend chemotherapy.

Why do you think they’re still using PSA tests for prostate cancer, even though the very inventor of the PSA test announced in late 2004 that the test was utterly and completely worthless? Dr. Thomas Stamey of Stanford University says that it has no scientific basis whatsoever and doesn’t correlate with prostate cancer. (Click here to read more articles on the demise of the PSA test.) Yet it’s still being used all around the country to scare men into thinking they have prostate cancer, and to get them to submit to expensive, invasive therapies like radiation, chemotherapy and surgical procedures that are quite often medically unnecessary. What the men need, again, is sunlight and vitamin D. You can eliminate the vast majority of prostate cancer in this country by getting people to take in a healthy dose of sunlight and giving them basic nutritional supplements like cod liver oil, zinc and selected herbs.

So out of the long list of things that we could be doing to enhance public health, to eliminate chronic disease and to improve nutrition, the only thing that these doctors can come up with in terms of a suggestion is to test the whole country for AIDS. On my list of the top 1000 things that we need to do to improve the health of our population, testing the whole country for AIDS is somewhere down around #972. There are so many other things that we should be doing first. If we want to invest the effort of testing the whole population for something, let’s start by testing for nutritional deficiencies and treating those with low-cost, commonly available vitamins, minerals and food supplements that can not only prevent chronic disease, but can actually help reverse diseases. Let’s start there.

See, don’t make the mistake of thinking that public health policy is driven by genuine public health needs. It’s actually driven by the mindset of conventional medicine, which is to treat everything with drugs, surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. It’s driven by intellectual property: who owns the drugs, who owns the patents, who owns the lab equipment used to diagnose these diseases, and so on. It’s all about power, profit and control. It’s not really about public health. Because, again, if it were about public health, we’d be testing people for things like nutritional deficiencies that are responsible for so many of the chronic diseases now ravaging our nation.

If it were really about public health, we’d be spending 2 to 3 percent of GDP on education to keep people healthy, rather than what we’re doing now, which is spending 25% of GDP treating chronic disease in this country. If it were really about public health, every time a woman gave birth to a child, we’d hand them a manual called “Nutrition For Your Baby,” and we’d teach them the basics of how to keep that baby healthy and prevent chronic disease. But we don’t do any of that. We don’t educate mothers in this country about nutrition and how to protect the health of their babies. We don’t educate our children in public schools, and astoundingly, we don’t even teach our doctors about nutrition in our medical schools! How crazy is that?

So the only ideas they can come up with are things like, “Hey, let’s FORCE the entire adult population to submit to an AIDS test!” What are they going to do, throw you in jail if you refuse? If they pass a federal law mandating national AIDS testing, I promise I’ll be at the head of the march on Washington, holding up the banner of health freedom and demanding the law be ruled unconstitutional. It is, technically, a violation of the 4th Amendment, because mandatory AIDS testing is an illegal search of your body. For those who may have forgotten that the Bill of Rights actually exists (I know, it’s been difficult to remember in the post 9/11 era), here’s a reminder of what the 4th Amendment says:

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated…

With that said, consider how crazy this whole AIDS testing proposal is: conventional doctors want to violate your body by forcing you to take a test for a disease that’s largely fictional, which will undoubtedly produce false positives, which will earn you the label of “diseased,” which will practically force you into a regime of high-cost AIDS drugs, which will enrich the pharmaceutical companies and, meanwhile, transfer even more power to doctors who could then DEMAND that you submit to all sorts of additional tests.

That’s the kind of power some U.S. doctors are now demanding over your body. And they’re going to frame the whole thing as a “public health” benefit! Gee, it’s all for YOUR own good!

No thanks. I’m quite healthy without the meddling of conventional doctors, their warped public health policies, and their egomaniacal ideas of subjecting the population to procedures that are essentially harebrained medical experiments.

###

About the author: Mike Adams is a consumer health advocate with a mission to teach personal and planetary health to the public He has authored more than 1,500 articles and dozens of reports, guides and interviews on natural health topics, impacting the lives of millions of readers around the world who are experiencing phenomenal health benefits from reading his articles. Adams is an honest, independent journalist and accepts no money or commissions on the third-party products he writes about or the companies he promotes. In 2007, Adams launched EcoLEDs, a manufacturer of mercury-free, energy-efficient LED lighting products that save electricity and help prevent global warming. He’s also a noted technology pioneer and founded a software company in 1993 that developed the HTML email newsletter software currently powering the NewsTarget subscriptions. Adams is currently the executive director of the Consumer Wellness Center, a 501(c)3 non-profit, and enjoys outdoor activities, nature photography, Pilates and adult gymnastics. He’s also author of numerous health books published by Truth Publishing and is the creator of several consumer-oriented grassroots campaigns, including the Spam. Don’t Buy It! campaign, and the free downloadable Honest Food Guide. He also created the free reference sites HerbReference.com and HealingFoodReference.com. Adams believes in free speech, free access to nutritional supplements and the ending of corporate control over medicines, genes and seeds.
Allegedly Mike Adams receives no money for his copious postings on the Newstarget Network, an apparently well financed source of information on the benefits of good nutrition which energetically questions the motives and expertise of the medical profession. They run a board named Dangerous Medicine.

Mullis saves another life

May 17th, 2007

Innocence Project uses PCR to spring another soul from hell

Triumph of science over fear and fantasy in the justice system

byron-halseycrop.jpgThe Innocence project at Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law at Yeshiva University has now sprung its 201st victim of false incarceration.

On behalf of the 201 and the possibly hundreds of thousands of people still wrongfully languishing in small cells with virtually all that makes life worth living taken away from them by prosecutors, police, judges and juries without the sense, decency or courage to acknowledge reasonable doubt, we can all say a hearty Thank you to the Innocence Project and to a great scientist, Kary Mullis, for contributing his Nobel prize winning breakthrough PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) technique, which amplifies the tiniest morsel of DNA into a sample big enough to analyze properly, and restoring the lives of so many falsely accused.

Revealed: horrendous distortion of criminal system

Score so far: Innocents convicted, incarcerated, and finally released after years in a cell, 201. Just convictions by dutiful juries in these cases: Zero. Confessions extracted by the police in these cases: about 70. Irresponsibly vindictive prosecutors: 201. Cases decided incorrectly on the evidence: 201 Remaining innocents in prison in the USA, land of the free and the incarcerated, 20,000? 100,000? 200,000? of 2.3 million, with 6 out of 10 black or Hispanic.

The latest case has the usual earmarks of failure of the system – an upright citizen railroaded into jail for years because he is black, and because he is the closest person the police can grab. A prosecutor who even now is reluctant to admit the mistake. A false confession produced by police pressure. At least one false witness, in this case the culprit himself. A jury who went along with a bad case and convicted an innocent man.

Mullis inspiration finds the real killer

The African American who has been robbed of two thirds of his normal adult life is Byron Halsey, now 46, having been removed from normal life since age 27, condemned to 19 years in jail for the murder by a neighbor of his woman’s two children, even though their mother never believed in his guilt, and the neighbor, Cliff Hall, a witness against him who is now fingered by DNA as the real killer, is now in prison for three sexual assaults.

kary-mullissurfer.jpgAll this horrendous falsity is now swept away thanks to Kary Mullis’ brainwave on a California night drive years ago.

The DNA from the vicious double child murder, where a brick was used to hammer in four nails into the skull of Tyrone, 8, and his sister Tine, 7, was raped and strangled, turns out to match Mr Hall, not Mr Halsey, who the mother of the children says had “always loved them”. Mr Halsey protested his innocence from the beginning, until after 30 hours interrogation he was induced to sign a false confession. “What has been done to me was criminal at best,” he now says.

Times half explains what is going on

Why the police and the prosecutor ever believed Mr Halsey killed the children he loved of the woman he lived with is not explained by Tina Kelley, the New York Times reporter, who says that Byron was convicted in 1988 of two counts of felony murder and other charges, and escaped the death sentence by a hair because he was found not guilty of purposeful and knowing murder.

He is not free yet. According to Tina he has to wear an electronic ankle monitor for the next 45 days because he still faces two counts of felony murder as well as numerous other charges such as aggravated sexual assault, aggravated manslaughter, and child abuse, even though he is released on $55,000 bail. The Union County prosecutor’s office will not say whether they will not still try to get him on those old accusations, although as listed they seem to be precisely the ones that won him the vengeful sentence that has now been vacated.

Times falls down on this simple crime report

If you can make sense of all that you are much cleverer than we are (what do they pay Tina Kelley that she can let so many questions go unanswered – is it enough? Does anyone at the Times edit stories for Who-What-Where-Why-How any more?). But it seems pretty clear that even if DNA evidence can prise one dead hand of misbegotten prosecutorial zeal from a man’s neck the corpse won’t let go with the other. Once falsely accused and wrongly convicted, you are still under heavy suspicion even if DNA clears you and the prosecutor is directed to the real culprit, in this case Mr Hall, whom the prosecutor’s office is now “looking into” bringing charges against in this case.

So much for reportorial consistency, or explanation, or fact checking which the Times is too poor to pay for as a separate function it appears (the two felony charges were vacated, so why are they listed as still alive? How could banging nails into the head of an eight year old with a brick not be purposeful murder? How come all the charges are still alive if the sentence for involvement in the murder has been dismissed? Is the Union County prosecutors’ office inhabited by legal donkeys?).

Do false prosecutors deserve the sentences they win?

The court system is evidently careless in the extreme in whom it consigns to the earthly hell that is the lock-up. Now that it can be checked with science it is utterly depressing how very poor the record of the various people of the justice system is turning out to be, and how much good science has to contribute to correcting the injustices judges, prosecutors, cops and juries manufacture on a regular basis.

One wonders what the record might be if all prosecutors were subject to civil suit for irresponsible prosecution, and if convicted had to serve the sentences which they had won for innocent victims of their careless career zeal?

A positive NIAID director might be less so

anthony-fauci.jpgPerhaps their attitude might be as different as the attitude say, of Dr Anthony Fauci, if he suffered an “AIDS test” and emerged positive for some reason? We imagine he might develop a somewhat greater interest in the accuracy of the paradigm on which he stands so high and whether or not HIV actually does cause AIDS, as the entire literature of the field including his own reviews indicates it does not.

But meanwhile, let’s take notice of the tendency of professionals like almost all human beings to go right off the rails if they do not have science to limit their unrestrained imaginings and convictions.

Yet another indication of fantasy rampant in a sober arena

The lesson of PCR is a heavy one for all who suppose that what is inside the skulls of most people matches reality as measured by science in any significant way, even in the straitlaced and sometimes deadly environs of criminal judgement with very severe penalties attached.

kary-mullis.jpgThat of course is the intended lesson of this blog, which we hope will come across in our endless publicizing of how extensively the scientific literature contradicts the fantastic claims of leading HIV∫AIDS scientists and their official, political, legal, medical and corporate fellow travelers, who have persuaded the world that an invisible viral pandemic is ravaging the world even though they can produce only false witnesses and spurious evidence for it.

One of the chief witnesses against this fantasy is of course Kary Mullis himself, who wrote to the Adelaide court that the judge should take into account his view that there is no good scientific proof for it so far, and no expectation for it.

Papers are retracted all the time. I am not aware of the nature of the evidence you are considering, but when it comes to legal issues, retractions don’t necessarily make up for the original mistake, and if I were to offer advice to the courts system of Australia, I would plead that they realize that the AIDS/HIV issue is what is not settled scientifically, not the effectiveness of PCR.

No doubt the proponents of the paradigm who were busily defending the dominant hypothesis in and out of the court persuaded the judge to listen to them as the ‘mainstream scientific opinion’ he says he used as his measure in dismissing the Perth group, and ignore Mullis’s letter despite his Nobel. Perhaps the judge is unaware that great originality is as often non “mainstream” in personal style in science as it is in other fields.

One thing he shouldn’t be ignorant of is the likelihood that posterity will celebrate Mullis a lot longer than Robert Gallo for his extraordinary achievement and its influence in restoring justice and freedom to lost souls.

Let’s celebrate Mullis too

Here is a short list of Mulli’s accomplishments, from a company he has just joined (see below):

Dr. Mullis received a Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1993 for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The process, which Dr. Mullis conceptualized in 1983, is hailed as one of the monumental scientific techniques of the twentieth century. A method of amplifying DNA, PCR multiplies a single, microscopic strand of the genetic material billions of times within hours. The process has multiple applications in medicine, genetics, biotechnology and forensics.

Dr. Mullis has authored several major patents. His patented inventions include the PCR technology and UV-sensitive plastic that changes color in response to light. His most recent patent application covers a revolutionary approach for instantly mobilizing the immune system to neutralize invading pathogens and toxins, leading to the formation of his latest venture, Altermune LLC.

Dr. Mullis was awarded the Japan Prize in 1993 for the PCR invention. It is one of international science’s most prestigious awards.

His many other awards include the Thomas A. Edison Award (1993); California Scientist of the Year Award (1992); the National Biotechnology Award (1991); the Gairdner Award, Toronto, Canada (1991); the R&D Scientist of the Year (1991); the William Allan Memorial Award of the American Society of Human Genetics (1990); and the Preis Biochemische Analytik of the German Society of Clinical Chemistry and Boehringer Mannheim (1990). Dr. Mullis was presented the honorary degree of Doctor of Science from the University of South Carolina in 1994. He was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1998. He also was awarded an honorary doctor of science degree from the University of Bologna, Italy.

His many publications include “The Cosmological Significance of Time Reversal” (Nature), “The Unusual Origin of the Polymerase Chain Reaction” (Scientific American), “Primer-directed Enzymatic Amplification of DNA with a Thermostable DNA Polymerase” (Science), and “Specific Synthesis of DNA In Vitro via a Polymerase Catalyzed Chain Reaction” (Methods in Enzymology).

Dr. Mullis has written an autobiography, “Dancing Naked in the Mind Field,” published by Pantheon Books in 1998.

He is currently a Distinguished Researcher at Children’s Hospital and Research Institute in Oakland, California.

karymullisagain.gifWe interviewed Mullis for OMNI before he won his Nobel and found him a delightful combination of free spirit and strong mind, and a fine example of how a seminal new scientific idea can emerge from a restless and highly charged personality, more interested in brainstorming and in pushing the envelope than in rejecting improbabilities. (“Only a free individual can make a discovery” – Einstein.) We also liked Mullis for his unapologetic love of women, as shown in this autobiography he wrote in 1993:

The following award announcement appeared in Clinical Chemistry for AACC’s award to Mullis:

1993 Outstanding Contributions in a Selected Area of Research

Kary B. Mullis will receive the 21st annual award, sponsored by Roche Diagnostic Systems. He sent the following biographical sketch to AACC:

I have failed to embrace any particular scientific discipline for very long and consider myself a generalist with a chemical prejudice.

My first summer after high school I had the good fortune of working for a remarkable storyteller, Max Gergel, who made and sold research chemicals at his company, Columbia Organic Chemicals, and eventually wrote a sort of autobiography, which he called “Excuse Me, Sir, Would You Like to Buy a Kilo of Isopropyl Bromide?” I learned a lot about organic chemicals that summer.

At Georgia Tech I studied chemistry and physics, wrote fiction for the humor magazine, and married Richards, who soon bore Louise. In the summer, with my friend Al Montgomery, I learned to synthesize organic chemicals at Kings Laboratories, which, with encouragement from Max, we had founded in a chicken house belonging to Al’s brother-in-law. In 1966 I left our fledging business, which survived, for graduate school and the cultural revolution in progress at the University of California–Berkeley.

I had more fun at Berkeley than anyone on an NIH stipend deserves, and learned a number of things, in addition to the biochemistry of iron, from the gentle wisdom of Professor J. B. Neilands. After 6 years I reluctantly took my Ph.D. and left, following my second wife back to her home and medical school in Kansas, where, after failing for 3 months to write a best-selling novel, I returned to science. I found a research position in the Pediatric Cardiology Department at Kansas University with Leone Mattioli and Richard Zakheim. We collaborated with pathologist Agostino Molteni, and the four of us had a cordial and productive 2 years working on idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome. They were all three good doctors and equally nice men. I returned to California in 1975 with fond memories, the rudiments of medicine, and a distaste for the experimental killing of rodents. Cynthia, my third wife-to-be, was with me.

I left science temporarily and we took a job together washing dishes in a Berkeley restaurant owned by my first wife Richards. I wanted to take up writing seriously. We lived in a cottage across the fence from where my daughter Louise, now 10, lived with Richards and her new husband. First and third wives usually get along, and life at the restaurant was very social. It was nice being back in Berkeley. Cynthia encouraged me to write. Our marriage produced Christopher and then Jeremy. I published a short story in Medical Dimensions but, deciding that I was too young to write good fiction, I went back to killing rats, this time in the name of neurochemistry with Wolfgang Sadee at the University of California–San Francisco.

From there in 1979 I went to Cetus, returning to synthetic chemistry, which I had always enjoyed. My lab made oligonucleotides for use in the heady new business of molecular cloning. Finally that got easier and more boring and I started thinking up things to do with them. I invented the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was the first day of the rest of my life. Things happened slowly at first but with an accelerating pace. I left Cetus in the fall of 1986.

At Cold Spring Harbor, where I had presented PCR to Jim Watson’s Symposium on the Molecular Biology of Homo sapiens in June 1986, I had met Tom Caskey, whose lab at Baylor would take a leading role in the development of PCR as a clinical diagnostic tool. Neither of us realized until several months later that we had attended the same high school in Columbia, SC. That fall, Tom introduced me to Peter Baram in San Diego, who had started a small biotech company called Xytronyx, and I took a job as his director of molecular biology.

San Diego was a good move. Biotechnology companies and research institutions are abundant, the weather is nice, and the people are friendly, but Xytronyx was too limited to hold my interest long. With PCR becoming widespread, I discovered I could make a living as a consultant. Invitations to speak at meetings started coming in rapidly, and the more I traveled, the more clients I found. So things have worked out.

My first scientific paper, while a graduate student in biochemistry at Berkeley, was an amateurish cosmological theory entitled “The cosmological significance of time reversal,” which I persuaded Nature to publish in 1968. Ironically, in 1985, Nature was not persuaded to publish my original manuscript on PCR, noting that “it might be more appropriately published in a more specialized journal.” A month later, Science was equally unimpressed with my invention of PCR, lamenting that “the paper could not compete for our limited space.” It was a good paper though, and Ray Wu accepted it for Methods in Enzymology.

Photography, computers, surfing, and a house and garden in rural Mendocino County are my major nonscientific distractions today, although writing is still on my mind and a science fiction novel is cooking slowly on my back burner. None of my three marriages is current; but my children, now 12, 16, and 28, are a big part of my life, and I am on good terms with my former wives. I live in a beachfront apartment in La Jolla with Heidi.

Update: Mullis recently joined the board of advisors of the company formed to explore and exploit the medical ramifications of Peter Duesberg’s new line of research (aneuploidy) in cancer, Modern Technology Corporation’s subsidiary Insight Medical Group.

About the AnuCyte Cancer Detection System

The AnuCyte Cancer Detection System is an automated machine to detect the presence of cancer in cell samples. The system accurately identifies cancer at any stage in its development and also identifies healthy cancer-free cells in the same test within the same sample. The system is designed based on the chromosomal imbalance theory of cancer. The science behind the company’s cancer detection technology is of the very highest standard. Over the prior ten years the chromosomal imbalance theory of cancer has been proven correct both experimentally and theoretically in numerous, rigorously peer-reviewed publications in the leading journals.

Insight Medical Group, a wholly owned subsidiary of Modern Technology Corp., is a specialized biosciences development company whose mission is to bring world-changing medical technology and research to market in the areas of cancer and AIDS. The AnuCyte Cancer Detection System was invented by Dr. David Rasnick, Ph.D. The technology behind AnuCyte and the chromosomal imbalance theory is the result of 45 years of combined cancer research by Dr. David Rasnick, Ph.D. and Dr. Peter Duesberg, Ph.D., who continues his studies on cancer research at the University of California, Berkeley.

Here is the press release announcing the relationship, Kary Mullis, Winner of the 1993 Nobel Prize, Joins Insight Medical Group’s Board of Advisors:

Kary Mullis, Winner of the 1993 Nobel Prize, Joins Insight Medical Group’s Board of Advisors

OXFORD, MS — (PRIMEZONE) — – May 9, 2007
OXFORD, Miss., May 9, 2007 (PRIME NEWSWIRE) — Insight Medical Group, a bioscience technology development and acquisition company specializing in the accurate detection of cancer, announced today it has appointed Dr. Kary Mullis, Ph.D., to its Board of Advisors.

Dr. Mullis received a Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1993 for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The process, which Dr. Mullis conceptualized in 1983, is hailed as one of the monumental scientific techniques of the twentieth century. A method of amplifying DNA, PCR multiplies a single, microscopic strand of the genetic material billions of times within hours. The process has multiple applications in medicine, genetics, biotechnology and forensics.

Dr. Mullis has authored several major patents. His patented inventions include the PCR technology and UV-sensitive plastic that changes color in response to light. His most recent patent application covers a revolutionary approach for instantly mobilizing the immune system to neutralize invading pathogens and toxins, leading to the formation of his latest venture, Altermune LLC.

Dr. Mullis was awarded the Japan Prize in 1993 for the PCR invention. It is one of international science’s most prestigious awards.

His many other awards include the Thomas A. Edison Award (1993); California Scientist of the Year Award (1992); the National Biotechnology Award (1991); the Gairdner Award, Toronto, Canada (1991); the R&D Scientist of the Year (1991); the William Allan Memorial Award of the American Society of Human Genetics (1990); and the Preis Biochemische Analytik of the German Society of Clinical Chemistry and Boehringer Mannheim (1990). Dr. Mullis was presented the honorary degree of Doctor of Science from the University of South Carolina in 1994. He was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1998. He also was awarded an honorary doctor of science degree from the University of Bologna, Italy.

His many publications include “The Cosmological Significance of Time Reversal” (Nature), “The Unusual Origin of the Polymerase Chain Reaction” (Scientific American), “Primer-directed Enzymatic Amplification of DNA with a Thermostable DNA Polymerase” (Science), and “Specific Synthesis of DNA In Vitro via a Polymerase Catalyzed Chain Reaction” (Methods in Enzymology).

Dr. Mullis has written an autobiography, “Dancing Naked in the Mind Field,” published by Pantheon Books in 1998.

He is currently a Distinguished Researcher at Children’s Hospital and Research Institute in Oakland, California.

Anthony Welch, Chairman, said: “Dr. Mullis’s decision to join our advisory board brings us joy and heralds a bright future. His presence inspires us to greatness and furthers the credibility of the science and technology behind our cancer detection system.”

Dr. Mullis said, “After decades of neglect by most established researchers — exceptions being Drs. Duesberg and Rasnick — the aneuploidy theory of carcinogenesis has finally resumed center stage in cancer diagnosis. We are expecting Insight Medical Group to be a major player in this resurgence.”

About the AnuCyte Cancer Detection System

The AnuCyte Cancer Detection System is an automated machine to detect the presence of cancer in cell samples. The system accurately identifies cancer at any stage in its development and also identifies healthy cancer-free cells in the same test within the same sample. The system is designed based on the chromosomal imbalance theory of cancer. The science behind the company’s cancer detection technology is of the very highest standard. Over the prior ten years the chromosomal imbalance theory of cancer has been proven correct both experimentally and theoretically in numerous, rigorously peer-reviewed publications in the leading journals.

About Insight Medical Group and Modern Technology Corp.

Insight Medical Group, a wholly owned subsidiary of Modern Technology Corp., is a specialized biosciences development company whose mission is to bring world-changing medical technology and research to market in the areas of cancer and AIDS. The AnuCyte Cancer Detection System was invented by Dr. David Rasnick, Ph.D. The technology behind AnuCyte and the chromosomal imbalance theory is the result of 45 years of combined cancer research by Dr. David Rasnick, Ph.D. and Dr. Peter Duesberg, Ph.D., who continues his studies on cancer research at the University of California, Berkeley. Modern Technology Corp., a bioscience technology development and acquisition company, builds revenues through a model continuous growth, strategic acquisitions, and commercialization of nascent technology. MODC is a fully reporting public company with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. For the company’s SEC filings, visit www.sec.gov. The company’s web address is: http://www.moderntechnologycorp.com.

Safe-Harbor Statement

This press release contains statements (such as projections regarding future performance) that are forward-looking statements as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Actual results may differ materially from those projected as a result of certain risks and uncertainties, including but not limited to those detailed from time to time in the Company’s filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

CONTACT: Modern Technology Corp.
Investor Relations:
Anthony Welch
(601) 213 3629
ir@moderntechnologycorp.com

Here is the Times story, DNA in Murders Frees Inmate After 19 YearsThe New York Times
May 16, 2007
DNA in Murders Frees Inmate After 19 Years
By TINA KELLEY

ELIZABETH, N.J., May 15 — A man who served 19 years in prison for the sadistic murders of his companion’s two children walked out of the Union County Courthouse flanked by his family members after a judge vacated his convictions on Tuesday.

Prosecutors contended that DNA evidence in the case would probably change the mind of the jury that convicted the man, Byron Halsey, 46. They also said that the DNA evidence pointed instead to Cliff Hall, a neighbor who testified against Mr. Halsey at his 1988 trial and who is currently in prison for three sexual assaults.

Mr. Halsey, who was handcuffed, sat crying silently during the brief proceeding in Union County Superior Court before Judge Stuart L. Peim.

As he left the courthouse, Mr. Halsey said, “I thank my Lord and savior Jesus for keeping me.”

Asked about his emotional state, he smiled and said, “I don’t want to get in more trouble.” He added, What was done to me was criminal at best.”

Barry Scheck, co-director of the Innocence Project, the Manhattan legal clinic that revived the case, said: “It’s a miracle that Byron is here with us, because if ever there was a case where there was a risk of executing an innocent man, it was this case. Because the facts of the case were so horrible.”

Prosecutors had sought the death penalty for Mr. Halsey in the 1985 killings. The crimes were particularly chilling — Tina Urquhart, 7, was raped and strangled, and her brother, Tyrone Urquhart, 8, died after four nails were hammered into his skull with a brick. The children’s bodies were found in the basement of a rooming house in Plainfield where Mr. Halsey lived with their mother.

Mr. Halsey, a factory worker, was convicted in 1988 of two counts of felony murder and other charges, and sentenced to two life terms and 20 years. He was not eligible for the death penalty because he was not found guilty of purposeful and knowing murder, a capital offense, one of his lawyers said.

His release comes at a crucial time in the state’s debate over abolishing the death penalty, which has not been carried out since 1963. Last week, the Senate Judiciary Committee passed a bill to replace the death penalty with a sentence of life without the possibility of parole for the most serious crimes. A similar bill was introduced in the Assembly last November. There are nine men now on death row in New Jersey.

Mr. Halsey was released on $55,000 bail. In a statement, the Union County prosecutor’s office said he was still facing charges of aggravated sexual assault, two counts of aggravated manslaughter, two counts of felony murder, child abuse and possession of a weapon for an unlawful purpose. He was scheduled to appear in court again on July 9.

The office would not comment on whether or not it intended to pursue those charges in a new trial. But Mr. Scheck said he had not heard anything from prosecutors to indicate that they would not move to dismiss the charges in July.

Mr. Halsey will live in Newark in a supervised setting where he can get job training, Mr. Scheck said. He will be required to wear an electronic ankle monitor for the next 45 days.

“It was a minor miracle that he was not sentenced to death,” Mr. Scheck added. “At the trial, a few of the jurors just didn’t believe in capital punishment.”

Mr. Halsey contacted the Innocence Project, which is affiliated with the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law at Yeshiva University, after exhausting his appeals. Advanced DNA techniques that were not available at the time of the trial showed that the evidence had no link to Mr. Halsey. It did, however, show a match with Mr. Hall, whose DNA samples were already in the state’s database because of his convictions in sex crimes that occurred after the Urquhart children were killed.

The prosecutor’s office said Tuesday night that it was looking into bringing charges against Mr. Hall.

Mr. Scheck noted that in about a quarter of the 201 wrongful convictions that have been overturned with the use of DNA evidence, people had confessed or admitted to crimes they did not commit. Mr. Halsey signed a confession after 30 hours of interrogation, Mr. Scheck said. Mr. Halsey’s lawyers said he had a sixth-grade education and severe learning disabilities.

Dolores Mann, one of his original lawyers, said Mr. Halsey had maintained his innocence from the beginning.

“I’m hoping the case sheds light when the bill goes to the Assembly, so the death penalty will be taken off the books,” she said.

Margaret Urquhart, the victims’ mother, said in a statement: “I knew Byron loved Tyrone and Tina. It didn’t make sense to me that he could have done this. I always had my doubts, but I didn’t know what to do about them. I am thankful that the DNA testing has identified who really did this to my children and that Byron is being released today. I want justice done in this case.”

Another lawyer for Mr. Halsey, Raymond Brown, said his client was looking forward to one thing in particular after being released.

“He said something about taking a bath,” Mr. Brown said. “He hasn’t taken one in 20 years.”

Dr Johnson Speaks

May 17th, 2007

Samuel Johnson urges hacks to read PubMed

Is blog worthwhile? we wonder, but he encourages all dissidents

samjohnson.jpegFinding the confusion and ignorance of the mob detestable this afternoon, we decided to contact Samuel Johnson, reposing in his honored place in heaven and looking down with magnanimity on the vain strivings of the human race to rise above their muddled and unreasonable nature, which he analyzed so well in the Rambler and the Idler.

We wondered what the great English critic would make of their widespread refusal to accept enlightenment from this and other blogs who try seemingly in vain to break the lock the medical and scientific authorities have on public truth and wisdom, all the while denying their own scripture, and disowning the very studies they themselves carry out and write up in the scientific literature, which so roundly contradict their every claim in HIV∫AIDS.

We had no trouble getting through on our VoIP now that heaven is merely one destination on the Internet, and we found the great Cham in a good mood, with plenty of time to give his meta view of the fantastic pandemic now sweeping across the world as the AIDS meme infects ever more earthly minds.

samjohnsonbig.jpegTruthseeker: Good afternoon, Dr Johnson. As we have always greatly admired your lifelong practice of analyzing human affairs with sound reason and robust common sense, we would like to ask you what you think of what is happening today in the realm of HIV∫AIDS, and whether you think there is any use at all in our writing this blog?

Dr. Johnson: Ah, you are clearly becoming discouraged at the lack of progress you estimate your excellent blog has made so far in altering the tide of human affairs. I have often had occasion to consider the contrary effects of presumption and despondency; of heady confidence, which promises victory without contest, and heartless pusillanimity, which shrinks back from the thought of great undertakings, confounds difficulty with impossibility, and considers all advancement towards any new attainment, as irreversibly prohibited.

Truthseeker: We are torn between the two, indeed.

Dr Johnson: Presumption will be easily corrected. Every experiment will teach caution, and miscarriages will hourly shew, that attempts are not always rewarded with success. The most precipitate ardour will, in time, be taught the necessity of methodical gradation and preparatory measures; and the most daring confidence be convinced that neither merit, nor abilities, can command events.

Truthseeker: Well, we are trying to be optimistic, but the failure last year of 12 pages of crystal clear text published by the angelic Celia Farber in Harpers in March to provoke coverage from the rest of the mainstream press for a whole year, until the scientifically uninformed and intellectually feeble counter to it in the New Yorker a few weeks ago, has discouraged our faith in the capacity of journalists of any stripe to read the scientific literature for themselves, despite being given instant access to it in PubMed for a decade.

Dr. Johnson: Don’t yield, Sir. It is the disadvantage of vehemence and activity, that they are always hastening to their own reformation; because they incite us to try whether our expectations are well grounded, and therefore detect the deceits which they are apt to occasion. But timidity is a disease of the mind more obstinate and fatal; for a man once persuaded that any impediment is insuperable, has given it, with respect to himself, that strength and weight which it had not before.

Truthseeker:
But the thing that we see is that arts graduates seem to feel that anything to do with science is beyond their understanding, and they are forced to accept whatever scientists tell them however fishy it may seem in the light of common sense, because even a sentence or two of math and science instantly freezes their neurons with a kind of elemental terror.

Dr. Johnson: Of all the bugbears by which the Infantes barbati. boys both young and old, have been hitherto frighted from digressing into new tracts of learning, none has been more mischievously efficacious than an opinion that every kind of knowledge requires a peculiar genius, or mental constitution, framed for the reception of some ideas, and the exclusion of others; and that to him whose genius is not adapted to the study which he prosecutes, all labour shall be vain and fruitless, vain as an endeavour to mingle oil and water.

Truthseeker:
So you feel that not only Grub Street scribblers should be brave enough to tackle difficult subjects, but that anyone can?

teakettle.jpegDr. Johnson: False hopes and false terrours are equally to be avoided. Every man who proposes to grow eminent by learning, should carry in his mind, at once, the difficulty of excellence, and the force of industry; and remember that fame is not conferred but as the recompense of labour, and that labour vigorously continued, has not often failed of its reward.

Truthseeker: This is a message which will lift the hearts of many truthseekers in this realm, Doctor, and we thank you for it. But since we hear that your eternal kettle is boiling, we will excuse ourselves to let you make some celestial tea and revisit you shortly with further inquiry.

Dr, Johnson: Sir, it is my pleasure to have made your acquaintance, and I look forward to renewing it shortly.

Bitter about Obama

May 7th, 2007

Satirist Girodian tries to advance discussion with humor, but tends to overkill

Paradigm now so thoroughly deconstructed that laughter is best medicine in HIV∫AIDS, but it is difficult

Over at YBYL, Lee Evans adds milder plea

Marcel Girodian is a mysterious figure who some years ago took up writing little satirical news items which he emailed around to amuse Peter Duesberg and other stars of the galaxy of people who, with unending justifications produced by reviewing the mainstream scientific literature, deny the sense and the validity of the global HIV∫AIDS paradigm, as promulgated, promoted and pontificated by Anthony Fauci, Robert Gallo, John P.Moore and other suns of illumination in the science of AIDS, who thereby label them “denialist” as if they were Holocaust denialists instead of supporters of good science supported by the literature.

Time to laugh and move on

That’s another story, of course, so interminably elucidated in the posts here over the last two years, which are now so innumerable in favor of a Congressional committee investigation into this expensive and frankly murderous gallop down a cul de sac of science that we are now inclined to expand the coverage of this modest little corner of enlightenment in the vast Web universe on other topics, such as global warming, the origin of the universe and other more interesting and challenging topics, where there are more complicated pros and cons.

For the dispute about the validity of HIV as the cause of AIDS is now so one sided in terms of reason and accumulating evidence that not much more can be said, except to point out that John P. Moore is one of the great truthtellers and critics of the HIV∫AIDS paradigm, contrary to his public reputation as the chief scientific goon perpetrating social and intellectual violence on behalf of the conventional wisdom on which his macaque research depends. We will demonstrate this point – that Moore is in fact a heroic closet AIDS dissident – in one of our next posts.

With the HIV∫AIDS theory now as dead in the minds of readers who have paid attention as the parrot in the famous Monty Python sketch, it is time in fact to laugh at the Ministry of Silly Walks (NIAID) scientific rationalizations which are used as crumbling pillars of support for the aging paradigm platform which is creaking and swaying beneath the feet of Fauci et al as they try to maintain the flow of public and drug company funds into this unproductive and rather fetid scientific backwater. (Anyone interested in supporting this inflow should join the May 20 AIDS Walkathon in Central Park, New York City.)

Marcel strikes again

That’s where Marcel Girodian comes in. We need to turn from crying about this outrage to reason and independent thought to laughing at the human tragi-comedy of it all. We need in fact, a satirist, and Girodian is the man. We were reading one of the best of his earlier efforts the other day, “Gallo Discovers A New Virus” (click Show)

FAMED AIDS SCIENTIST DISCOVERS NEW VIRUS

By Gina Kolada
The New York Times

Washington D.C. (December 4)–Dr. Robert Gallo,
discoverer of the AIDS virus, stunned the scientific
community today with the discovery of a new virus that
is possibly even more deadly than HIV.

Speaking at an internationally televised press
conference in the Georgetown Hilton, Gallo announced
that he had discovered the virus responsible for the
biggest scourge of mankind–malnutrition.

“It’s simply not true that malnutrition is caused by
not having enough food to eat,” the famed virologist
said. “Our ground-breaking discovery proves that it is
caused by a sexually-transmitted virus.”

Gallo, who has often been described as a genius, gave
the assembled press corps a glimpse of his thinking:
“I knew that malnutrition couldn’t be caused by lack
of food,” he said. “Everybody knows that globalization
has raised living standards for all the world’s
people, with agencies like the World Bank and IMF
making sure that people in places like Indonesia and
Sri Lanka make very affluent livings making sneakers
and t-shirts for Wal-Mart and K-Mart.”

“So it had to be a virus. Sure enough, we found a new
retrovirus in the blood and semen of sexually active
malnourished people from third world countries. Our
experiments prove that in infected people, the virus
eats the food before the person can utilize it. Those
bloated stomachs children in Africa get are not due to
lack of food–it’s the virus getting fatter and fatter
while the person starves.”

He added, “This is one of the great breakthroughs in
the history of biology, comparable to Pasteur’s germ
theory and the theory of evolution.”

Asked how the millions of malnourished children in the
world could have contracted a sexually transmitted
malnutrition virus, Gallo said, “Simple. These childen
have been sexually abused. Their parents should all be
arrested.”

Gallo said that his discovery means it is pointless
for governments and the UN to spend billions of
dollars on food aid for the poor. “All they’re doing
is feeding the virus,” he said. He called for all such
moneys to be diverted instead to the research
community, in order to develop treatments for the
virus. “With proper funding, we can develop a vaccine
for this virus within two years,” he said confidently.
“We must immediately make no less than 170 billion
dollars available to retrovirus specialists. Not to do
so would constitute an act of terrorism against all
people with malnutrition.”

The American Association of Scientific Researchers
hailed Gallo’s discovery. “It’s the disgrace of the
century that this great man has not been awarded a
Nobel Prize,” said Seth Gummowitz, the association’s
president.

The Business Roundtable, US Chamber of Commerce, World
Bank, and Association of Sweatshop Manufacturers all
lavished praise on Gallo. “This shows that the good
people who operate the international garment industry
are not to blame for people’s hunger,” said Selfishio
Grabowski, head of the Sweatshop group.

The Agribusiness Entrepreneurs Association, which has
endured years of criticism for paying sub-minimum
wages to migrant farm workers, also praised Gallo.
“Everybody has plenty of money for food,” said
Gadabout Pincharama, the association’s secretary.
“It’s too bad that some people have the Malnutrition
Virus, but that’s not our fault.”

US Labor Secretary Wolf Bumby seconded the opinion and
called for a cut in the minimum wage. “These so-called
lower income workers have been feeding off the
government long enough,” he said to reporters aboard
his government jet as he flew to the South of France
to attend a labor conference. “They can get by with
just one Cadillac instead of two. Gallo’s brilliant
discovery should be used to re-think all areas of
government policy.”

The Pharmaeutical Manufacturers’ Association
immediately announced that it would start work on
drugs and a vaccine to fight the malnutrition virus,
as soon as research funds were made available by the
taxpayers.

Apparently awed by Gallo’s discovery, Senator Hugh
Drango of Texas, chairman of the Senate Agriculture
Committee, proposed legislation that would empower the
National Parks Service to build a giant statue of Dr.
Gallo in a prominent place in the capital area. Drango
suggested that the statue should be Eiffel Tower-sized
and should bestride the Beltway at the exit that leads
to the congressional office buildings. “Everyone in
government should draw inspiration from the example of
Bob Gallo,” he said. “He is what this town is all
about.”

c 2001 by satirist Marcel Girodian


from 2001 and chuckling when another arrived in the email from the intrepid author, so here it is.

osamaobamacropped.jpg

Senator Obama Accused of Terrorism

By Marcel Girodian (see Special Note below)
The Joliet (Illinois) Tribune

Kisumu, Kenya. May 2. He’s a rising star of the Democratic party, a front-runner for the 2008 presidential nomination. Could the distinguished Senator Obama Bin Led-on also be a terrorist?

That’s what Imamu Mbulu has been saying for months. Mbulu, the director of Aids Alternatives Kenya, says that Bin Led-on has been actively terrorizing the people of his country.

“On August 26, 2006, Obama Bin Led-on steered two jets loaded with HIV tests into a fateful encounter with the people of Kenya,” said Mbulu. “The twin towers of Kenya’s greatness — her people’s optimism and solidarity — were attacked in broad daylight.”

“The impact of that event was so great, today we refer to that day as ‘8/26.’

“Here’s how Bin Led-on did it. He and his wife came here and got tested for HIV in front of the TV cameras. ‘Get tested, get tested,’ he shouted to everybody. ‘If a US senator can get tested and his wife can get tested, then everybody in this crowd can get tested! Everybody in this city can get tested!'”

“People were so impressed with Bin Led-on’s stunt, they threw caution to the wind and got tested themselves.”

Twenty-four year old seamstress Bahati Odaba tells what happened next. “I wasn’t so fortunate as Bin Led-on,” she said. “My test came up positive. When I went to my husband to be consoled, he wouldn’t touch me. He got his things and moved out of the house that night.”

“Now none of my friends will come near me, and our children are pariahs at school.”

Chiumbo Zuraaba, too, was impressed by Bin Led-on’s charisma, and got tested. After the brawny construction worker tested positive, he took the medicine that the government gave him for free, thanks to the efforts of the Clinton and Bill Gates Foundations. Within days, he got very sick, within weeks, his muscles had wasted away, and within seven months he was dead from kidney failure. “They said he must have had a very powerful strain of the virus in him,” said his son Nthanda. “But I think it was the medicine that killed him.”

Bujune Obasanjo is now what they call an “AIDS orphan.” “My mom got tested after she listened to Obama Bin Led-on,” he said. “After she tested positive, she was cryin’ all the time. She couldn’t eat, she couldn’t sleep. The authorities wouldn’t let her breast feed Samanya, my baby sister, and Samanya just got weaker and weaker on that formula they forced her to drink. Mom left a message for our grandmother to take care of us. We found her in the outhouse that night. She cut her wrists with a rusty old lid from a tin can.”

Impact of the tests

Abubakar Malaho, a single man who works as a carpenter, was also persuaded by Obama Bin Led-on to take the test. After he tested positive, his girlfriend flew the coop. He tried dating others but, knowing that he was legally required to inform people of his HIV status before having sex with them, or be charged with attempted murder, he found that nobody would sleep with him, even with a condom. He’s lost all hope of ever finding a partner. “Obama didn’t tell me that would happen,” he grumbled.

Dayo Hatingo and her husband Simba both tested positive after listening to Bin Led-on. The next day, they walked to the river and drowned their children, then themselves. They didn’t want to face the hell that their lives would surely become, being HIV+ lepers.

There are hundreds of stories like these in Kisumu, where Bin Led-on gave his demonstration.

“Most of the stories are the same,” says Mbulu. “People listened to Bin Led-on, and got tested, and when they tested positive, they collapsed into a heap of rubble on the floor, their psyches pulversized into dust, overwhelmed with depression. Nobody can survive those tests, because they take away a person’s hope for the future. They cause staggering levels of depression and stress, which are proven in the medical journals to depress the immune system. They shatter people’s lives and turn people into untouchables who just want to die and end their ordeal. It’s the test that’s deadly, not the virus.”

“Bin Led-on is assisting in what I think is a controlled demolition of the African population masquerading as ‘humanitarianism’,” Mbulu said.

He continued, “The ones strong enough to survive the initial impact of the test result later committed suicide, or died from the deadly chemotherapy drugs that Bin Led-on says are ‘life-saving.’ Mostly the drugs destroyed their livers, others died when the drugs gave them heart attacks, nerve damage, uncontrollable diarrhea, or caused their skin to come off in sheets. Meanwhile, no controlled scientific study has ever been done that has shown these drugs to prolong life when compared to a group that didn’t take them. Obama been Led-on’ about that, too.”

Mbulu was visibly trying to control his anger. “Obama also failed to mention that none of these tests detect HIV, they only detect antibodies thought to be associated with HIV. But the scientific literature demonstrates that these antibodies can be produced by any of over 70 conditions, including the common cold, pregnancy or past pregnancy, TB, many common tropical infections, and even vaccinations. Any of these common conditions might result in a ‘false positive,’ and almost all Africans have one or more of these conditions. The fact is that every HIV test comes with a disclaimer in fine print that says that the test doesn’t detect HIV and should not be used to diagnose HIV. Yet Bin Led-on never disclosed any of this information to the poor folks he urged to get tested! Just like Jim Jones, he said ‘Listen to me, I’m your leader. Drink the Kool-Aid, drink the Kool-Aid’!”

In addition, Bin Led-on didn’t tell people that the testing protocols used to stigmatize people as HIV+ outcasts in the Third World are not approved to diagnose HIV in Bin Led-on’s native US, according to Mbulu. Because of this double standard, many people who test positive in Africa and Asia would not be considered positive in the US, or in Australia or France. “This is outrageous,” Mbulu said. “It’s obvious that HIV positivity is politically, not medically, defined. And Bin Led-on never would have taken that test for the TV cameras if he didn’t already know that he tests negative. No politician would take a chance like that. He knew, yet he acts like it was a big surprise, ‘Oh, I’m so happy now, I know my status!’ How dumb does he think we are?”

“This man comes here, posing as a brother, saying he’s gonna save us from the deadly virus, and in reality he’s just working for the global elitists who want to slowly kill us with chemo so the drug industry investors can profit and the elitists’ goal of population reduction can be achieved.”

“Bin Led-on also didn’t tell us that there are thousands of scientists thousands of scientists who say that HIV doesn’t cause AIDS and that the reason we are told otherwise is because medical science and the media are corrupt and in bed with politicians and the drug industry. They need to constantly have a new ‘crisis’ so they can justify giving away the taxpayers’ money to politically connected drug companies and researchers who say they can ‘fight’ the crisis. And the newspapers always need a lurid new story so they can sell their toilet paper sheets, even have drug industry tycoons on their boards of directors like the New York Times does, so they treat every dubious claim of a new crisis as if it were real, report self-serving scientific theories from corrupt researchers as if they were proven facts, and fan the flames of hysteria to boost their circulation and keep their drug industry advertisers and directors happy.”

“This man Bin Led-on says he’s one of us, but his actions indicate otherwise. On November 22, 2005, he gave a speech to the Council on Foreign Relations, the Global Elitist group run by the Rockefellers, a family that is not only intimately connected to the drug industry, but practically invented allopathic, so-called ‘scientific’ medicine in the early years of the 20th century by bribing medical schools so they would abandon all research into non-toxic remedies found in nature and focus instead on developing petrochemical-based toxic pills that could be patented for huge profits. Bin Led-on even remarked that he was ‘privileged’ to address the notorious Council.

“It’s too bad that people are conned by these opportunist black people whose color cloaks the reality that they secretly serve the white corporate elite,” said Mbulu. “Bin Led-on, Rice, Winfrey, Powell, Jackson, Thomas, are all just front men for the globalist power brokers. They serve as the “humane, caring” black faces for the public to see on TV, obscuring the callous rich white men behind the curtain. People think that because these sycophants are black, or women, or black women, that the policies they advocate must be ‘liberal’ and ‘compassionate.’ That’s just what their Machiavellian elitist puppetmasters want you to think!”

“If Bin Led-on cares about black folks so much, why was his first act as a US Senator, to refuse to support the Congressional Black Caucus in their challenge to Ohio’s nullification of hundreds of thousands of black voters’ ballots, an outrageous theft that helped Bush steal the election? Then Bin Led-on voted for Bush’s far right wing Supreme Court nominee, voted for a bill that makes it essentially impossible for the little people to sue huge corporations that have harmed or defrauded them, and voted to renew the Patriot Act that takes away Americans’ constitutional rights and turns the country into a virtual police state, gives the government almost unlimited powers to spy on Americans, gives the president imperial powers to arrest Americans without any evidence and hold them without trial, even strip them of their citizenship, all on the president’s say-so, with no proof and no constitutional process. Do black people really want to swallow Bin Led-on’s Kool-Aid?”

Kenyan investigators are trying to locate Obama Bin Led-on in order to hold him accountable for the many deaths caused by the events of 8/26. He is thought to be hiding in “the Cave,” a luxuriously appointed underground biosphere near Washington DC that the US government has built as a retreat for the power elite in the event of nuclear war that kills all the common people.

But tapes have surfaced that purport to show Obama Bin Led-on addressing his followers in various cities across the US. Investigators are not sure whether this is the same Bin Led-on, or a double.

Wherever Obama Bin Led-on may be, his Al-Misleadya terrorist organization still functions. One of its New York cells, run by the noted Aids terrorist Dr. John Peemore, is reportedly planning more hijac�ings of common sense and the scientific method, and consequently more deaths and misery from Hiv/Aids terrorism. Informers in the Al-Misleadya organization report that more planeloads full of HIV tests and Aids drugs are being readied for the next attacks which will be targeted at more than 10 South and Central African nations heretofore largely spared by the Aids establishment.

Informed of Mbulu’s accusations against Obama Bin Led-on, an Al-Misleadya spokesmen told the Tribune that Mbulu was just a denialist crank, and that even the liberal New York Times had refused to publish an essay Mbulu wrote that criticized Bin Led-on. “Mbulu probably also doubts that the Holocaust happened,” the spokesman said. “He’s just a web-surfing loser, and bitter about it. He doesn’t even own a car. He lives in some shack in some mosquito-infested shithole village in Africa. The Senator owns a historic $1.6 million mansion in South Chicago. He’s already raised over $30 million for his campaign. Obama Bin Led-on is a winner, he demonstrates that every black person can rise to the top of the heap.”

(SPECIAL NOTE: As comments below this article indicate, this text may not be up for long, since we changed the names Marcel used – Obama Bin Lying and Al Killya – for Osama Bin Led-on and Al Misleadya because we felt that Obama is merely misled, not actually aiming to kill people knowing that HIV is wrong, as some others do. He is, moreover, a worthy candidate for the presidency and we would hope that he can be influenced to research the HIV∫AIDS situation more deeply.

The author, however, awoke in a far time zone to find this desecration of his text inappropriate and fought to get his original names back and, when faced with resistance, to withdraw his masterwork entirely. At the time of writing we still hope he will change his mind once he has slept through another Thai night, but if not we will have to erase it from our portion of the ether. – Ed.)

More truth than jest

If anyone detects a slightly bitter tone to this comic turn, it no doubt arises from the fact that the consequences of newcomer Barack Obama’s gullibility are so deadly for the lives and happiness of so many people, especially black people in Africa, and the description is more real than invention..

Interestingly, in a breathtaking coincidence, “You Bet Your Life” has put up a little cartoon today on the same theme, Obama with Bin Laden’s face, concocted expertly by Harvey Bialy, the editor, but with a tactful appeal to Obama from Lee Evans, the Olympic athlete and black who, like us, is kindly disposed towards Barack Obama and hopes he will learn that he has made a mistake in supporting HIV∫AIDS conventional wisdom.

If there is anyone intellectually sharp enough to detect that an unprecedented giant game of Foolya for Funds is going on in HIV∫AIDS, it will be Barack Obama, who clearly has one of the most active minds in politics. We hope that Girodian’s satire and Evan’s remarks get to him somehow.

Crowe on Adelaide

May 4th, 2007

David Crowe posts on the Parenzee case

davidcrowe.jpgDavid Crowe, whose Alberta Reappraising AIDS Society site is one of the most active and helpful HIV∫AIDS truthseeking sites, has sent this commentary on the Adelaide trial to us, and we post it here (we added the bold font in places), although as readers know we cannot agree with his staunch defense of the Perth group’s doubts on HIV existence or identification. But he adds valuable detail, his listing of the points in favor of their argument on this issue is useful, and the basic complaint that Judge Sulan achieved his resolution of the conflict by dismissing the credentials of the Perth pair is clearly correct.

David has a good inside track on developments in Australia, since he is in touch with Kevin Borick, the counsel for Parenzee, who he reports is still going to appeal after sentencing, though on what grounds is not yet clear:

Thoughts on Parenzee

Judge Sulan’s ruling in the appeal of the conviction of Andre Parenzee for endangering the life of three women by having sex with them without revealing his HIV status is a triumph of authority over intelligence, of dogma over science.

His method was very simple. Deny the Perth Group members Eleni Papadopulos and Valendar Turner standing as expert witnesses, grant this to the prosecution witnesses, and then the opinions of the prosecution stand unchallenged as most legal systems only allow expert witnesses to give opinions in court.

Clearly the Perth Group upset the Judge’s delicate sensibilities. He included the most petty remarks about them in his 89 page judgement. He essentially accused Eleni of padding her resume by saying (correctly) that she was “Professor of Medical Physics at Royal Perth Hospital, a teaching hospital of the University of Western Australia”. He quotes the university chancellor as agreeing that this was technically correct but might lead to the impression that she was a professor at the University of Western Australia.

He also accused Eleni of exaggerating the size of the Perth Group because he found that their website listed only her and Val as contributors. A simple pubmed search would show that their papers have an extensive list of authors, some of whom, such as John Papadimitriou, David Causer, Hermann Alfonso and Barry Page, have been co-authors of enough papers that it is fair to call them members of the “Perth Group”.

The judge was also upset that Eleni presented her views in the form of a powerpoint presentation rather than a written report. His more substantial problems were that Eleni did not have an advanced degree, and that her degree was in nuclear physics and he couldn’t see the relevance to HIV or AIDS. He had a bit more of a problem with Val Turner who is an MD but he eventually settled on the fact that Val and Eleni had only studied HIV and AIDS through reading scientific papers, not knowledge through clinical trials or treating AIDS patients. Clearly science is a process of adding data to the pile and not sifting through it looking for nuggets of truth (or falsehood).

The judge gave short shrift to the argument that the views of AIDS dissidents are routinely censored, stating “Reputable journals will only publish material which has been peer reviewed and from which it can be demonstrated that recognised scientific techniques have been followed. Opinions which question scientific conclusions, if adequately researched and peer reviewed, will be accepted for publication.” This shows an incredible level of naivete on the part of the judge who is clearly not familiar with the extensive literature detailing the flaws of peer review.

Without going into too many details here are some remarks collected by the US National Institutes of Health when they were considering reform of peer review in 1999: ‘I have been on study sections and have seen members who clearly lacked expertise review proposals and grade proposals in a biased, or self-serving, or bad scientific manner‘; ‘Under the present ‘culture’, which focuses on fault finding and amplification of minor errors and discouraging innovative research, nearly all NIH funding has gone into confirming, reconfirming, and reinventing what is already known, by individuals of very little insight or talent’; ‘Unscientific grant review rhetoric never receives objective scrutiny’; ‘The AIDS and Related Research Study Section was composed of individuals with widely different areas of expertise…For the most part, we couldn’t understand the reviews written by other members of the panel’.

The judge also established another new scientific rule: that the authors of a scientific paper own the interpretation of their data. Nancy Padian might have found zero seroconversions in a 10 year study, but only Padian has the right to explain that this actually means that HIV is sexually transmitted. He also applied this rule to the recent publication of Rodriguez that found virtually no correlation between CD4 cell counts and viral load. Rodriguez has the right to twist his research into support of the HIV=AIDS theory, but the Perth Group don’t have the right to describe his findings. Same for the May et al study in Lancet (August 5, 2006) that showed no reduction in the rate of AIDS or death in people taking HAART (but an ‘improvement’ in levels of viral load). Reporting this data is wrong. Let the authors spin it to show that everyone should be on AIDS drugs (even if they don’t want to).

Eleni was excoriated for not including in her discussion of Padian’s work a recent posting on the establishmentarian website aidstruth.org. The transcript that shows that Eleni is clearly not prepared for dirty tricks like this. She did not shoot this down with a remark such as “Aidstruth.org? Is that a peer reviewed journal? I don’t believe so. If Padian wanted to recant her 1997 work surely she would publish a new paper in a peer reviewed journal. And at that point I would certainly update my review of her work.” She did not effectively deal with this tactic and bolstered the view of the judge that she was being evasive.

The judge also accused Val and Eleni of knowing too much. They claim to have studied all of HIV and AIDS, whereas the prosecution witnesses were forced on many occasions to say that they simply didn’t know. One would think that people in such senior positions would have a good overall grasp of AIDS science but, to the judge, their ignorance made them blissfully more expert.

Once the judge got rid of the Perth Group only the prosecution witnesses were allowed to give opinions (legally expert witnesses are allowed to give opinions, not other witnesses). And there was nothing to counterbalance them.

This meant that the judge didn’t need to think about the actual science which surely must have been a relief. His shaky grasp was illustrated humorously by two typos. He described Nancy Padian as “the Professor of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Sciences at the University of Canada”. She’s a professor in the department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Sciences, but not a professor in all those subjects, let alone ‘the’ professor in those subjects. But more importantly there is no University of Canada (Padian is at UCSF).

A more serious error was his mention of the “reverse transcriptase PCA polymelias chain reaction” instead of “Reverse Transcriptase (RT) Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)”. This is almost as humorous as the Washington Post once trying to make fun of President Mbeki by reporting “phosphoral relations” instead of “triphosphorylation”. Some spelling mistakes are irrelevant and probably accidents (such as “Tenin” instead of “Temin”), but others indicate that this judge simply does not have a clue about the science and probably doesn’t want to. He just wants it off his bench.

Nancy Padian accused rethinkers of misunderstanding probability “…they think that if the chance of misfortune is one in six that they can take five chances without the likelihood of injury.” This lesson in basic probability given in the first class of any university statistics course was parroted by the judge “The very misuse of mathematical probabilities which she criticises is the methodology used by Ms Papadopulos-Eleopulos.” But what if the risk is zero, as documented by Nancy Padian? What if the risk was 1 out of 1000 (as estimated by Padian in her 1997 paper) for male to female transmission? What is the probability of transmission in a case like that of Andre Parenzee?

So what was it that the judge so fawningly accepted from the prosecution witnesses? Well, whatever they said, and even what he quoted was quite revealing.

The judge implied that HIV killed CD4 cell counts but quoted Rodriguez as saying that “Expanded efforts to identify the other elements that drive CD4 cell losses in chronic HIV infection are needed”.

The judge implied that HIV was the only cause of AIDS but cited French saying “It would therefore be more correct to state that “AIDS is caused by factors in addition to HIV””.

The judge accused the Perth Group of relying on outdated papers but allowed the prosecution to admit that these fundamental underlying papers by Gallo and Montagnier had not proved that HIV caused AIDS or that HIV had been isolated while claiming (without evidence) that later studies had closed these gaping loopholes without identifying where this important data was published.

The judge cited Gallo’s claim that while he might not have purified HIV in his original experiments that “when his team succeeded in mass producing the virus in a continuous culture, they had a great quantity of the virus with little cellular debris”. And which peer reviewed journal published the proof of this?

While the judge accused the Perth Group of being evasive and “non-responsive” to questions he let prosecution witness get away with “HIV was isolated in a 1983 paper by Montagnier’s group. It is not the way we do it now but it was done then and we now isolate HIV by other somewhat quicker techniques and so on and we do it in our lab many times a year. It is a routine procedure.” Ah, so now we know it’s true as Dr. Dwyer says its so!

The fundamental critique of the Perth Group that purification of HIV is necessary was rejected by the judge who merely said “It is the case for the applicant that, in order for the virus to be isolated, it needs to be separated from all other cellular debris. That suggestion has been refuted by Professors Cooper, Gordon and Gallo, and Dr Dwyer.” Talk of a gold standard (purification)? Piffle! “Associate Professor Dax said that the gold standard in respect of HIV could be described as the genome sequence. She expressed the view that the gold standard referred to by Dr Turner was, in her view, rather meaningless.” And the lack of photographs of purified virus? “Associate Professor Dax said that there are many photographs of the virus. She produced four slides which show different magnifications. Professor Cooper said that there are many pictures of the virus in the scientific literature.” This misses the point that photographs of impure material are not enough. But that’s okay because they got support from McDonald: “Professor McDonald said that in 1983 a gold standard had not been established, but it was very quickly established because the gene was sequenced, that it is HIV.”

This is what it boils down to. The judge accepted the statements of the prosecution experts (well, those were the only experts once the Perth Group were de-expertified) at face value despite them proffering no evidence beyond statements like “we don’t need to do that any more”, “we do it all the time”, “that was then, now is now”.

One clear error by the judge was the statement “I reject the submission that the photographs [electron micrographs] in Gallo’s earliest papers” are of contaminated virus.” This despite Gallo being forced to publish a correction over this photograph because it turned out to have been taken from a sample from Montagnier’s lab, meaning that Gallo’s 1984 Science papers did not have a single electron micrograph that was even claimed to be of HTLV-III.

Questions over the meaning of PCR in the absence of purification of the virus’s RNA were dismissed by saying “I am satisfied that the genetic testing which has been developed is specific and accurate for the identification of HIV. Professor Gordon gave clear, unequivocal evidence that the genome of the virus has been sequenced.” So the genome has been sequenced without purification because Professor Gordon said so.

Professor Cooper said “The P24 antigen of HIV is [a] unique protein”. Which I’m sure explains the science that shows that about half of all HIV antibody-positive people don’t have detectable p24 and many uninfected people do. Because Dr. Cooper said so.

Criticisms of different testing standards around the world were dismissed by “The fact that different countries may have different requirements before a person is diagnosed as HIV positive does no more than evidence [show] that different countries have different requirements before the diagnosis will be confirmed. It does not follow that people who are HIV positive in Africa are not also HIV positive when in Australia.”

He went on “As Professor Cooper pointed out, one ELISA test is sufficient because of its accuracy.” Which explains why most western countries insist on 3 ELISA tests and a Western Blot before accepting an HIV positive diagnosis. And this explains the work of Burke et al that showed that only about half of initial ELISA tests were confirmed by a second ELISA test coming up positive.

It is clear from the judge’s decision that he was made very uncomfortable by such a major challenge to the establishment and was looking for reasons to get rid of it. The fact that he wrote an 89 page judgement is an indication that it also made him nervous. Perhaps deep down he knows that he is doing the wrong thing.

Perhaps the most telling paragraph was the penultimate one: “The applicant [Andre Parenzee] presented with AIDS symptoms. His CD4 count was extremely low and his viral load count was very high. After he was prescribed antiviral medications, his CD4 count increased and his viral load decreased. He exhibited the symptoms that might be seen in a person who has contracted HIV/AIDS. He responded to antiretroviral medication in a manner that is expected and is predictable, according to mainstream experts.” This is a bald-faced lie. The truth is that Andre Parenzee went on drugs for a short time and went off very quickly due to the side effects and his increasing understanding of the AIDS myth. And if Andre was so sick with a terminal illness how could the judge consider giving him a sentence of 15 to 45 years?

From a rethinker’s perspective the judgement is a wonderful expose of how the legal system works. It should be required reading for everyone interested in legal approaches to ending the HIV=AIDS=Death dogma, everyone from lawyers, defendants to expert witnesses. The establishment will use dirty tricks, but they can be defended against if you are prepared. The judge will often be biased so he needs to be put in a position where the expert witnesses cannot be denied and where the prosecution witnesses are forced to provide real evidence, not just bald statements.

My understanding is that Kevin Borick will be finding other avenues to appeal this case after sentencing of Andre Parenzee which is expected soon. The only thing the establishment could do to avoid this would be to hand Parenzee a very light sentence, perhaps time served, at which point further appeals would be dangerous as they would risk getting a longer sentence.

Judge Sulan, are you listening? I know you surf the net at nights…

We agree completely that this experience shows that any court case will reduce to an authority fight where credentials are paramount, and defense lawyers must make sure not only that they are prepared to challenge prosecution witnesses on whether their claims are justified by the scientific literature, and demolish their credibility by showing clearly they are not, but also to preserve the credentials of their own witnesses by avoiding making claims which seem too outlandish to the judge.

For additional points on the discussion of whether Perth goes too far is denying the very existence of HIV, see the Comments on “Legally Blind”, the last post. The issue is not even whether or on what basis they are right (clearly they are not, given the work done on HIV since 1984), but the simple fact that the claim that HIV does not exist will discredit any scientific witness in any court immediately.

Perth as Achilles heel

The case for the defense was lost from the beginning by giving the judge this easy out. He was given a basis for rejecting the credentials of the Perth pair, and did so. Dispensing with all their testimony saved him the effort of comparing the prosecution testimony with the defense claims, and all the trouble of gauging whether the questions they raised on other grounds made any sense.

Despite the sterling work of the Perth group on many aspects of the HIV∫AIDS paradigm and its gaping flaws, it would have been far better as a practical matter to bring in witnesses with hands on experience and expertise in virus research to point out the simple flaws in the paradigm which rule out any real culpability on the part of the unfortunate Parenzee.

Chief among these is the plain fact that Nancy Padian, leading paradigm researcher, has demonstrated that heterosexual transmission is virtually ruled out in HIV∫AIDS, which would be expected given the extraordinarily low, in fact negligible level of actual virus (as low as one in 10 ml) seen in even “high viral load” HIV positives.

This remarkable absence, with its low likelihood of passing HIV along through conventional sex, and the parallel plain fact that HIV antibodies are overwhelmingly effective in combating HIV, together render the entire paradigm of infectious pandemic null and void, as has been made all too apparent by the Gisselquist papers we have dealt with earlier, where the somewhat independent minded HIV∫AIDS researcher desperately looks for some other way in which the pandemic in Africa might be transmitted, given the lack of heterosexual transmission.

Barbaric discrimination

But the nub of the matter is discrimination. The idea of penalizing people with barbaric sanctions for sleeping with women without informing them of a positive AIDS test is a distortion of public policy. After all, counseling is the only penalty for doing the same with syphilis and other STDs of proven danger to health.

Even without the overwhelming evidence that HIV does not cause AIDS, this is just one more way in which the unfortunate people who score HIV positive have their lives ruined for no good purpose and without justification.

Such laws have no basis in science or in statistics, and are not morally justified. To fail to make this clear was the failure of the defence in Perth, which lost the case by trying to defend the indefensible, when it was the indefensible they should have attacked.

But according to reports this was the penalty of using the two witnesses from Perth, who apparently insisted on being the only scientific witnesses for the defense, a proviso with which the family agreed.

This guaranteed the loss of the case.


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