Damned Heretics

Condemned by the established, but very often right

I am Nicolaus Copernicus, and I approve of this blog

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Qualified outsiders and maverick insiders are often right about the need to replace received wisdom in science and society, as the history of the Nobel prize shows. This blog exists to back the best of them in their uphill assault on the massively entrenched edifice of resistance to and prejudice against reviewing, let alone revising, ruling ideas. In support of such qualified dissenters and courageous heretics we search for scientific paradigms and other established beliefs which may be maintained only by the power and politics of the status quo, comparing them with academic research and the published experimental and investigative record.

We especially defend and support the funding of honest, accomplished, independent minded and often heroic scientists, inventors and other original thinkers and their right to free speech and publication against the censorship, mudslinging, false arguments, ad hominem propaganda, overwhelming crowd prejudice and internal science politics of the paradigm wars of cancer, AIDS, evolution, global warming, cosmology, particle physics, macroeconomics, health and medicine, diet and nutrition.

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Henry Bauer, Peter Breggin , Harvey Bialy, Giordano Bruno, Erwin Chargaff, Nicolaus Copernicus, Francis Crick, Paul Crutzen, Marie Curie, Rebecca Culshaw, Freeman Dyson, Peter Duesberg, Albert Einstein, Richard Feynman, John Fewster, Galileo Galilei, Alec Gordon, James Hansen, Edward Jenner, Benjamin Jesty, Michio Kaku, Adrian Kent, Ernst Krebs, Thomas Kuhn, Serge Lang, John Lauritsen, Mark Leggett, Richard Lindzen, Lynn Margulis, Barbara McClintock, George Miklos, Marco Mamone Capria, Peter Medawar, Kary Mullis, Linus Pauling, Eric Penrose, Max Planck, Rainer Plaga, David Rasnick, Sherwood Rowland, Carl Sagan, Otto Rossler, Fred Singer, Thomas Szasz, Alfred Wegener, Edward O. Wilson, James Watson.
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Many people would die rather than think – in fact, they do so. – Bertrand Russell.

Skepticism is dangerous. That’s exactly its function, in my view. It is the business of skepticism to be dangerous. And that’s why there is a great reluctance to teach it in schools. That’s why you don’t find a general fluency in skepticism in the media. On the other hand, how will we negotiate a very perilous future if we don’t have the elementary intellectual tools to ask searching questions of those nominally in charge, especially in a democracy? – Carl Sagan (The Burden of Skepticism, keynote address to CSICOP Annual Conference, Pasadena, April 3/4, 1982).

It is really important to underscore that everything we’re talking about tonight could be utter nonsense. – Brian Greene (NYU panel on Hidden Dimensions June 5 2010, World Science Festival)

I am Albert Einstein, and I heartily approve of this blog, insofar as it seems to believe both in science and the importance of intellectual imagination, uncompromised by out of date emotions such as the impulse toward conventional religious beliefs, national aggression as a part of patriotism, and so on.   As I once remarked, the further the spiritual evolution of mankind advances, the more certain it seems to me that the path to genuine religiosity does not lie through the fear of life, and the fear of death, and blind faith, but through striving after rational knowledge.   Certainly the application of the impulse toward blind faith in science whereby authority is treated as some kind of church is to be deplored.  As I have also said, the only thing ever interfered with my learning was my education. My name as you already perceive without a doubt is George Bernard Shaw, and I certainly approve of this blog, in that its guiding spirit appears to be blasphemous in regard to the High Church doctrines of science, and it flouts the censorship of the powers that be, and as I have famously remarked, all great truths begin as blasphemy, and the first duty of the truthteller is to fight censorship, and while I notice that its seriousness of purpose is often alleviated by a satirical irony which sometimes borders on the facetious, this is all to the good, for as I have also famously remarked, if you wish to be a dissenter, make certain that you frame your ideas in jest, otherwise they will seek to kill you.  My own method was always to take the utmost trouble to find the right thing to say, and then to say it with the utmost levity. (Photo by Alfred Eisenstaedt for Life magazine) One should as a rule respect public opinion in so far as is necessary to avoid starvation and to keep out of prison, but anything that goes beyond this is voluntary submission to an unnecessary tyranny, and is likely to interfere with happiness in all kinds of ways. – Bertrand Russell, Conquest of Happiness (1930) ch. 9

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Why not give AIDS drugs to everyone? Jon Cohen’s bright idea

January 23rd, 2006

Andrew Sullivan cheers: he’s never met an AIDS drug he didn’t like

A column yesterday (Sun Jan 22) by Jon Cohen in the NY Times magazine achieved a new record in the level of absurdity proposed in HIV?AIDS, a field which already has more inconsistencies and irrationalities and scientific superstitions per square inch of publication than any other scientific study in history.

Jon Cohen is a Science writer and ex-Talk magazine scribe, who published a history of the AIDS non-vaccine five years ago, Shots in the Dark: The Wayward Search for an AIDS Vaccine, a book which apparently managed to overlook the biggest and most obvious reason for that failure (the fact that HIV is described by the scientific literature as acting as an effective anti-HIV vaccine already). He says that what we need to stop HIV?AIDS is really quite simple.

In Idea Lab: Protect or Disinhibit?, he suggests giving AIDS drugs to everybody.

Of course, researchers have made progress in treating patients who already have H.I.V., developing powerful drug cocktails that can stave off disease. But when it comes to preventing the virus’s spread, success is spotty. One of the few effective interventions involves the use of anti-H.I.V. drugs to keep a mother from infecting her baby. And an underappreciated facet to this story has far-reaching implications: both mothers and their uninfected babies receive the drugs.

If anti-H.I.V. drugs can help uninfected babies dodge the virus, might the same approach work for uninfected adults? Could the sexually active take antiretrovirals to avoid contracting H.I.V. in the first place? Intrigued by the prospects, some gay men already have experimented with what’s known as “pre-exposure prophylaxis” or PrEP: a recent survey conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at gay-pride events in four U.S. cities found that 7 percent of those interviewed said they had tried it.

A half-dozen studies are now under way that will determine whether these men are onto something.

(here is the whole piece

The New York Times

January 22, 2006

Idea Lab

Protect or Disinhibit?

By JON COHEN

At the end of every year, the Joint United Nations Program on H.I.V./AIDS releases an update on the epidemic. In keeping with tradition, the news for 2005 remained grim: an estimated 4.9 million people were infected with H.I.V. during the year – up from 4.6 million in 2003.

Of course, researchers have made progress in treating patients who already have H.I.V., developing powerful drug cocktails that can stave off disease. But when it comes to preventing the virus’s spread, success is spotty. One of the few effective interventions involves the use of anti-H.I.V. drugs to keep a mother from infecting her baby. And an underappreciated facet to this story has far-reaching implications: both mothers and their uninfected babies receive the drugs.

If anti-H.I.V. drugs can help uninfected babies dodge the virus, might the same approach work for uninfected adults? Could the sexually active take antiretrovirals to avoid contracting H.I.V. in the first place? Intrigued by the prospects, some gay men already have experimented with what’s known as “pre-exposure prophylaxis” or PrEP: a recent survey conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at gay-pride events in four U.S. cities found that 7 percent of those interviewed said they had tried it.

A half-dozen studies are now under way that will determine whether these men are onto something. The trials all focus on tenofovir (marketed under the brand name Viread), a drug that appears safer than the other AIDS medications on the market. Placebo-controlled trials are enrolling 5,000 people on four continents who are in high-risk groups, including gay and bisexual men, sex workers and injecting drug users. All told, the experiments will cost more than $40 million, which is being paid for by the C.D.C. and the National Institutes of Health, as well as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Dr. Susan Buchbinder, head of the H.I.V. research section at the San Francisco Department of Public Health, runs one of those trials, known as Project T. Buchbinder says she initially had “big reservations” about the research, because she worried about what psychologists call “behavioral disinhibition”: what if fear of H.I.V. declined in people who took the drug, and they then skipped using condoms or increased their number of sex partners? “It’s scary as an investigator, as a public-health official and as a person who has worked with the community for many years to think

about doing something that could paradoxically make the epidemic worse rather than better,” she says.

Buchbinder decided to conduct Project T because tenofovir PrEP had worked well in research monkeys and because she’d heard the anecdotes about underground use, including a cocktail known in street slang as “the 3V’s”: Viread, Viagra and Valium. If the intervention worked, she reasoned, then researchers could confront the problem of behavioral disinhibition head-on with education campaigns, much as they do with condom promotion efforts that simultaneously encourage monogamy or even abstinence. And if tenofovir PrEP fails to stop H.I.V. transmission or causes serious side effects, then people urgently needed that information too. (In part because the prospect of harming a healthy person raises formidable liability issues for Gilead Sciences, tenofovir’s manufacturer, the company says it has no interest in marketing the drug as a prophylaxis, even if trials prove that it works.)

Optimistic mathematical models show that if tenofovir PrEP is effective 90 percent of the time and is used by 90 percent of the people who are at highest risk of becoming infected, it could cut new H.I.V. infections in a community by more than 80 percent in a few years. That is, if behavioral disinhibition does not undo the benefits.

Dr. Marcus Conant, a San Francisco clinician who has specialized in AIDS since the start of the epidemic, has high hopes that tenofovir PrEP will work wonders. Indeed, he already prescribes it to a half-dozen select patients. “With my patients, it’s not even ethical for me to wait for the science,” Conant says. “I can identify those patients who I know are at extremely high risk. Should I wait for the scientific evidence to prove that it doesn’t work before I give it to someone where it may work?”

Even if it works spectacularly well, tenofovir PrEP will not substitute for an AIDS vaccine, the holy grail of prevention research. With a vaccine, a few shots can train an immune system to ward off a disease for decades. But tenofovir PrEP would work only if people take the drug repeatedly. Then again, no AIDS vaccine is on the near horizon. Tenofovir PrEP, in contrast, could prove its worth by 2008.

Jon Cohen is a correspondent for Science magazine and the author of “Shots in the Dark: The Wayward Search for an AIDS Vaccine.”

* Copyright 2006The New York Times Company

Actor/ political scientist/ editor/ talking head/ conservative/ gay blogger Andrew Sullivan, who as noted earlier, in his unquestioning, arts/ liberal/ political pundit based unalloyed faith in the HIV?AIDS medical authorities, returned this year to popping HAART regimen pills to revive his supposedly declining imnmune system, thinks this is a fine idea.

Daily Dish Sunday, January 22, 2006

Drugs And Negs

22 Jan 2006 02:21 pm

In the current HIV prevention discussion, this idea is well worth airing and perhaps pursuing: Why not put all HIV-negative men on a simple anti-retroviral regimen as a prophylaxis, rather than as a treatment? In any single case, the likelihood of possible transmission drops (because the drugs kill off the virus before it can take hold of a new immune system). The big studies being done will help confirm whether there are collective behavioral adjustments that undermine the effort to reduce transmission. My own view is that gay men, if the studies pan out, could and perhaps should embark on a proactive campaign to get as many sexually active men as possible on meds. It’s a way for HIV-negative men to do something which is not simply defensive in nature, and make decisions about their health in a moment outside the inevitable irrationality of a sexual encounter. We’re used to taking pills after we’ve become sick. Why not take them before – as a prevention technique? Even a mild decline in transmission could drastically alter the dynamic of the epidemic – for the better. Next up: involve vulnerable African-American women in the same discussion.

Even if you haven’t troubled to read the scientific literature before misleading the public, and thus still have no idea that HIV?AIDS is the most questioned ruling hypothesis on earth, endlessly exploded by a leading retroviral scientist at exhaustive length in top journals, not to mention eviscerated in more than sixteen books and many articles and web sites by all manner of specialists and science writers and laymen who have made a close study of the topic, this has to be the oddest proposal that has come along for some time.

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“This is his bare hint of the elephant in the room, the vast dirty secret which is hidden by denial by the hapless patients of HIV?AIDS in this country, and their supposed rescuers

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For the immediate problem it suggests is, of course, side effects. Cohen recognizes this drawback by talking of a new drug which is supposed to have fewer side effects than the norm for HAART drugs, the standard regimen which gave Larry Kramer a liver transplant and is wont to render your appearance rather unpleasant with fatty deposits in the wrong places, before eventually killing you off.

The trials all focus on tenofovir (marketed under the brand name Viread), a drug that appears safer than the other AIDS medications on the market. Placebo-controlled trials are enrolling 5,000 people on four continents who are in high-risk groups, including gay and bisexual men, sex workers and injecting drug users. All told, the experiments will cost more than $40 million, which is being paid for by the C.D.C. and the National Institutes of Health, as well as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

In other words, the side effects of this “safe” drug remain to be seen. But there is one hint that tells us already what they are likely to be. The company which makes the drug says it has no interest in extending their beneficial influence to people without any sign of HIV,

And if tenofovir PrEP fails to stop H.I.V. transmission or causes serious side effects, then people urgently needed that information too. (In part because the prospect of harming a healthy person raises formidable liability issues for Gilead Sciences, tenofovir’s manufacturer, the company says it has no interest in marketing the drug as a prophylaxis, even if trials prove that it works.)

This doesn’t stop Cohen, of course, who believes that handing the stuff out in the gay community might cut new HIV infections by more than 80 percent, if it works “90 per cent of the time”. All this is based on “mathematical models, ie is nothing but speculation.

Optimistic mathematical models show that if tenofovir PrEP is effective 90 percent of the time and is used by 90 percent of the people who are at highest risk of becoming infected, it could cut new H.I.V. infections in a community by more than 80 percent in a few years. That is, if behavioral disinhibition does not undo the benefits.

What he means by the last sentence is that if it works and people feel they are protected against catching HIV, then they will get up to even more mischief, sexually speaking. This is the concern of his source for the idea, the chief of San Francisco city AIDS research:

Dr. Susan Buchbinder, head of the H.I.V. research section at the San Francisco Department of Public Health, runs one of those trials, known as Project T. Buchbinder says she initially had “big reservations” about the research, because she worried about what psychologists call “behavioral disinhibition”: what if fear of H.I.V. declined in people who took the drug, and they then skipped using condoms or increased their number of sex partners? “It’s scary as an investigator, as a public-health official and as a person who has worked with the community for many years to think about doing something that could paradoxically make the epidemic worse rather than better,” she says.

Is it research and thought, or media/Beltway babble?

If this is the usual quality of logic brought to bear on the epidemic by the chief city researcher at the ground zero of the US AIDS epidemic, one can only say that the continuing confusion about HIV?AIDS and the flourishing survival of an apparently baseless paradigm in the medical community is no mystery.

That is to say, if the premise is that the drug does protect against infection, why would it expand the epidemic if those protected against carrying HIV escalate their sexual antics? What Ms Buchbinder has to fear would be the expansion of hospital admissions for side effects, one would think, not new HIV positives.

But the bottom line is that the lack of sense and logic which permeates the minds of HIV?AIDS activists seems to have no limits whatsoever, even among professional commentators on the topic who have been around it for years.

This is probably because in paradoxical manner they do have sense and logic, in that their entire brainpower seems to be taken over by an effort to spin the consequences of the HIV=AIDS premise they are given by authority, and once having accepted that without question, they happily construct what are really quite logical extrapolations of the premise, and when they run into inconsistencies, they either overlook them or reinterpret them to accord with the sacrosanct premise.

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“It really is a marvel of modern society how one can accumulate every imprimatur of authority in one’s field – in this case, writing about AIDS, for the most part – and work for every bunch of editors in the top magazine strata, and not have one grain of sense or ability to question the assumptions of conventional wisdom.”

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This is in accordance with modern brain research, which is the subject of the next post here unless another outrage to common sense demands deconstruction first.

In the end, however, thinking based on faulty premises has to stop, and it seems clear that it has ground to a halt in both Cohen and Sullivan. The net result is that you get conclusions like this one with which Cohen finishes his column:

Even if it works spectacularly well, tenofovir PrEP will not substitute for an AIDS vaccine, the holy grail of prevention research. With a vaccine, a few shots can train an immune system to ward off a disease for decades. But tenofovir PrEP would work only if people take the drug repeatedly. Then again, no AIDS vaccine is on the near horizon. Tenofovir PrEP, in contrast, could prove its worth by 2008.

Why, pray, would one not be happy with this delightful drug if it works as hoped? Why would one need a vaccine? Would it not in effect be a vaccine, one with the additional advantage of not making everyone HIV positive, which a vaccine which bred antibodies against HIV would do – since the HIV test is for HIV antibodies, not HIV, which can hardly be found in any HIV patients without strenuous artificial measures? A population where everybody is HIV positive, which is what a vaccine promises, is hardly what we need.

The answer, of course, to why one wouldn’t want this darn drug as an easy prophylactic lies in the dreaded side effects. This of course is what is implied by Cohen’s fleeting mention of the fact that “tenofovir PrEP would work only if people take the drug repeatedly.”

The elephant behind the AIDS curtain

This is his bare hint of the elephant in the room, the vast dirty secret which is hidden by denial by the hapless patients of HIV?AIDS in this country, and their supposed rescuers, the drug companies and their human delivery system of officials, doctors, nurses and science-illiterate science writers and blogger/talking heads who won’t mention the elephant even as they grope in the dark and find its shape unmistakably there.

In this Alice in Wonderland landscape where bad science joins hands with denial, the emotions of hope and optimism can shine like a sun on a landscape without the shadows of reality. Thus we have a prominent AIDS doctor already handing out this stuff to “select patients”.

Dr. Marcus Conant, a San Francisco clinician who has specialized in AIDS since the start of the epidemic, has high hopes that tenofovir PrEP will work wonders. Indeed, he already prescribes it to a half-dozen select patients. “With my patients, it’s not even ethical for me to wait for the science,” Conant says. “I can identify those patients who I know are at extremely high risk. Should I wait for the scientific evidence to prove that it doesn’t work before I give it to someone where it may work?”

This then is the end result of the train of logic that results from the HIV?AIDS paradigm, that these privileged patients, in good health and not even HIV positive, will consider themselves lucky to join the HIV positive group whose main suffering is caused by the drugs they take, which eventually lead to death, according to all the critiques of the paradigm.

All one can hope is that the new drug will not have the same unpleasant effects as the old, which will perhaps give these unfortunate souls more time to browse the literature of dissent in this area and perhaps grow to understand just how much science argues against the paradigm, and perhaps wean themselves from this baby bottle ideology, which now aims to expand its circle of depredation even more widely in the population, at least among gays.

As long as the likes of Andrew Sullivan and Jon Cohen assume the mantle of thought leaders in this arena, and fail to fulfil their first duty as pundits and go to the original source ie the scientific literature of the review of the claim, as well as of the claim, this route to enlightenment on the part of their followers seems to be unlikely to be followed, however.

Jon Cohen’s performance seems to be even more disgraceful than that of Sullivan, of course, since Cohen at least claims to be a student of science. Sullivan in AIDS is now just a nattering nabob of underinformed Beltway blather, which is par for the course for busy professional media pundits. Just look at Sullivan’s bio, to see how impossible it is that he could find much time to go to a library, even on the Internet. He must barely have time to change clothes between his appearances on television, his visits to the centers of night life, and his computer.

Cohen on the other hand has been a Science reporter for years, and although we appreciate that his dogged propagandizing for the bureaucratic and lab heroes of HIV?AIDS has led to trips to India and Beijing, a book contract and other perks, we really think that professionalism alone demands that he of all reporters should go back to the science and think and read for himelf before writing any more on the topic.

But of course this is a suggestion which is unlikely to be realized. A man whose reputation and fees hinge on the dangers of the “nasty virus” as he calls it is hardly in a position to reassess what amounts to his life’s work.

It really is a marvel of modern society how one can accumulate every imprimatur of authority in one’s field – in this case, writing about AIDS, for the most part – and work for every bunch of editors in the top magazine strata, and not have one grain of sense or ability to question the assumptions of conventional wisdom.

Jon Cohen is a writer for Science, the prestigious international weekly journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). He has covered biomedicine, specializing in vaccines, for the past fifteen years. Cohen began writing for Science in 1990, becoming one of the world’s leading AIDS reporters. In 1998, Cohen received a Sloan Foundation grant to complete Shots in the Dark: The Wayward Search for an AIDS Vaccine, which was published by W.W. Norton in January 2001. In addition to reporting on a wide range of scientific and medical topics for Science from many locales around the world, Cohen has done in-depth, investigative stores about the National Institutes of Health, tobacco industry funding of science, defense against bioweapons, the troubled vaccine industry, credit battles, the genomics revolution, and the science press itself. He also has written for the Atlantic Monthly, the New Yorker, the New York Times, the Washington Post, Slate, Smithsonian, Talk, Discover, the New Republic, Surfer, and other publications. His 1997 Science article about the rise and fall of an AIDS research program in the former Zaire won the international health reporting award from the Pan American Health Organization. From 1986 to 1990 he was senior editor at the City Paper in Washington, D.C. He earned a B.A. in 1981 from the University of California, San Diego, where he majored in science writing. Cohen lives in Cardiff-by-the-Sea, California, with his wife, a TV documentary producer, and their two children.

Andrew Sullivan’s bio offers the same paradoxical evidence that one can attend Magdalen and Harvard, push one’s way into the top job of a major East Coast political weekly, and achieve enormous success in media as a writer for every big name in the book, and have absolutely no idea what is going on in the field of HIV?AIDS, where your very own health is at stake.

But of course, the solution to the paradox is clear. No one on the inside of the media looking in ever has much of a clue as to what is really going on, except in their own little world. To do that, you have to be on the outside looking in, and around.

But then, why do those who are members of the club seem to speak with so much canny insight and informed knowledge? That is because everyone on the inside says the same thing, so their words are constantly confirmed by each other. They are, in effect, the priests of an information religion.

As anyone who lives long enough knows, the only reliable source of knowledge is an independent mind and an independent bank account. Alas, these are increasingly rare in our modern hyper-organized and materially driven society, and they rarely gain access to power and influence.

Let’s hope the one development that promised to counter this trend, the Web, continues to resist being coopted.

Long live the independent blog, especially in science.

For confirmation of this theory of how membership of the club corrupts the mind, we offer as sufficient evidence this essentially fantastic view of the world of AIDS as seen through the eyes of Jon Cohen:

As a long-time correspondent for the journal Science and a leading authority on the global AIDS epidemic, Cohen has traveled the world documenting the human toll of AIDS and the social and medical research being marshaled against it. But he hadn’t seen anything as dire as Tambaram since his travels in the AIDS-ravaged lands of sub-Saharan Africa.

“Tambaram is how my mind’s eye imagines the Black Plague: long rows of filled beds with dying people,” he said in a recent interview. “The clinicians were fantastic: smart, humane, and generous. But this is a nasty virus, and it still takes a lot of money and know-how to keep HIV at bay. As the doctors there stressed to me, they’re doing the best they can. I could see that. It’s just that the best they can offer right now isn’t enough.”

Cohen is back in Asia now, joining thousands of health workers, researchers, activists and journalists for the 15th International AIDS Conference in Bangkok, which runs from 11-16 July. The theme of the conference is “Access for All,” but in a remarkable series of stories over the past nine months, Cohen has made clear that while there’s been great progress, the goal of proper care for all of those in Asia who are HIV-positive or suffering from AIDS remains far off. AAAS and Science will distribute thousands of reprints of his stories at the conference, without charge.

“There are an estimated 40 million HIV-infected people in the world,” Cohen said in the interview. “It depends on which equation you use to calculate which of those people need drugs now, but it’s a pitifully small number who are actually receiving them.”

Science Correspondent Jon Cohen Sees Perils, Promise in the Fight Against AIDS

Jon Cohen with Sun Fuli in Beijing

Jon Cohen with Sun Fuli in Beijing

[You can see a slide show and a photo essay that accompany Jon Cohen’s stories on AIDS in Asia. Read the full set of stories here.]

Jon Cohen arrived at the old Tambaram hospital in Chennai, India, on a Saturday morning last winter and saw sights that he hadn’t seen before in Asia. There were five AIDS wards, each with three dozen beds, and each of them filled to capacity. In the past year, he was told, the staff had treated 10,000 patients.

As a long-time correspondent for the journal Science and a leading authority on the global AIDS epidemic, Cohen has traveled the world documenting the human toll of AIDS and the social and medical research being marshaled against it. But he hadn’t seen anything as dire as Tambaram since his travels in the AIDS-ravaged lands of sub-Saharan Africa.

“Tambaram is how my mind’s eye imagines the Black Plague: long rows of filled beds with dying people,” he said in a recent interview. “The clinicians were fantastic: smart, humane, and generous. But this is a nasty virus, and it still takes a lot of money and know-how to keep HIV at bay. As the doctors there stressed to me, they’re doing the best they can. I could see that. It’s just that the best they can offer right now isn’t enough.”

Cohen is back in Asia now, joining thousands of health workers, researchers, activists and journalists for the 15th International AIDS Conference in Bangkok, which runs from 11-16 July. The theme of the conference is “Access for All,” but in a remarkable series of stories over the past nine months, Cohen has made clear that while there’s been great progress, the goal of proper care for all of those in Asia who are HIV-positive or suffering from AIDS remains far off. AAAS and Science will distribute thousands of reprints of his stories at the conference, without charge.

“There are an estimated 40 million HIV-infected people in the world,” Cohen said in the interview. “It depends on which equation you use to calculate which of those people need drugs now, but it’s a pitifully small number who are actually receiving them.”

[See the full interview with Jon Cohen here.]

As the Bangkok conference nears, Cohen sees a world divided into rich nations and poor nations. The rich nations are refining their treatment programs, learning how best to use drugs to combat the virus, and pushing for a vaccine. But in the poor nations, and this includes the nations of Asia, “there aren’t a lot of options for treatment,” he says. “The big challenge is to get treatment to people, and there is a massive scale-up underway right now. But as of today, very, very few HIV-infected people in the world who are poor receive drugs or have access to drugs even though the price has plummeted.”

For years, Cohen says, most of the nations of Asia had been reticent about dealing with the spread of the infection among their people. That’s partly a function of denial, he suggests, a response shared by the United States as AIDS hit its stride there in the 1980s, and partly from the fact that the disease is relatively new to places like China. But in the past year, he’s seen a change.

“There have been very dramatic commitments from …India, China and Thailand to treat the people most in need,” he explains. “I also think that India and China are more forthrightly dealing with their epidemics than they were a few years ago. They’re acknowledging the scale and they’re also starting to deliver services. But almost every country, and I would include the United States here, is fighting this virus with one hand tied behind its back because of political agendas. That hasn’t changed much. It’s changing, but it’s glacial, it’s excruciating to watch…. The virus just doesn’t wait for anyone-it doesn’t care. It doesn’t play politics. It doesn’t have a brain. It doesn’t have morals. None of that matters to HIV. It just wants to copy itself and spread, that’s all it wants to do.”

What caused the change in those Asian countries? The factors vary from place to place, he says, but one element is common: Fear. The countries fear the impact on their economies. They fear international disapproval of the sort China faced last year over its failure to respond in a timely and forthright way to the SARS outbreak. And increasingly, he says, they fear the dire impact on their people.

“Think about it—in Asia, who really drives the epidemic?” Cohen asks. “Well, it’s driven by sex workers and mostly by their clients—that’s what really drives it. And so it’s easy for people to be moralistic and to say, ‘You got yourself into this—who cares?’ Countries come realize then, that, first of all, sex workers and clients are part of the population. They’re people too. And much as you might want to marginalize them, they have children, they have spouses, and those people often become infected often having done nothing that any moralist would say is wrong. In India, there’s a saying that a woman’s greatest HIV risk factor is getting married. Women are largely monogamous there. Many, many women have become infected after their husbands went to sex workers. Countries just start to accept that they can’t just put this disease in a corner and say, ‘This is something that happens to bad people.’

There is a window of opportunity open right now in much of Asia, he says. And while it gradually is closing, there remains time to save thousands of lives with effective intervention.

“Once you get to a certain level of spread, like South Africa, where you have 20 percent of the adults infected, you can’t base your prevention program around targeting those 20 percent of the people,” he says. “It’s just too large a group. But if you only have, as is the case in China now, somewhere around a million infected people, you can target those people for prevention care. You can target high-risk groups, like injecting drug users and sex workers, and really make a huge difference in preventing a widespread epidemic. That’s where Asia sits right now.”

Cohen has been covering HIV and AIDS since 1989. He has reported extensively for Science, and his 2001 book “Shots in the Dark: The Wayward Search for an AIDS Vaccine” (W.W. Norton & Company, 2001) won the National Association of Science Writers’ Science-in-Society award. His latest book, “Coming to Term: Mysteries, Myths and the Latest Science of Miscarriage” is slated for release by Houghton Mifflin in January. What’s striking, in an interview with Cohen, is not only his knowledge and eloquence, but his balance. He has seen the worst of the AIDS epidemic in places like Tambaram and sub-Saharan Africa, he has seen how politics at times cripples the fight against the disease, and yet his perspective retains strong elements of compassion and hope.

“The greatest cause for optimism is that the virus [in Asia] hasn’t spread that far yet. So there’s a terrific chance to use the new treatment programs to encourage people to receive tests,” he says. “If you can offer drugs, there’s more likely people will receive a test, because there’s something you can do for them.

“And then…on the edge of research, there are some really interesting possibilities. Research equals optimism, to me—that’s the whole idea.

“When I work in large AIDS wards, it of course depresses me—and I would have deep suspicions about anyone who didn’t feel saddened by the helplessness—but I also feel like, on some level, we are helping. When I go sailing and I’m piloting a boat, the motion of the sea doesn’t make me ill. It’s the same sort of feeling when I’m at work in a depressing situation: While I’m doing my job, it blunts the dizzying sensation of meeting many, many people in one place who I know only have weeks or days to live. I’m also buoyed by the wisdom that comes with great suffering, and I meet people everywhere who impress me with how well they handle the crises of life with AIDS.”

The journal Science, published by AAAS, has the largest paid circulation of any peer-reviewed general science journal in the world, with an estimated total readership of one million. AAAS, founded in 1848, is the world’s largest general scientific society, serving some 10 million people through 262 affiliated societies and academies of science. The non-profit association is open to all and fulfills its mission to “advance science and serve society” through initiatives in science policy, international programs, science education and more.

— Edward W. Lempinen

6 July 2004

Reason to despair of the level of attention of the general public

January 22nd, 2006

And why it means we must salute Thabo Mbeki

A somewhat worrying testament to the level of intelligence and alertness of the mass television audience came this morning on Sunday in New York, which ran from 7 am to 9 am on NBC in New York.

The producers apparently were unable to find, in whatever meeting they had to determine the contents of this broadcast, which presumably reaches a healthy slice of the population who are willing to emerge by 8.45 am Eastern Time on Sunday morning, any topic more relevant than that presented by a willing young woman from some housekeeping magazine.

Apparently the editors of that magazine had sat around as is their wont and brainstormed a new use for kitchen equipment -in this case, tea towels. Ranged along the studio counter were the inspirations they had come up with:

1). Take the tea towel, cover a piece of rectangular plywood with it, cut the surplus edges off, glue it to the wood, mount a couple off saucepan hooks to it, and mount on your kitchen wall for decorative effect.

2) Take a tea towel, cut a piece from it and fold in two, then seam it on two sides to make a colorful decorative bag in which to gift wrap a bottle of wine (tie with ribbon after inserting bottle).

3) Take a tea towel, just wrap the bottle without bothering to make seams, and tie with ribbon to achieve the same effect.

4) Some other “new idea” which escapes our memory as we were already resisting the mindbending triviality and sheer uselessness of these suggestions as to how we all might spend our next spare hour.

On the other hand, it is perhaps pleasant to be reminded that there are large swathes of the Sunday morning audience in the business capital of the world who are not lying in bed like sluggards contemplating the great issues which bedevil human existence but are willing to get up and pay attention to four new ways to use kitchen towels for decorative purposes.

This suggests that at least some people have produced order out of chaos in their own private existence to such an extent, ie have everything is in its place to such a high level of control and organization, that they have no better thing to do on Sunday morning at 8.45 am than be instructed how to make original uses of their spare tea towels, or even go out and buy new ones for these projects.

On the other hand we have to be concerned that this involves a narrowing of their focus of attention and a neglect of the great issues of the world that leaves them totally vulnerable to whatever nonsense irresponsible people may be peddling in realms such as health, since they must be reading very little on or off the Web and television is no source for questioning received wisdom, with the signal exception of John Stossel of ABC News.

This is why we feel that thought leaders such as Tony Fauci, Jeffrey Sachs, Bill Clinton, Nicholas Wade, Nicholas Kristof, Chris Mooney, Ronald Bailey, Andrew Sullivan and the editors of the New York Times are abdicating a very important responsibility when they fail to assess or reassess conventional wisdom in HIV?AIDS and act as propaganda broadcasters for a paradigm which has been effectively rejected by the most tested scientific literature on the topic.

We were reminded yesterday that Tony Fauci, for example, was asked at one point by his sister Denise more than ten times if he didn’t think that Peter Duesberg of Berkeley had a point in reviewing and rejecting the HIV=AIDS claim in top journals in refereed articles. This is by Tony’s own account in the AAAS newsletter (referred to in our earlier post on Fauci the other day, Christmas gift to Jonathan must concern NIAID’s Tony Fauci, see AAAS Observer of September 1 1989, the newsletter of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, whose journal is Science, a note entitled “Writing for my sister Denise”.). His answer was to “laugh” at the idea.

His sister evidently does or did a lot more thoughtful reading that Tony and we would have thought he would take her advice and delve into the matter and even rethink his position, but apparently not. Apparently Tony felt even at that early stage in the great repressed debate on AIDS and its real cause that it wasn’t worth the effort, politically speaking.

Today, it is clear that no one in the higher echelons of the established media-health-complex thinks it worthwhile either, and won’t until some great editor of a major periodical takes matters into his or her hands and publishes an expose of the mass of wriggling political worms under the AIDS stone with sufficient chapter and verse that politicians and the running dogs of the other media cannot ignore it.

The point is that this is a democracy where a very large portion of voters are preoccupied with more immediate matters such as cutting up tea towels, and they trust and rely on their leaders in health as in any other realm not to mislead them, and that depends on such leaders using their brains and reading challenges to conventional wisdom, or at least getting their staff on the job, and not reserving their original thought processes exclusively for their lifetime projects of self advancement.

How many such people are there, in fact? In AIDS, only one person in the world seems to have taken this level of personal responsibility for promulgating a policy in HIV?AIDS based on accurate science, and that is Thabo Mbeki of South Africa.

Thabo Mbeki’s distinguished brain

A black revolutionary and intellectual, he was a prime mover in freeing South Africa from the chains of apartheid, and now he is the only leader so far on the world stage that will be able to take credit for the breaking of the chains of illegitimate scientific authority in HIV?AIDS, ie for the review and (according to the scientific literature) predictable downfall of the mass scientific and medical self-delusion in HIV?AIDS, when sooner or later this inevitably occurs.

We look forward to that day not only because it will scotch a paradigm which (according to the repeated reviews in the best refereed literature) is costing untold dollars, lives and misery without reason or evidentiary justification, but because it will strike a blow for the status of Africa and Africans in the world which will finally blow apart the remaining colonial mindset that allows ignorant reporters and editors in the US press to view the continent and its people as wholly benighted and superstitious woolly heads straight out of the pages of Black Mischief.

It really is about time that the New York Times stopped running little else about Africa other than famine, genocide, disease, supposed pandemic and, most sensationally of late, gross aberrations of sexual culture that its pith helmeted reporters unearth in dark corners of a continent which is in important ways the first cradle of human civilization, and which was a lot more stable and prosperous before it was disrupted by colonial takeover, exploitation and abandonment by the West.

Now we have the new colonial exploitation of African AIDS, and when Mbeki perceives this accurately as such (in line with the scientific literature which so many in the West ignore) he is demeaned in the New York Times and other media in the US as racist by editors and reporters are apparently less scientifically literate than Mbeki himself, who was trained as an economist.

It is about time that American media developed the same respect for Africa and Africans as they have for America and the Americans.

In this regard we like a relevant quote we came across recently by the neuroscientist and brain researcher Michael Gazzaniga of Dartmouth, who told an interviewer at The Planetary Society:


There isn’t ten cents worth of difference between the Kalahari bushman and the Oxford don. The cultural patina is different to be sure but the basic drives and mental capacities are more similar than different.

.

The Planetary Society

Michael Gazzaniga – psychologist and cognitive neuroscientist

” There isn’t ten cents worth of difference between the Kalahari bushman and the Oxford don. “

How were you motivated to choose your particular field?

When I was a young boy, our neighbor commented to my father one day that “Mike is going to be a philosopher”. I don’t know why he said that but I always had a bug in my bonnet to examine things. My father was highly curious and always trying to tinker with surgical procedures to improve the lot of his patients. Maybe I picked up on this. In high school I set up a laboratory in the garage to study the enzymes of rabbit muscle. My brothers and sisters also very much liked to tinker. One became a surgeon and the other a film maker, writer and creative artist. Maybe there is a gene in the family.

When I was older I was drawn into the field following a summer fellowship I received from Roger W Sperry at Caltech. I had written him about a job after I had read an article he had written on nerve growth for Scientific American. It was a captivating article and since Caltech was next door to where my girlfriend lived, I thought it would be a great idea spending the summer studying nerve growth.

After I arrived at Caltech, I saw for the first time, a bustling research lab and most of the scientists were working on animal models of split–brain research. It was fantastically interesting to a neophyte like myself and I have never looked back since. How the brain enables the mind is such a challenging subject, one gets out of bed every morning with vigor and purpose.

Click for larger image

What can you share about your creative process?

I am one of those who thinks the creative process is directly related to the amount of time one spends mulling something over. I come back and revisit ideas, data, thoughts, all the time. I think this keeps key semantic networks active and then “bingo” an inconsistency or consistency suddenly presents itself to consciousness and the beginnings of a new idea appear.

What ideas do you have for a future human community on Mars?

The human community will bring to Mars their brains. Fortunately or unfortunately that means it brings with them all the scripts and pre–wired programs for how we think, what we enjoy and how we form our coalitions. There isn’t ten cents worth of difference between the Kalahari bushman and the Oxford don. The cultural patina is different to be sure but the basic drives and mental capacities are more similar than different.

Ideas about how to change the basic nature of humans have failed, repeatedly. Thus, the community on Mars should take note of the good and tried ways humans have to enjoy each other on earth and take those plans to Mars. If they don’t, they will have unhappy people on Mars. The Brazilian government tried to change the way Brazilians should live with the town of Brazilia. That colossal failure is right up there with China’s attempt at the Great Leap Forward.

New environments are fascinating and challenging. We combine elements of the new place with different outcomes. Yet, the piece of biologic tissue that does these wonderful things is the same for all humans and hasn’t changed in thousands of years. On Sunday afternoon on Mars, citizens of the New City will still love a cold beer and a good NFL game.

We have been studying what Gazzaniga and other neuroscientists have to say about the human brain and its often rather defective operation, analytically speaking, and have discovered that with each passing year brain research explains more and more about the abysmal record of the scientific community in regard to the HIV?AIDS paradigm, and we will post about that very soon, once we have finished our morning operation of cutting up tea towels and other personal priorities.

Seas will rise eighty feet, helped by methane from plants

January 21st, 2006

Dwindling uncertainty in the greatest debate of all

Anyone who has finally chosen sides in the vexed question of human global warming – now you see it, now you don’t, according to which expert or journalist you read – might find that certainty undermined once again by current news and comment, depending which side you came down on.

The What, Me Worry? brigade, led by Tom Bethell currently, in his rather one-sided book The Politically Incorrect Guide to Science, now high on the Amazon hit list, and Fred Singer and Benny Peiser, both of whom run well informed mythbuster email lists puncturing every global warming weather balloon that comes within range, must surely have been given pause when they read the latest warming scare in the New York Review of Books.

This has the sea rising not three or ten feet but eighty feet, and talks of a fatal tipping point approaching, beyond which everything slides toward hell on earth without a chance to reverse it.

The Earth’s climate is nearing, but has not passed, a tipping point beyond which it will be impossible to avoid climate change with far-ranging undesirable consequences. These include not only the loss of the Arctic as we know it, with all that implies for wildlife and indigenous peoples, but losses on a much vaster scale due to rising seas.

The Earth’s history suggests that with warming of two to three degrees, the new sea level will include not only most of the ice from Greenland and West Antarctica, but a portion of East Antarctica, raising the sea level by twenty-five meters, or eighty feet. Within a century, coastal dwellers will be faced with irregular flooding associated with storms. They will have to continually rebuild above a transient water level.

Can this survey really be wrong? We do have one reason to think so, which is that the New York Review of Books’ record on HIV?AIDS stands as a remarkable testament to the principle that “the intellectuals are usually wrong,” as one academic put it recently in the New York Observer about international affairs. The Review drew upon Richard Horton, editor of the Lancet, instead of founder Robert Silvers’ correspondent at Yale, Serge Lang, and paid the price.

Horton is one of the few responsible establishment memebers who have devoted some time to analyzing the obvious difficulties with HIV as the cause of AIDS that Peter Duesberg has never stopped pointing out, and yet failed to grasp the nettle fully and tear it out of the ground as a grotesque weed in the flower bed of science, apparently because he cannot quite credit the full story of how entirely wrong HIV=AIDS must be, if the Duesberg critique is as correct as the faiulure of referees to fault it implies. He did come close to it, though.

As the editor of a leading medical journal one can empathize, perhaps. Few in high positions who enjoy the public trust in science are going to escape unscathed when HIV=AIDS unwinds, since almost everyone has gone along with it. There is a serious question as to whether science and medicine can afford to acknowledge such a 20 year gallop down the wrong path by leading scientists, ignoring every warning and followed by a baggage train which is now one of the largest ever seen in science, including its tens of thousands of hearses.

On the other hand, returning to the climate discussion, knocking out one of the assumptions of the tree huggers we have the remarkable news that Ronald Reagan may have been right after all to blame the trees (see Killer Trees

“After opining in August 1980 that “trees cause more pollution than automobiles do,” Reagan arrived at a campaign rally to find a tree decorated with this sign: “Chop me down before I kill again.”

****************************************

Trivial side note on successful lawyerly weaseling: The page referenced above is a Washington Monthly amusement called The Mendacity Index, which goes thorough four presidents (Reagan, Clinton and the two Bush’s) quoting their prevarications and asking the reader to choose the most mendacious. One example is that Clinton’s notorious line “I did not have sexual relations with that woman” (wags finger at camera). But in fact this could be defended and has been by dictionary mavens as an accurate statement. If you resort to Merriam Webster’s you will in fact find that the phrase “sexual relations” is defined as “coitus”, with no other meaning.

While claims are made that no other meaning is mentioned in any dictionary we found, however, a second meaning was listed at dictionary.com under Sexual Relations as 2. Sexual activity between individuals, a definition drawn from the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language published in 2000 by Houghton Mifflin. (End of trivial side note, resumption of post)

*********************************

According to the Max Planck Institute, that is, it turns out that plants and trees, which absorb carbon dioxide, are also giving off methane, a big global warming conributor, at a high rate:

In terms of total amount of production worldwide, the scientists’ first guesses are between 60 and 240 million tonnes of methane per year. That means that about 10 to 30 percent of present annual methane production comes from plants. The largest portion of that – about two-thirds – originates from tropical areas, because that is where the most biomass is located. The evidence of direct methane emissions from plants also explains the unexpectedly high methane concentrations over tropical forests, measured only recently via satellite by a research group from the University of Heidelberg.

But why would such a seemingly obvious discovery only come about now, 20 years after hundreds of scientists around the globe started investigating the global methane cycle? “Methane could not really be created that way,” says Dr. Frank Keppler. “Until now all the textbooks have said that biogenic methane can only be produced in the absence of oxygen. For that simple reason, nobody looked closely at this.

…By “looking closely” – despite established opinion – they made a discovery that will require textbooks to have their passages about methane production rewritten.”

In other words, a false paradigm that biological methane could not be created in the presence of oxygen threw scientists off, and in turn they misled us. The textbooks we were all following are wrong.

This is not the only reason to worry about trees, of course, for as it recently emerged there is a question where they should be planted to combat global warming. Evidently not in the North.

At this week’s (Dec 5 2005) climate conference in Montreal there have been a number of proposals to plant trees for the purpose of absorbing carbon emissions and helping mitigate climate change. However, a new study from the Carnegie Institution’s Department of Global Ecology and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory says that careful consideration should be given as to where these forests are planted. Planting trees in temperate regions could actually contribute to global warming.

The study, using complex climate modeling software to simulate changes in forest cover and then measuring the impact on global climate, found that northern forests tend to warm the Earth because they absorb a lot of sunlight without losing much moisture. The situation is different in the tropics where higher temperatures result in higher rates of evapotranspiration, the process by which forests release water into the atmosphere. Tropical forests may have a net cooling impact relative to northern forests.

The research has important implications for the greenhouse gas debate. The United States wants any future agreement on climate to include provisions for tradable carbon credits whereby industrial countries could exceed emissions limits by planting forests and exchanging carbon allotments with forested countries. These new findings suggest that reforestation programs should focus on planting trees in the tropics and not in temperate or boreal regions.

It seems that these examples at least confirm that there is always uncertainty in science and where there is uncertainty there is always hope. We have to say however that the onrush of basic findings about the human contribution to global warming is beginning to leave very little room for maneuver.


But what eventually becomes clear, as Bowen tells this long story, is essentially how irrelevant it is to the current climate problem. By burning coal and gas and oil in such enormous amounts, we have raised the carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere far above what it has ever been during even the very long period one can study with ice cores. As such, a brand-new experiment is taking place, one that is out of control.

British researchers, examining almost six thousand soil borings across the UK, found another feedback effect. Warmer temperatures (growing seasons now last eleven days longer at that latitude) meant that microbial activity had increased dramatically in the soil. This, in turn, meant that much of the carbon long stored in the soil was now being released into the atmosphere. The quantities were large enough to negate all the work that Britain had done to switch away from coal to reduce carbon in the atmosphere. “All the consequences of global warming will occur more rapidly,” said Guy Kirk, chief scientist on the study. “That’s the scary thing. The amount of time we have got to do something about it is smaller than we thought.”

This seems especially true if one reads the New York Review of Books McGibbons piece, from which those paragraphs are excerpted.

The New York Review of Books has this short article by Hansen, The Tipping Point by James Hansen

The New York Review of Books

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Volume 53, Number 1 · January 12, 2006

The Tipping Point?

By James Hansen

The Earth’s climate is nearing, but has not passed, a tipping point beyond which it will be impossible to avoid climate change with far-ranging undesirable consequences. These include not only the loss of the Arctic as we know it, with all that implies for wildlife and indigenous peoples, but losses on a much vaster scale due to rising seas.

Ocean levels will increase slowly at first, as losses at the fringes of Greenland and Antarctica due to accelerating ice streams are nearly balanced by increased snowfall and ice sheet thickening in the ice sheet interiors.

But as Greenland and West Antarctic ice is softened and lubricated by meltwater, and as buttressing ice shelves disappear because of a warming ocean, the balance will tip toward the rapid disintegration of ice sheets.

The Earth’s history suggests that with warming of two to three degrees, the new sea level will include not only most of the ice from Greenland and West Antarctica, but a portion of East Antarctica, raising the sea level by twenty-five meters, or eighty feet. Within a century, coastal dwellers will be faced with irregular flooding associated with storms. They will have to continually rebuild above a transient water level.

This grim scenario can be halted if the growth of greenhouse gas emissions is slowed in the first quarter of this century.

—From a presentation to the American Geophysical Union, December 6, 2005

ALso, The Coming Meltdown by Bill McGibbon

From the New York Review of Books, The Coming Meltdown by Bill McKibben

We are forced to face the fact that a century’s carelessness is now melting away the world’s storehouses of ice, a melting whose momentum may be nearing the irreversible. It’s as if we were stripping the spectrum of a color, or eradicating one note from every octave. There are almost no words for such a change: it’s no wonder that scientists have to struggle to get across the enormity of what is happening.

:

The New York Review of Books

Volume 53, Number 1 · January 12, 2006

The Coming Meltdown

By Bill McKibben

Thin Ice: Unlocking the Secrets of Climate in the World’s Highest Mountains

by Mark Bowen

Henry Holt, 463 pp., $30.00

Dancing at the Dead Sea: Tracking the World’s Environmental Hotspots

by Alanna Mitchell

University of Chicago Press, 239 pp., $25.00

The year 2005 has been the hottest year on record for the planet, hotter than 1998, 2002, 2004, and 2003. More importantly, perhaps, this has been the autumn when the planet has shown more clearly than before just what that extra heat means. Consider just a few of the findings published in the major scientific journals during the last three months:

—Arctic sea ice is melting fast. There was 20 percent less of it than normal this summer, and as Dr. Mark Serreze, one of the researchers from Colorado’s National Snow and Ice Data Center, told reporters, “the feeling is we are reaching a tipping point or threshold beyond which sea ice will not recover.” That is particularly bad news because it creates a potent feedback effect: instead of blinding white ice that bounces sunlight back into space, there is now open blue water that soaks up the sun’s heat, amplifying the melting process.

—In the tundra of Siberia, other researchers report that permafrost has begun to melt rapidly, and, as it does, formerly frozen methane—which, like the more prevalent carbon dioxide, acts as a heat-trapping “greenhouse gas”—is escaping into the atmosphere. In some places last winter, the methane bubbled up so steadily that puddles of standing water couldn’t freeze even in the depths of the Russian winter.

—British researchers, examining almost six thousand soil borings across the UK, found another feedback effect. Warmer temperatures (growing seasons now last eleven days longer at that latitude) meant that microbial activity had increased dramatically in the soil. This, in turn, meant that much of the carbon long stored in the soil was now being released into the atmosphere. The quantities were large enough to negate all the work that Britain had done to switch away from coal to reduce carbon in the atmosphere. “All the consequences of global warming will occur more rapidly,” said Guy Kirk, chief scientist on the study. “That’s the scary thing. The amount of time we have got to do something about it is smaller than we thought.”

Such findings—and there are more like them in virtually every issue of Science and Nature—came against the backdrop of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, and the now record-breaking Atlantic storm season that has brought us back around the alphabet and as far as Hurricane Epsilon. Because hurricanes draw their power from the warm water in the upper layers of the sea’s surface, this bout of storminess served as a kind of exclamation point to a mid-August paper by the MIT researcher Kerry Emmanuel demonstrating that such storms have become more powerful and long-lasting, and would likely continue to increase in destructiveness in the future.

But the hurricanes also demonstrated another fact about global warming, this one having nothing to do with chemistry or physics but instead with politics, journalism, and the rituals of science. Climate change somehow seems unable to emerge on the world stage for what it really is: the single biggest challenge facing the planet, the equal in every way to the nuclear threat that transfixed us during the past half-century and a threat we haven’t even begun to deal with. The coverage of Katrina’s aftermath, for instance, was scathing in depicting the Bush administration’s incompetence and cronyism; but the President —and his predecessors—were spared criticism for their far bigger sin of omission, the failure to do anything at all to stanch the flood of carbon that America, above all other nations, pours into the atmosphere and that is the prime cause of the great heating now underway. Though Bush has been egregious in his ignorance about climate change, the failure to do anything about it has been bipartisan; Bill Clinton and Al Gore were grandly rhetorical about the issue, but nonetheless presided over a 13 percent increase in America’s carbon emissions.

That lack of preparation and precaution dwarfs even the failure to prepare for the September 11 attacks, and its effects will be with us far longer. It’s not, of course, that America could in two decades have prevented global warming. But we could have begun taking the steps to keep it from spinning entirely out of control, steps that grow ever more difficult to take with each passing season. The books under review, though neither deals directly with the politics of global warming, help us understand some of the reasons why we’ve so far done so little.

The best of the two—indeed, one of the best books yet published on climate change—is Mark Bowen’s Thin Ice, which describes the science of global warming through the experience of the Ohio State University scientist Lonnie Thompson, the preeminent explorer of tropical and semitropical glaciers today, and the principal decoder of the secrets trapped in their ice. A minor defect is that the book was clearly designed to sell to readers of Jon Krakauer’s classic Everest account, Into Thin Air—the title and the cover are bizarrely similar. And because of that decision, too much space is devoted to Thompson’s adventures in the “death zone” above 18,000 feet on various Andean and Himalayan peaks, and too many tales are told about the Sherpas who make the expeditions possible and the hot-air balloons designed to float ice cores back to the base of the mountain before they could melt. These stories make the book needlessly long and distractingly repetitive, and detract a little from its emphasis on glaciers and what is happening to them.

But only a little. Bowen is one of the few people who could have written this book. Himself an expert climber who has written for popular magazines like Climbing, he also has a Ph.D. in physics from MIT. He has been able to climb mountains along with Thompson to examine the glaciers and explain both the scientific and political consequences of their melting.

For many years, scientists trying to reconstruct past climate history have studied glaciers. Since each year’s snowfall lies in a distinct layer, a core sample from such an ice field can be read much like a tree ring to distinguish long-term trends in weather. Moreover, small bubbles of air trapped in the ice can be sampled to provide a record of atmospheric conditions from any time in the past. One can tell from them how much carbon dioxide was in the atmosphere and what the weather was like—a Siberian core extracted in the 1980s demonstrated a perfect correlation between fluctuations in temperature and carbon dioxide levels and helped to embolden a few researchers to make the first global warming forecasts with real confidence.

For many years, researchers concentrated on taking core samples from alpine and polar ice—they were relatively easy to get to, and no one thought that high mountain ice in the equatorial zones would yield much interesting information because the tropics were seen as unvarying from year to year and hence climatologically dull. But beginning in the 1970s Thompson and his team began perfecting the techniques of drilling long, thin cores from the high and wild glaciers of Peru, Ecuador, Nepal, and Tibet, and then examining them in their laboratory in Columbus. They also began to translate the information latent in the cores.

The aim of their research was to figure out what had driven changes in the earth’s climate in the past—how and why ice ages emerged and retreated, why there have been smaller but abrupt swings back and forth in climate even during the current interglacial period. Thompson has done much to demonstrate that changes in tropical regions—which account, after all, for half the world’s surface—drive the process. Many of his findings conflicted with other research that seemed to show that events in the north Atlantic—particularly the waxing and waning of warm deep ocean currents —were the chief cause of rapid climate change in times past.

An immense amount of scientific effort (and, as Bowen makes amusingly clear, scientific vitriol) has been spent on this topic, with much debate about whether the principal causes of climate change have been in the Gulf Stream or the Indonesian Warm Pool or somewhere else altogether. But what eventually becomes clear, as Bowen tells this long story, is essentially how irrelevant it is to the current climate problem. By burning coal and gas and oil in such enormous amounts, we have raised the carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere far above what it has ever been during even the very long period one can study with ice cores. As such, a brand-new experiment is taking place, one that is out of control.

The second half of Bowen’s book, interspersed throughout his tale of adventure at high altitudes but only loosely related to Thompson and his fieldwork, is a history of the realization that a vast change was taking place. It is the best compact history of the science of global warming I have read. Bowen begins, appropriately, with nineteenth-century scientists like John Tyndall and Svante Arrhenius, Europeans who began to understand how carbon dioxide acted as a heat-trapping gas in the atmosphere and who began to worry about the amounts of it that a newly industrialized society was spewing out of its stacks.

The story takes on more urgency in the 1950s, when oceanographers like Roger Revelle and Hans Suess undertook more concentrated speculation and when the environmental scientist Charles Keeling investigated the effects of CO2, taking actual measurements with a CO2 detector on the slopes of Mauna Loa in Hawaii.[1] He was soon able to show that the gas was indeed accumulating in the atmosphere, and doing so rapidly. (Pre–industrial revolution concentrations of CO2 were about 275 parts per million; by the late 1950s the number was 315, and today it is nearly 380.)

The story of greenhouse science continued in the 1970s and 1980s, as scientists began developing global climate models that attempted to forecast what the new chemicals would mean for the planet. And it reached a high point in the early summer of 1988 when one of the most important of those climate modelers, a NASA scientist named James Hansen, appeared before a hearing of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. The United States was enduring one of the great heat waves in its history:

Barges were stranded by the thousands in the Mississippi River. Civil War vessels last seen when Confederate troops scuttled them on their retreat from Vicksburg rose above the surface of the Big Muddy, a Mississippi tributary. The West experiences the worst forest fires in recorded history.

Against that backdrop, Hansen was given fifteen minutes to testify. He made three points: that he was “99 percent confident” that the earth was warming; that the warming could be traced with “a high degree of confidence” to the greenhouse effect; and that in his model the greenhouse effect was already strong enough to increase the odds of extreme summer heat and drought in the US. He was careful not to say that the heat wave of 1988 was the result of global warming (a claim that would never be possible for any particular hot spell or drought or hurricane); but he said something very important to a group of reporters as he left the hearing: “It’s time to stop waffling so much and say that the greenhouse effect is here and is affecting our climate now.”

That was the moment at which the greenhouse era really began. As a NASA employee, Hansen had shown great courage in speaking straightforwardly, which earned him endless trouble from his bosses in the federal government (the next year they tried to rewrite his congressional testimony until then-Senator Al Gore stopped them). But it also earned him contempt from his fellow scientists. In Bowen’s words,

They all objected to his simplification, his lack of caution, his disregard for the formal, highly qualified—one could even say codified—manner in which scientific conclusions are stated in the peer-reviewed journals.

If Hansen had succeeded temporarily in putting the issue before the public in 1988, “other forces had quickly swept it away.” Some of those forces came from industry—as Ross Gelbspan chronicled in his excellent 1997 book The Heat Is On, the coal and oil industry took up the work of disinformation in earnest, finding a few scientists and scientific hangers-on to write Op-Ed pieces and appear on talk shows to provide a “balanced” view. Journalism proved unequal to the task of separating scientific consensus from minor or trivial dissent; almost every story about global warming was accompanied by an obligatory statement of denial.

Science, on the other hand, both rose to the occasion and failed badly. The world’s climatologists organized themselves into the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, or IPCC, in those heady months of 1988. With large government funding that was partly made available because of Hansen’s warnings, the panels of experts soon had a vast collection of studies and computer models to pore over. And though the IPCC’s procedures were byzantine—they relied, Bowen writes, on “a peer review process…incalculably more cumbersome than anything ever applied to a scientific issue before”—the group eventually managed to reach a potent conclusion. By 1995, the IPCC was ready to conclude that “the balance of evidence suggests that there is a discernible human influence on global climate.” This result was remarkable: more than a thousand scientists, working through a process that allowed much political input from governments concerned to deny global warming, nonetheless found the evidence so overwhelming that they were able to state that one species, ours, was now changing pretty much everything on the face of the planet.

But at the same time, the conclusions were watered down and over-hedged, playing at least as much into the hands of the few remaining skeptics, who seized on every possible opportunity to dampen public concern. The scientific method, pursued in this fashion, seemed unequal to the gravity of the task at hand. Bowen writes, “I believe it is fair to say that serious scientific debate about the existence and potential danger of human-induced global warming died with that statement.” That is true—but it’s also true that it contributed remarkably little to the larger public debate, especially in the US. And that’s a failure for which scientists bear some of the blame.

Bowen quotes Hansen:

The scientific method does require that you continually question the conclusions that you draw and put caveats on the conclusion—but that can be misleading to the public. It seems to me that when we talk to the public we have to try to give a summary. And it’s not easy for most scientists to do—and not easy for me.

Clearly, for the mild-mannered Hansen, who has no taste for public controversy, it was not easy. But he did it. And for that, as well as for his original scientific work, he deserves not only enormous credit but also, I would suggest, the Nobel Prize, perhaps the first joint Chemistry-Peace award.

By contrast, when Bowen first interviewed Thompson in 1997 on the slopes of the highest mountain in Bolivia, he found him reticent to a fault:

He hid behind [the] details. He would not come out with a grand pronouncement about global warming…. He may have been holding back out of fear that I would distort his words, but I think he was also looking over his shoulder at his academic peers, aiming to duck the potshots that inevitably flew in those days when anyone walked out on a scientific limb and said in public what nearly all of them knew inside.

It would be, he writes, “almost a year and a half before Lonnie would carefully open up.”

But through his talks with Bowen, and also more and more with policymakers and other journalists, Thompson has performed a very valuable public service—more valuable, in some ways, than his research into paleoclimatology, interesting as that is. Thompson’s most important scientific contribution is his simplest: by going back year after year to tropical glaciers in order to take core samples for his “real” work, he has been able to document the astonishing speed with which those glaciers are disappearing. His photographs documenting this trend have been valuable in persuading people to take global warming seriously. There is something alarming and undeniable about change occurring across the globe that can be measured from one year to the next, for instance, the Qori Kalis glacier on Quelccaya, which Thompson has been visiting for thirty years:

They always camp in the moraine by the large boulder that Qori Kalis was pushing downhill when Lonnie first saw it…in 1974. An eighteen-acre lake now lies between the boulder and receding glacial margin, a lake that did not exist as recently as 1987.

And the loss was accelerating. One set of photos taken in 1992

demonstrated that the tongue [of the glacier] had retreated three times faster over the previous eight years than it had in the twenty years before that. Volume loss, which takes thinning into account, had grown by a factor of seven. More images taken in 1998 showed that the retreat had increased by another factor of three in the intervening five years.

Thompson estimates that the entire Quelccaya ice cap, which thirty years ago covered twenty-seven square miles and was five hundred feet deep at its 18,000-foot summit, will die before he does.

Perhaps Thompson’s most dramatic contribution to the public debate over global warming came in February 2001 when he told a session at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science that the snows on the top of Mt. Kilimanjaro would disappear within twenty years and that “little can be done to save them.” That image stuck in people’s minds—it was at least as important as the near-simultaneous release of the IPCC’s next assessment, which was more forthright than ever in its declaration that “most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities” and in its prediction that the planet’s average temperature might increase as much as ten degrees Fahrenheit before the century was out.

But by that point George Bush had been elected president of the United States, and the issue of climate change had disappeared almost entirely—and with it the chance of altering the early trajectory of development in India and particularly China, which are now starting to rival American contributions to the earth’s carbon overload. With his eventual willingness to speak unambiguously, Thompson joined the list of courageous scientists, men like Hansen, or Harvard’s James McCarthy, who several years ago reported the shock of seeing open water at the North Pole. But it’s clear to him, as to most of his colleagues, that our understanding has come very late. “I think we’d better start getting used to the idea of living in a hotter world,” he tells Bowen in a barroom conversation one day in Kenya.

Scientists are by training and nature conservative and…have probably underestimated our impact. Fifty years from now—I hope I’m wrong—I think you may be living in a world where you don’t go outside between one and four in the afternoon.

At this stage, our best hope is simply to keep the warming process from accelerating to such an extent that it gets entirely out of control.

If the dry language of science has sometimes been an impediment to action, the language of emotion has its own dangers, as can be seen from Alanna Mitchell’s Dancing at the Dead Sea, a book thick with sentiment. Mitchell, formerly a reporter with Toronto’s Globe and Mail, was in 2000 “named the best environmental reporter in the world” by the Reuters Foundation. Something has apparently happened in the years since, because her book is filled with clichés (stupid natives in Madagascar, wise natives in the Arctic) and with unlikely events (a lone man sneaking out of a protected forest carrying “a massive old growth tree balanced on his shoulder”). About her own fear of being attacked by tropical fishes, she writes:

It’s clear to me that unless I swim with the piranhas, I will be not only consumed by fear but also untouched by the hope I seek. I will be unable to believe that humans, who I know have given up even such ingrained practices as slavery and cannibalism, will also give up the fable that they can keep harming the earth.

Still, she raises an important question. Every time she corners a scientist —the veteran Oxford environmental researcher Norman Meyers, the great diver and marine biologist Sylvia Earle, the eminent conservationist Russell Mittermeier—she asks, “Are humans a suicidal species?” They mostly dismiss her question with some reassuring words to the effect that we can still make up our minds to do better. But in fact it’s a question that in some way or another needs to be near the center of our public debates. It rose for the first time in the wake of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; for a while, many people seemed to expect an Armageddon-like nuclear exchange, and then they seemed to discount the possibility. The attacks on New York and Washington at the beginning of this millennium have raised the question of our being a suicidal species again.

It is also the question raised by our environmental predicament, and Mitchell deserves credit for risking the scorn of reviewers by bringing it into the open. She quotes President Bush, a few weeks after taking office, explaining why he’s opting out of the Kyoto protocols, the only official international attempt to deal with global warming:

I will explain as clearly as I can, today and every other chance I get, that we will not do anything that harms our economy…. That’s my priority. I’m worried about the economy.

It’s not as if Bush is alone in this thought. And it does seem to epitomize the danger that the satisfactions of consumer life and business success have become almost sacred while the physical world now turning to chaos before our eyes is taken for granted, and not seen as the reality that must be faced.[2]

It’s to this question of reality that Gretel Ehrlich turns her formidable talent in The Future of Ice, recently published in paperback.[3] Like Thompson, she is fascinated by ice—her “journey into the cold” takes her from Greenland to Argentina—and she provides what may be a kind of obituary for the planet’s ice regions, and their special forms of life, written while they still exist. It is, she says, a “cry for help—not for me, but for the tern, the ice cap, the polar bear, and the lenga forest; for the river of weather and the ways it chooses to be born.”[4]

It is hard not to approach this year’s oncoming winter in an elegiac mood, with the testimony of Thompson’s ice cores and the Arctic sea ice data and Ehrlich’s account making the season’s natural and lovely darkness seem suddenly somber. We are forced to face the fact that a century’s carelessness is now melting away the world’s storehouses of ice, a melting whose momentum may be nearing the irreversible. It’s as if we were stripping the spectrum of a color, or eradicating one note from every octave. There are almost no words for such a change: it’s no wonder that scientists have to struggle to get across the enormity of what is happening.

Notes

[1] Keeling and Thompson were jointly honored with this year’s prestigious Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement.

[2] This same attitude was on display in early December when the American “negotiating” team at a crucial Kyoto follow-up meeting in Montreal once again tried to block any real plan for controlling emissions.

[3] The Future of Ice: A Journey into Cold (Vintage, 2005).

[4] The lenga is a relative of the American beech tree which grows high in the Andes mountains and is threatened by commercial loggers. Copyright © 1963-2006 NYREV,

Here is the latest on plants and methane,from mongabay.com

A week after announcing their surprising discovery that plants release 10 to 30 percent of the world’s methane—a potent greenhouse gas—researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics warn that plants should not be blamed for recent global warming.

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Don’t blame plants for global warming

mongabay.com

January 18, 2006

EDITOR’S SUMMARY: A week after announcing their surprising discovery that plants release 10 to 30 percent of the world’s methane—a potent greenhouse gas—researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics warn that plants should not be blamed for recent global warming.

The scientists say that because emissions from plants are a natural source, they have existed long before man’s influence started to impact atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. Anthropogenic emissions—especially agricultural cultivation—are responsible for the well-documented increase in atmospheric methane since pre-industrial times. Emissions from plants contribute to the natural greenhouse effect and not to the recent temperature increase usually referred to as “global warming”.

“The potential for reduction of global warming by planting trees is most definitely positive,” said Frank Keppler, a scientist involed in the research. “The fundamental problem still remaining is the global large-scale anthropogenic burning of fossil fuels.”

The new comments are included in the following release from the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics. For reference, the original release announcing the research is also included.

Global warming – the blame is not with the plants

Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics release

January 18, 2006

In a recent study (Nature, 12 January 2006), scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Utrecht University, Netherlands, and the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development for Northern Ireland, UK, revealed that plants produce the greenhouse gas methane. First estimates indicated that this could account for a significant proportion of methane in the atmosphere. There has been extended media coverage of this work with unfortunately, in many instances, a misinterpretation of the findings. Furthermore, the discovery led to intense speculations on the potential relevance of the findings for reforestation programs in the framework of the Kyoto protocol. These issues need to be put in the right perspective.

The most frequent misinterpretation we find in the media is that emissions of methane from plants are responsible for global warming. As those emissions from plants are a natural source, they have existed long before man’s influence started to impact upon the composition of the atmosphere. It is the anthropogenic emissions which are responsible for the well-documented increasing atmospheric concentrations of methane since pre-industrial times. Emissions from plants thus contribute to the natural greenhouse effect and not to the recent temperature increase known as “global warming”. Even if land use practices have altered plant methane emissions, which we did not demonstrate, this would also count as an anthropogenic source, and the plants themselves cannot be deemed responsible.

Furthermore, our discovery led to intense speculation that methane emissions by plants could diminish or even outweigh the carbon storage effect of reforestation programs with important implications for the Kyoto protocol, where such programs are to be used in national carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction strategies. We first stress that our findings are preliminary with regard to the methane emission strength. Emissions most certainly depend on plant type and environmental conditions and more experiments are certainly necessary to quantify the process under natural conditions. As a first rough estimate of the order of magnitude we have taken the global average methane emissions as representative to provide a rough estimate of its potential effect on climate. These estimates (for details, see below) show that methane emissions by plants may slightly diminish the effect of reforestation programs. However, the climatic benefits gained through carbon sequestration by reforestation far exceed the relatively small negative effect, which may reduce the carbon uptake effect by up to 4 per cent. Thus, the potential for reduction of global warming by planting trees is most definitely positive. The fundamental problem still remaining is the global large-scale anthropogenic burning of fossil fuels.

Details of calculations used:

In our study, we have linked global methane emission estimates to plant growth, which is generally quantified as net primary productivity (NPP). On a global basis NPP amounts to ~62 x 1015 g of carbon/yr, which corresponds to an uptake of 227 x 1015 g of CO2/yr. On the emission side, our study suggests annual global methane emissions by plants of 62-236 x 1012 g/yr CH4. Thus, for each kg of CO2 assimilated by a plant roughly 0.25 to 1 to 4 g of CH4 is released. During growth of a new forest, up to 50% of plant tissue is lost again in the short term through decomposition of plant litter of leaves and roots. This then doubles the estimate to 0.5 to 2 g methane emitted per kg of CO2 assimilated and stored in plants for longer periods. Over a 100-year horizon, the global warming potential of methane is ~20 times higher than that of carbon dioxide. Thus, for climate, the benefits gained by reforestation programs would be lessened by between 1 and 4 per cent due to methane emissions from the plants themselves. Plants release methane, a potent greenhouse gas, finds study

Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics release

January 11, 2006

In the last few years, more and more research has focused on the biosphere; particularly, on how gases which influence the climate are exchanged between the biosphere and atmosphere. Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics have now carefully analysed which organic gases are emitted from plants. They made the surprising discovery that plants release methane, a greenhouse gas – and this goes against all previous assumptions.

Equally surprising was that methane formation is not hindered by the presence of oxygen. This discovery is important not just for plant researchers but also for understanding the connection between global warming and increased greenhouse gas production (Nature, January 12, 2006).

Methane is the greenhouse gas which has the second greatest effect on climate, after carbon dioxide. The concentration of methane in the atmosphere has almost tripled in the last 150 years. Methane is best known as natural gas, currently an important energy source. Nonetheless, only part of the methane uptake in the atmosphere is due to industrial activities connected to energy production and use. More important for the increase of methane in the atmosphere is the increase in so-called “biogenic” sources, e.g., rice cultivation or domestic ruminants related to the rise in the world’s population. Nowadays, methane in the atmosphere in fact is largely of biogenic origin.

Until now, it has been assumed that biogenic methane is formed anaerobically, that is, via micro-organisms and in the absence of oxygen. In this way, acetate or hydrogen and carbon dioxide are transformed into methane; they themselves are created in the anaerobic decomposition of organic materials. The largest anoxic sources of methane are wetlands and rice fields, as well as the digestion of ruminants and termites, waste disposal sites, and the gas produced by sewage treatment plants. According to previous estimates, these sources make up two-thirds of the 600 million tonnes worldwide annual methane production.

Related articles

Ocean gas hydrates could trigger catastrophic climate change

Global warming will cause gasses trapped beneath the ocean floor to release into the atmosphere according to research presented at the Annual Conference of the Royal Geographical Society. The impact could initiate a catastrophic global greenhouse effect.

Temperate forests may worsen global warming, tropical forests fight higher temperatures

At this week’s climate conference in Montreal there have been a number of proposals to plant trees for the purpose of absorbing carbon emissions and helping mitigate climate change. However, a new study from the Carnegie Institution’s Department of Global Ecology and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory says that careful consideration should be given as to where these forests are planted. Planting trees in temperate regions could actually contribute to global warming.

Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels closely correlated with global temperatures

Studying ice cores from Antarctica, scientists of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research extended the record of historic concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere by 250,000 years. The team found a close correlation between atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and global temperatures. Over the past 650,000 years, low greenhouse gas concentrations have been associated with cooler conditions.

Humans impacted climate thousands of years ago

New research suggests humans were influencing the world’s climate long before the Industrial Revolution. Atmospheric levels of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, climbed steadily during the first millennium due to massive fires set by humans clearing land for agriculture.

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics have now discovered that plants themselves produce methane and emit it into the atmosphere, even in completely normal, oxygen-rich surroundings. The researchers made the surprising discovery during an investigation of which gases are emitted by dead and fresh leaves. Then, in the laboratory and in the wild, the scientists looked at the release of gases from living plants like maize and ryegrass. In this investigation, it turned out that living plants let out some 10 to 1000 times more methane than dead plant material. The researchers then were able to show that the rate of methane production grew drastically when the plants were exposed to the sun.

Although the scientists have some first indications, it is still unclear what processes are responsible for the formation of methane in plants. The researchers from Heidelberg assume that there is an unknown, hidden reaction mechanism, which current knowledge about plants cannot explain – in other words, a new area of research for biochemistry and plant physiology.

In terms of total amount of production worldwide, the scientists’ first guesses are between 60 and 240 million tonnes of methane per year. That means that about 10 to 30 percent of present annual methane production comes from plants. The largest portion of that – about two-thirds – originates from tropical areas, because that is where the most biomass is located. The evidence of direct methane emissions from plants also explains the unexpectedly high methane concentrations over tropical forests, measured only recently via satellite by a research group from the University of Heidelberg.

But why would such a seemingly obvious discovery only come about now, 20 years after hundreds of scientists around the globe started investigating the global methane cycle? “Methane could not really be created that way,” says Dr. Frank Keppler. “Until now all the textbooks have said that biogenic methane can only be produced in the absence of oxygen. For that simple reason, nobody looked closely at this.”

The fact is that, in order to determine the quantity of emissions, scientists indeed have to make very careful measurements. The researchers from Heidelberg conducted most of their experiments in methane-free air, in order to factor out the high natural background of methane. Furthermore they used isotope analysis to show beyond doubt that this was an undiscovered process of methane production. By “looking closely” – despite established opinion – they made a discovery that will require textbooks to have their passages about methane production rewritten.

Following up on this discovery, the scientists now will continue laboratory work, as well as field and remote sensing studies, to better quantify the strength of these methane emissions. A related exciting question is which role the biosphere has played in methane production in the history of the earth, and what kind of influence rising global temperatures and carbon dioxide concentration have on the production of methane from plants. Answers to these questions are important for understanding the feedback mechanisms between climate change and greenhouse gas production.

mongobay.com

This is a modified new release from Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

William Grimes reviews a book outside his field

January 20th, 2006

Probability is a tricky topic, as Monte Hall showed

We believe we have found a prime example of the sad incompetence of the typical arts graduate when faced with mathematics or science, and the inappropriateness of assigning one to review a book on a mathematical topic, in today’s (Jan 20 Fri) NY Times book review, The Quirky Moments When Lightning Does Strike Twice by William Grimes.

The book is full of coincidences, and Grimes quotes some of them, including one which is a classic.

On the other hand, it is deeply satisfying to know that a Canadian farmer named McDonald has the postal code EIEIO,

The New York Times

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January 20, 2006

Books of The Times | ‘Beyond Coincidence’

The Quirky Moments When Lightning Does Strike Twice

By WILLIAM GRIMES

A woman in Alabama decided to visit her sister. Her sister, unbeknownst to her, decided the same. They hit each other head-on on a rural highway. Both died. And both drove Jeeps. That counts as a rare coincidence, although not as rare, perhaps, as the case of Roy Cleveland Sullivan, a Virginia forest ranger who was struck by lightning seven times, or the existence of an ice dealer named I. C. Shivers.

The laws of chance operate strangely. This is the main point in Martin Plimmer and Brian King’s “Beyond Coincidence,” a collection of stranger-than-fiction anecdotes wrapped loosely in colorful intellectual tissue paper. It is a superior example of the genre known as a toilet read, with a few halfhearted excursions into the psychology and mathematics behind the uncanny coincidences that the writer Arthur Koestler called “puns of destiny.”

Just as nature abhors a vacuum, human beings resist the idea that events occur in random fashion. They are highly receptive to divine messages that suggest otherwise, as in the strange tale of Mrs. Willard Lowell of Berkeley, Calif., who discovered that she had locked herself out of her house when the postman arrived with a letter. In the letter was her spare front-door key, returned by her brother, who had taken it home with him by mistake after a recent visit.

Events like this send a shiver down the spine, but the math behind strange coincidences shows that most people simply have a poor grasp of statistics. The odds against meeting someone else at a party with your birthday are not 365 to 1. In a room with just 23 people, the chances that two of them will share the same birthday are better than even.

A world without a constant barrage of bizarre coincidences would be much more remarkable than the reverse. It is not all that unusual to have a dream that accurately predicts a future event, or for two golfers to achieve a hole in one on the same hole. On average, everyone should have a prophetic dream once every 19 years, and the odds of a double hole-in-one, although apparently staggering at 1.85 billion to 1, ensure that this occurs about once a year.

It is a very safe bet that more such coincidences are on the way, as the world becomes more populated, and the volume of information grows. As the authors put it, “The statistician’s law of large numbers states that if the sample is very large, even extremely unlikely things become likely.” That includes the perfect hand dealt out to the four members of a British whist club in 1998, who each received 13 cards of a single suit.

Something deep in the mind resists the explanations of the statisticians, however. Evolution may be to blame. “We have been so successful as a species precisely because we are good at making connections between events and spotting patterns and regularities in nature,” explains Christopher French, a psychologist. “The price we have paid is a tendency to sometimes detect connections and patterns that are not really there.”

That tendency would account for the discovery that playing the Pink Floyd album “Dark Side of the Moon” while watching “The Wizard of Oz” generates almost as many startling coincidences as the correspondences detailed in “The Bible Code,” a numerological analysis of the Bible that uncovered, among many other things, a prediction of Yitzhak Rabin’s assassination.

Mr. Plimmer and Mr. King, who first explored this territory in a series of shows for BBC Radio 4, scramble to fill their allotted pages. They spend far too much time with Richard Wiseman, author of “The Luck Factor,” and his training programs designed to turn miserable, unlucky skeptics into lucky winners.

They stuff the book with several anecdotes that sound too good to be true, and even more that are too true to be good. George Frideric Handel and Jimi Hendrix lived at adjacent addresses in London. Nine women at a British supermarket, all working at the same cash register, became pregnant in a 10-month period. A man trying to console his next-door neighbor after a painful breakup put the former couple’s favorite record on the turntable. Ooooh.

On the other hand, it is deeply satisfying to know that a Canadian farmer named McDonald has the postal code EIEIO, and there is at least half a screenplay in the tale of a bank robber who, hitting the same bank and the same teller a second time, escaped because the bank guard and the managers were in a back office reviewing videotapes of the first robbery.

The award for the most painful coincidence in recorded history must go to the poet Simon Armitage, who chanced upon a used copy of a book of his poems in a trash bin outside a thrift store. On the title page was the following inscription, in his own handwriting: “To Mum and Dad.”

* Copyright 2006The New York Times Company

But is William Grimes the right man for this book? He is an English graduate who became a food critic. He was the restaurant critic for the Times from 1999 until recently.

“Before that, he wrote on food and drink for the newspaper’s dining section, and for many years covered the arts for the Times. He earned a degree in English from Indiana University and a doctorate in comparative literature from the University of Chicago. He is the author of the books Straight Up or on the Rocks: The Story of the American Cocktail and My Fine Feathered Friend, the tale of a mysterious chicken that came to roost in his backyard.”

We are quoting from the site of the New York Public Library, which ran an interview with Grimes in 2002.

The interview includes the following exchange:

How did you start writing about food?

I was working at Esquire and I was drafted into doing a cocktail column. That got me into writing about food history. When I came to the Times, I did a fair amount of writing for the Travel section and the Living section on food-related subjects. The biggest leap came when the Times redesigned the dining section in 1997 and the editor asked me to come over from the Culture section and be the food writer. Instead of writing about food in a scattershot way, I was doing it full time. Then when Ruth Reichl quit the critic’s post to become editor of Gourmet I was asked to be the critic, which became official on April 1, 1999.

It’s all been very haphazard. Your own enthusiasm catches up with you from behind. You were doing it but didn’t realize you were doing it. By sheer accident things fell together in a particular way.”

This is the traditional way in which assignments have reached members of the daily press, where beats can change rapdily and bear no relation to one’s expertise.

So it is not unusual that a food critic is the man that the Times editors assigned to read and review “Beyond Coincidence: Amazing Stories of Coincidence and the Mystery and Mathematics Behind Them” by Martin Plimmer and Brian King (Thomas Dunne Books/St Martins Press).

The general idea is that a book written for the general interest reader can be properly reviewed by one of the non-experts that they are designed for.

Now we don’t know much statistics ourselves, but enough to ask, is this policy wise in the case of statistics? It seems likely that Mr Grimes will probably not appreciate every nuance of this kind of book. It is easy to make a mistake in this field if you are not familiar with it, as countless incorrectly done AIDS studies testify.

Take this paragraph, for instance from the review, which seems plainly wrong:

Events like this send a shiver down the spine, but the math behind strange coincidences shows that most people simply have a poor grasp of statistics. The odds against meeting someone else at a party with your birthday are not 365 to 1. In a room with just 23 people, the chances that two of them will share the same birthday are better than even.

Surely the odds of you meeting someone else with the same birthday at a party of 23 people are 23/365? Of course, the chances of any person present making a match are much higher, as stated. But the chance that it will be you is still pretty low. It is correct as stated, but does seem to imply that he is confused.

It seems that Mr Grimes himself has a poor grasp of statistics. Still, one can never be sure – unless one has training in the field, which is our point.

We are certainly not going to make anything of it. The last time we made something out of a mathematical puzzle, we nearly made fools of ourselves by writing a letter to the Times accusing it of being wrong when it was quite right.

The Monte Hall game show puzzle

The story concerned Monte Hall, the host of a show (Let’s Make A Deal) on TV who presented a contestant with the final choice of three doors. Behind two of the doors was a worthless object like a toy duck and behind the third door was a $1 million prize. The contestant was offered the choice of A, B or C, and chose A.

The host then opened one of the two other doors – say B – to show it had been hiding a duck. He then offered the contestant the choice of the two remaining doors, A or C.

The question posed in the puzzle was this: should the contestant switch doors, from his original door A to the new choice of C? Would he increase his chances of winning by doing so?

The answer, of course, is that he should, since obviously he increases his chances of winning. This is the anwer the Times gave, saying that the most intelligent woman in the world had written so in her column on puzzles.

Needless to say, like many others we immediately drafted a letter to the Times pointing out that this was wrong. Obviously, we wrote, it would make no difference at all whether he stuck to door A or moved to door C. Anyone could see that. The chances were one in three he was right the first time, and choosing C instead would also be a one in three chance of winning.

Luckily we checked with a professional mathematician before sending the letter, and were set straight before risking public ignominy.

On the original show, Monte Hall did not allow switching of doors for that reason. The chances of winning go up from 1 in 3 to 2 in 3, according to the Wikipedia.

We would have guessed they went up to 1 in 2 from 1 in 3, but that is probably exactly why we should never argue about probability. Not without carefully examining the analysis, that is.

One analysis of the Monty Hall problem is at Wikipedia.

The key to the problem is simple enough, though at first it seems counter intuitive. The choice of a door by the host is constrained – he has to choose one with a duck, and not the one you have already chosen. His choice, therefore, reveals information, and makes the choice of the door C rather than door A one which is more informed.

Perhaps the simplest way to look at it is that one’s initial choice could be either a duck, the other duck or the prize. If you choose either duck, switching will win. If you choose the $1 million prize, switching will lose.

So switching stands to win two out of three times.

More chicanery, this time from a Norwegian, no less

January 19th, 2006

Reviewers didn’t catch that hundreds of subjects had the same birth date

It sounds unlikely, but a Norwegian hospital has accused a researcher of inventing 454 patients to confirm the claim of his October Lancet article on how commonly used painkillers reduce oral cancer risk.

The suspect Norwegian, Jon Sudbo, 44, is now on sick leave. Apparently he was caught by a woman who runs the data base from which he said he drew on for his data. Now a Commission will find out what happened, and presumably the Lancet has to explain why the reviewers didn’t catch it.

The data problems in the Lancet report were discovered by Camilla Stoltenberg of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, who is responsible for the Cohort of Norway database from which Dr. Sudbo had said the data were drawn, according to a report in the journal Nature.

The initial problem as always was probably that no reviewer had access to the data or could check it. Now the co-signers are shattered that their trust was betrayed.

“We are still reeling from the shock,” said Dr. Leonard Zwelling, vice president for research at M. D. Anderson. “There is no worse feeling in the world” than for a researcher to learn that he has put his name to a paper with fabricated data, Dr. Zwelling said.

Another factor as Nicholas Wade points out today (Jan 19 Thu) is that a statistical study that large is unlikely to be duplicated, so Sudbo would have not have been caught by any failure of attempts at duplication which is the usual back stop guardian of scientific truth.

A special feature of epidemiological studies like Dr. Sudbo’s is that they involve large numbers of patients and are unlikely to be repeated by other laboratories. Replication is considered the most reliable test of scientific quality.

Still, the reviewers must be reviewed as the great question continues, how can such conmen be prevented from exploiting the basic layer of trust which enables scientific cooperation?

After all, they must have been rather inattentive if they did see the data, since according to an earlier report from Reuters “250 of about 900 supposed patients were listed with the same date of birth.”

The commission, due to report back by April 1, would also examine why none of Sudbo’s co-authors or reviewers spotted the errors before the article went to print.

Reuters’ story yesterday was Norway probes cancer doctor accused of faking data

Norway probes cancer doctor accused of faking data

Wed Jan 18, 2006 5:06 PM GMT173

OSLO (Reuters) – Health authorities opened a probe of a Norwegian cancer researcher on Wednesday after his hospital accused him of falsifying data for an article published in a leading medical journal.

The investigation, ordered by the medical officer for the Oslo region, would cover cancer specialist Jon Sudbo and Oslo’s Radium Hospital where he worked. Sudbo, 44, is on sick leave and has not commented on the charges that he faked data.

“We welcome this decision,” Stein Vaaler, a hospital director, told Reuters of the investigation that will also look at whether patients suffered from Sudbo’s recommendations. “We think this is fair.”

The hospital, known as the Comprehensive Cancer Center, said at the weekend that Sudbo had admitted faking data for a study of mouth cancer published in October in the British journal the Lancet.

Norwegian health authorities can reprimand, sack or bar doctors from practicing medicine for violations that harm patients. In the worst cases, sanctions against institutions can include forced closure or fines.

In the Lancet article, Sudbo and co-authors said that commonly used painkillers can reduce the risks of mouth cancer in smokers but that long-term use could raise the chances of dying from heart disease.

The hospital said that he made up patients for the apparent review of 454 people with oral cancer. Sudbo’s motives for the alleged falsifications are unknown.

Separately, a commission set up by the Radium Hospital and led by Swedish expert Anders Eckbom began meeting on Wednesday to examine Sudbo’s report, his previous work and whether his recommendations had an impact on cancer treatment.

The commission, due to report back by April 1, would also examine why none of Sudbo’s co-authors or reviewers spotted the errors before the article went to print….

“We are still reeling from the shock,” said Dr. Leonard Zwelling, vice president for research at M. D. Anderson. “There is no worse feeling in the world” than for a researcher to learn that he has put his name to a paper with fabricated data, Dr. Zwelling said.

A special feature of epidemiological studies like Dr. Sudbo’s is that they involve large numbers of patients and are unlikely to be repeated by other laboratories. Replication is considered the most reliable test of scientific quality.

The data problems in the Lancet report were discovered by Camilla Stoltenberg of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, who is responsible for the Cohort of Norway database from which Dr. Sudbo had said the data were drawn, according to a report in the journal Nature.

© Reuters 2006. All Rights Reserved.

Nicholas Wade’s story today (Thu Jan 19) is Cancer Study Was made Up

The New York Times

January 19, 2006

Cancer Study Was Made Up, Journal Says

By NICHOLAS WADE

A large study concluding that anti-inflammatory drugs reduce the risk of oral cancer was based on fabricated data, according to The Lancet, the prominent British medical journal that published the report last year.

The principal author was Jon Sudbo, a cancer researcher at the Norwegian Radium Hospital in Oslo. He had four co-authors at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston and another at Weill Medical College of Cornell University in New York.

In the Lancet paper, Dr. Sudbo said he received financing from the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Md. The news agency Agence France-Presse said the amount was $10.5 million.

A spokeswoman for the institute said yesterday that she could not confirm it had provided the financing. She noted that $10 million was a minute slice of the agency’s budget.

Officials at the Norwegian Radium Hospital told The Lancet they had information that the data was manipulated, the journal’s editor, Richard Horton, wrote in its current issue.

Dr. Sudbo is away on sick leave, according to Agence France-Presse. His American co-authors declined to comment, but their institutions both said in statements that they were not involved in the Norwegian hospital’s investigation.

“We are still reeling from the shock,” said Dr. Leonard Zwelling, vice president for research at M. D. Anderson. “There is no worse feeling in the world” than for a researcher to learn that he has put his name to a paper with fabricated data, Dr. Zwelling said.

A special feature of epidemiological studies like Dr. Sudbo’s is that they involve large numbers of patients and are unlikely to be repeated by other laboratories. Replication is considered the most reliable test of scientific quality.

The data problems in the Lancet report were discovered by Camilla Stoltenberg of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, who is responsible for the Cohort of Norway database from which Dr. Sudbo had said the data were drawn, according to a report in the journal Nature.

* Copyright 2006The New York Times Company

One weapon is legislation to make such fraud a criminal offense, and the Norwegian government has promised to speed up such a law which was already on its way in Oslo.

See an earlier (Jan 16 Mon) Reuters filing Oslo promises crackdown after cancer cheat scandal

Reuters

Print this article Close This Window

Oslo promises crackdown after cancer cheat scandal

Mon Jan 16, 2006 5:01 PM GMT

By Alister Doyle

OSLO (Reuters) – Norway promised on Monday to speed up a new law that may bring jail terms for medical cheats after a hospital accused one of its cancer researchers of falsifying data published in a leading journal.

“There must be no doubt about the quality of our research,” Health Minister Sylvia Brustad told Norway’s NTB news agency. “So we are speeding up our draft law.”

The government would present the law to parliament later this year, earlier than planned, after experts have worked on a review since 2003.

The law would propose stricter rules for overseeing research and might make cheats liable to criminal charges that could bring jail terms. Under existing rules, cheats can in the worst case be sacked and banned from practicing medicine.

Officials said at the weekend that 44-year-old Jon Sudbo, a researcher at Oslo’s Radium Hospital, made up patients’ case histories for a study about oral cancer published by the British journal The Lancet in October.

The hospital said an independent commission would probe all his research. Sudbo is on a sick leave and has not been available for comment.

“They will start the work mid-week. Hopefully they will give us answers in one to two months,” said Stein Vaaler, a hospital director.

Among improbabilities in Sudbo’s research, 250 of about 900 supposed patients were listed with the same date of birth.

Last year, South Korean scientist Hwang Woo-suk was exposed for fabricating two studies claming he had cloned human embryos to provide stem cells.

NOT RETROACTIVE

Any new Norwegian law making it a criminal offence to falsify data could not apply to Sudbo. “A law would not have retroactive effect,” Deputy Health Minister Wegard Harsvik told Reuters.

Richard Horton, editor of The Lancet, said the report published in October would be retracted if Oslo supplied confirmation that it had been falsified.

The hospital’s Vaaler said a retraction would be made quickly if the researcher admitted in writing to inventing the data. “So far he has admitted falsifying data verbally,” he said.

“There are huge implications for the entire scientific community to make sure that it has the best safety checks in place to prevent fabrication and falsification of data,” Horton told Reuters.

The panel investigating Sudbo’s research would look at why errors were not spotted by a peer review.

Horton defended the current system of peer review but said the competitive nature of scientific research probably contributed in both the Norwegian and South Korean cases.

(additional reporting by Patricia Reaney in London)

© Reuters 2006. All rights reserved.

Parrot blows cover of cheatin’ girlfriend

January 18th, 2006

A species that may be more accurate than the media

The ability of African grey parrots to imitate almost any sound is legendary. The one in this office can sound exactly like a telephone ringing, which is sometimes useful for driving away unwelcome callers who hang on the line too long. (Brrrrrrrrrng! Brrrrrrrrrng! “Sorry, I have to go…”)

But the African grey named Ziggy who made world news this week (he betrayed an unfaithful girl in Leeds, who was carrying on with a lover behind her boyfriend’s back in their apartment with the bird looking on) was also, we fondly believe, demonstrating the high social intelligence of these birds, which has long been explored by Irene Pepperberg in pioneering research. Clearly Ziggy didn’t like the girl friend, and got his revenge.

As Sarah Lyall told it in the New York Times today (Wed Jan 18),

“Hiya, Gary!” the parrot trilled flirtatiously whenever Chris Taylor’s girlfriend answered her cellphone.

But Mr. Taylor, the owner of the parrot, did not know anyone named Gary. And his girlfriend, Suzy Collins, who had moved into his apartment a year earlier, swore that she didn’t, either. She stuck to her story even after the parrot, Ziggy, began making lovey-dovey, smooching noises when it heard the name Gary on television.

And so it went until the fateful day just before Christmas when, as Mr. Taylor and Ms. Collins snuggled together on the sofa, Ziggy blurted out, “I love you, Gary,” his voice a dead ringer for Ms. Collins’s.

“It sent a chill down my spine,” Mr. Taylor, a 30-year-old computer programmer from Leeds, told British reporters on Monday. “I started laughing, but when I looked at Suzy I could tell something was up. Her face was like beet root and she started to cry.”

The New York Times

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January 18, 2006

Kiss and Tell: She Kisses and the Parrot Tells

By SARAH LYALL

LONDON, Jan. 17 – “Hiya, Gary!” the parrot trilled flirtatiously whenever Chris Taylor’s girlfriend answered her cellphone.

But Mr. Taylor, the owner of the parrot, did not know anyone named Gary. And his girlfriend, Suzy Collins, who had moved into his apartment a year earlier, swore that she didn’t, either. She stuck to her story even after the parrot, Ziggy, began making lovey-dovey, smooching noises when it heard the name Gary on television.

And so it went until the fateful day just before Christmas when, as Mr. Taylor and Ms. Collins snuggled together on the sofa, Ziggy blurted out, “I love you, Gary,” his voice a dead ringer for Ms. Collins’s.

“It sent a chill down my spine,” Mr. Taylor, a 30-year-old computer programmer from Leeds, told British reporters on Monday. “I started laughing, but when I looked at Suzy I could tell something was up. Her face was like beet root and she started to cry.”

Gary, it turned out, was Ms. Collins’s former colleague and current secret lover. And not only had Ms. Collins, a 25-year-old call-center worker, been cheating on Mr. Taylor, but she had been doing it in front of the bird.

“It makes my stomach churn to think about what he might have seen or heard them doing,” Mr. Taylor said of Ziggy, as reported in The Daily Telegraph and other newspapers.

He had owned Ziggy, named after the David Bowie character, since Ziggy was a chick, eight years ago, and looked on with pride as Ziggy began mimicking everything he heard – the television, people’s voices, the vacuum cleaner, the doorbell. But when it became clear that Ziggy could not be taught to stop saying “Gary,” Mr. Taylor found a new home for the bird through a dealer.

“I felt like I’d been stabbed through the heart every time my phone rang or he heard the name on the telly,” he said.

As for Ms. Collins, she and Mr. Taylor split up the evening of the “I love you, Gary” incident.

Tracked down by the newspapers at the home of friends, Ms. Collins (who has since split up with Gary, too) said that while she was not proud of what had happened, she and Mr. Taylor had been having problems and would have broken up anyway. Nor, she said, had she ever taken to the bird, resenting Mr. Taylor for preferring to stay home with Ziggy rather than go out with her.

“I’m surprised to hear he’s got rid of that bloody bird,” Ms. Collins was quoted as saying. “He spent more time talking to it than he did to me.” She added, speaking of Ziggy: “I couldn’t stand him, and it looks now like the feeling was mutual.”

* Copyright 2006The New York Times Company

Grey parrots make an interesting scientific study. Many people think that the red tailed grey’s mimicry is just unthinking playback, but the bird can build quite a network of associations. Our own avian friend can detect when a visitor is thinking of leaving much earlier than the host can, and he will start saying “Goodbye!” “Goodbye!” before the guest made any sign we can detect, let alone has risen to announce departure.

Pepperberg of the University of Arizona and the MIT Media Lab is long celebrated by all parrot owners for having taught Alex, her original subject, all kinds of tricks including how to order breakfast. If Alex is offered a choice of apple or banana, say, he might specify “Apple!” and then, if given banana, he will object, “No banana, apple!”

Ziggy in Leeds is certainly a more accurate verbatim reporter than many of the rewrite men who processed the story across the world yesterday (Jan 18 Wed), it must be said. One of the satisfying lines in the British news story was spoken by the girlfriend when told by a reporter that her unfortunate boyfriend could not bear to keep Ziggy any longer now that it kept saying the name of her lover.

“I’m surprised to hear he’s got rid of that bloody bird,” Ms. Collins was quoted as saying. “He spent more time talking to it than he did to me.” She added, speaking of Ziggy: “I couldn’t stand him, and it looks now like the feeling was mutual.”

What seems like half the papers and news sites in the world excised the word “bloody” from the story, for example, CNN

“I wasn’t sorry to see the back of Suzy after what she did, but it really broke my heart to let Ziggy go,” he said.

“I love him to bits and I really miss having him around, but it was torture hearing him repeat that name over and over again.

“I still can’t believe he’s gone. I know I’ll get over Suzy, but I don’t think I’ll ever get over Ziggy.”

Taylor acquired Ziggy as a chick eight years ago and named him after the David Bowie character Ziggy Stardust.

The bird has now found a new home through the offices of a local parrot dealer. Collins, who admitted the affair, said: “I’m not proud of what I did but I’m sure Chris would be the first to admit we were having problems.

“I am surprised to hear he got rid of that bird,” she added to The Guardian newspaper. “He spent more time talking to it than he did to me.”

though not the New York Times, which we salute for its accuracy. This robust indication of the alienation of the girl from the bird was essential to the piece.

Ziggy of course would never have bowdlerized the quote in that way. But of course, anyone who knows greys knows that. There is a serious question, in fact, as to whether the species may not often be superior in wit and relevant comment to many humans.

As Marc Hauser of Harvard has commented (on what may be the world’s greatest science read, the Edge site, run by John Brockman, science’s star literary agent and idea catalyst) in an interview with Pepperberg,

In the late 1960s, a flurry of research on the great apes—chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans—began to challenge our uniqueness, especially our capacity for language and abstract conceptual abilities. Everyone soon weighed in on this debate including the linguist Noam Chomsky, the philosophers John Searle and Daniel Dennett, and the psychologist Burrhus Skinner. One corner of this debate focused on the assumption that you need a big primate brain to handle problems of reference, syntax, abstract representations, and so forth. It was to this corner of the debate that Irene Pepperberg first turned. She started with a challenge: do you really need a big primate brain to run these computations? After over 20 years of work with her African Gray parrot Alex, the clear answer is “No!”

Irene’s intellectual journey with Alex is an impressive one because she has sustained a consistent line of research exploring some of the deepest problems concerning the nature of mind, and in particular, the relationship between language and thought. Her work has revealed that Alex can grasp important aspects of number, color concepts, the difference between presence and absence, and physical properties of objects such as their shape and material. These results are not only relevant to the evolution of human cognition, but they are also relevant to the evolution of animal cognition. By understanding what animals such as Alex can do under tightly controlled laboratory conditions, we can apply such knowledge to what parrots do in the wild, the kinds of strategies they might use to negotiate in such a complex social world. How far this work will go is anyone’s guess, but it is clear that Irene, Alex and her new stars will teach us a lot along the way.

In one respect, of course, grey parrots are far ahead. Their mastery of mimicry indicates that their mirror neurons must be a huge part of their tiny but brilliant brains compared to those of the average human.

Probably the only human group that even comes close is the HIV=AIDS crowd, whose ability to ignore the scientific literature and parrot the party line without thought of any kind is now legendary.

Nicholas Wade driven to humor by science fraud

January 17th, 2006

But the fallibility of journal review is now public


The reaction of sophisticated but good men in the scientific arena, who are aware of the way science may be twisted by human nature but find it impossible to understand because they would never do it themselves, is to relieve their embarrassment with humor.

This is probably why we are served up an amusing piece of satire today (Tues Jan 17) by Nicholas Wade in the Tuesday Science section, One Last Question: Who Did the Work?:

The article shown at left from a future issue of the Journal of Imaginary Genomics, annotated in the manner required by Science’s proposed reforms, has been released ahead of its embargo date.

The New York Times

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January 17, 2006

One Last Question: Who Did the Work?

By NICHOLAS WADE

In the wake of the two fraudulent articles on embryonic stem cells published in Science by the South Korean researcher Hwang Woo Suk, Donald Kennedy, the journal’s editor, said last week that he would consider adding new requirements that authors “detail their specific contributions to the research submitted,” and sign statements that they agree with the conclusions of their article.

A statement of authors’ contributions has long been championed by Drummond Rennie, deputy editor of The Journal of the American Medical Association, and is already required by that and other medical journals.

But as innocuous as Science’s proposed procedures may seem, they could seriously subvert some traditional scientific practices, such as honorary authorship. Explicit statements about the conclusions could bring to light many reservations that individual authors would not otherwise think worth mentioning.

The article shown at left from a future issue of the Journal of Imaginary Genomics, annotated in the manner required by Science’s proposed reforms, has been released ahead of its embargo date.

* Copyright 2006The New York Times Company

This is the image referred to, which unfortunately probably cannot be made legible in this blog, as far as we know.

It contains various footnotes on contributions such as “1. I supplied the midwife toad cells used in this experiment, on condition that my name was included as co-author.” and 2. “I was riding in the elevator with Dr. Lysenko one day and gave him an idea about spring wheat; he very graciously said that he would add my name to his next paper.”

This light relief follows a heavier Wade piece on Sunday, tackling the difficult topic of what should be done to guard the virtue of science more effectively, indicated on the front of The Week In Review as “Iffy Science: Journals are the cops. But they’re not well armed”, Crumpled Papers: Lowering Expectations at Science’s Frontier”, which tries to explain that journal articles are fallible.

In this piece, Nicholas Wade, who in person certainly looks like the right mix of gentleman and professor that one imagines all science reporters ideally to be, makes an admission which goes far to explain the great hidden debacle in HIV?AIDS.

There it has been clear for some time that a precipitate claim (that HIV was the cause of AIDS). made even before the papers were published supposedly supporting it, became established as a profitable paradigm before any post publication review was done, and has proved immovable and flourishing, rather like a huge tumor on the body of science, in the face of numerous journal reviews that are so damning that they would normally, like surgery, excise and kill it.

The contrast between the fallibility of Dr. Hwang’s claims and the general solidity of scientific knowledge arises from the existence of two kinds of science – a distinction that is often blurred when new advances are reported first by scientific journals and then by the news media. There is textbook science and frontier science, and the two types carry quite different expiration dates.

Textbook science is material that has stood the test of time and can be largely relied upon. It may include findings made just a few years ago, but which have been reasonably well confirmed by other laboratories.

Science from the frontiers of knowledge, on the other hand, is wild, untamed and often either wrong or irrelevant to future research. A few years after they are published, most scientific papers are never cited again.

This is quite an admission of journal fallibility, but this is the line that is emerging in comments by science editors as they get caught by fraud these days, as Wade reports. He acknowledges very clearly that peer reviewing is really “rough screening” which if tightened up, “could retard the pace of scientific advance.”

Scientific journals try to impose order on the turbulent flow of new claims by having expert reviewers assess their merit. But even at the best journals, reviewers provide only a rough screen. Many papers slip through that later turn out to be innocently wrong. A few, like Dr. Hwang’s, are found to be fraudulent.

This rough screening serves a purpose. Tightening it up, in a vain attempt to produce instant textbook science, could retard the pace of scientific advance.

He goes on to note that since a journal’s imprimatur is no guarantee of truth, and claims can only be confirmed by other labs after a time, which means that it is no longer news, journalists have a problem, since they are quite likely to write up findings which turn out to be flawed.

Perhaps it is time for them to recognize this fact, he suggests.

Tightening up the reviewing system may remove some faults but will not erase the inescapable gap between textbook science and frontier science. A more effective protection against being surprised by the likes of Dr. Hwang might be for journalists to recognize that journals like Science and Nature do not, and cannot, publish scientific truths. They publish roughly screened scientific claims, which may or may not turn out to be true.

Of course, this is not what most science journalists want to do – write up stories of the news in science with caveats saying that it all might not be true. Why bother their sources or their readers with that deflating fact? Hard to imagine how it could be done to any more meaningful extent than it already is, anyway. Small wonder Wade doesn’t suggest what form this new caution would take, in a world where the Web forces ever shorter deadlines on science news. But we certainly agree they should and can acknowledge the fact that big claims have to be confirmed, as they often do.

In the end, though, the responsibility belongs to the journals, and they should put their house in order as far as possible. Wade points out that JAMA (the Journal of the American Medical Association) has already instigated the reforms that Science is proposing, where individual authors take explicit responsibility for their part in the work and in the conclusion of a paper. This is working well.

But some medical journals, like The Journal of the American Medical Association, already require authors to state who did what. The system works very well, said Drummond Rennie, the journal’s deputy editor and the instigator of the idea. Requiring authors to specify that they agree with the conclusions leads to conservative statements, a result that is also beneficial, in Dr. Rennie’s view.

Anyhow the important thing is that it is finally being publicly admitted and emphasized that the scientific literature is not infallible, and that all claims should be tested and reviewed.

It’s the reviewing part which is the key in HIV?AIDS, of course, and this is not really mentioned yet. Claims which can be tested in repeat experiments will not last long. It is the theoretical claims which amount to a way of interpreting new data, data which are not necessarily challenged in themselves, which are the tricky problem. HIV?AIDS is the prime example.

Most people have no idea of the power and quality of the reviews that have rejected HIV as the cause of AIDS. A new theoretical claim may resist review for a very long time it appears, even if the review is done and done well, and done repeatedly, if the new claim gets established too firmly with political and economic advantages.

Perhaps the newly perceived fallibility of journals will help awaken people to the idea that challenges to existing paradigms should not be too easily dismissed as heresies which challenge the bible of science, as they are in HIV?AIDS. As many Nobel prizes show, the paradigm challenger may be right.

January 15, 2006

IDEAS & TRENDS: Crumpled Papers; Lowering Expectations at Science’s Frontier

By NICHOLAS WADE

THERE is considerable disorder in heaven when stem-cell scientists are chided by the Roman Catholic Church for the folly of pursuing ”miracle cures.” But such are the paradoxes generated by the implosion of a South Korean researcher’s widely believed claims to have created human embryonic stem cells from patients.

Of course, miracles like the Shroud of Turin are also widely believed. But scientific claims are meant to belong to a different category of truth: They are the certified knowledge of a community of scholars who have rigorously tested their ideas through experiment and mutual criticism.

How then can the fraudulent claims by Dr. Hwang Woo Suk have been accepted by Science, a leading journal that rejects most papers submitted to it? How can the community of stem-cell scientists have allowed a very visible claim to have stood unchallenged in their field for 20 months? Little wonder that Richard Doerflinger, an official of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, ridiculed the dreams of therapeutic cloning in a statement last week, scoffing that scientists were chasing miracle cures ”in pursuit of this mirage.”

The contrast between the fallibility of Dr. Hwang’s claims and the general solidity of scientific knowledge arises from the existence of two kinds of science — a distinction that is often blurred when new advances are reported first by scientific journals and then by the news media. There is textbook science and frontier science, and the two types carry quite different expiration dates.

Textbook science is material that has stood the test of time and can be largely relied upon. It may include findings made just a few years ago, but which have been reasonably well confirmed by other laboratories.

Science from the frontiers of knowledge, on the other hand, is wild, untamed and often either wrong or irrelevant to future research. A few years after they are published, most scientific papers are never cited again.

Scientific journals try to impose order on the turbulent flow of new claims by having expert reviewers assess their merit. But even at the best journals, reviewers provide only a rough screen. Many papers slip through that later turn out to be innocently wrong. A few, like Dr. Hwang’s, are found to be fraudulent.

This rough screening serves a purpose. Tightening it up, in a vain attempt to produce instant textbook science, could retard the pace of scientific advance.

But the roughness of the proceedings is not prominently advertised by journal editors, except when cases of blatant fraud are detected, whereupon they proclaim that peer review cannot reasonably be expected to detect fraud. They do not protest so much when newspapers report their journals’ claims as if they were certifiably true. Because of Science’s authority, Dr. Hwang’s claims to have cloned human embryonic cells were prominently reported and presented to the public as if they were important breakthroughs.

But any new advance belongs to frontier science, which is inherently fallible, and a journal’s imprimatur, though worth something, is no guarantee of truth. An advance only becomes solid when other laboratories have confirmed it, by which time it is no longer news. This presents a serious problem for journalists: many scientific claims, including those in leading journals, turn out to be overstated or wrong, and science reporting that presents these journals’ products as gospel is likely to be misleading.

Scientists and journal editors are, of course, well aware of the tentative nature of frontier science. As Donald Kennedy, the editor of Science, observed when the Hwang case first broke, journals often publish work that is innocently wrong. ”The public needs to understand that the journals and peer review are not perfect,” he said.

But last week Dr. Kennedy announced he was considering revising the journal’s publication procedures, though not with any great hope of preventing future cases of fraud. He suggested that authors would be required to state in writing their specific contributions to a report, a reform perhaps aimed at Dr. Gerald Schatten of the University of Pittsburgh. Dr. Schatten accepted senior authorship of — and thus responsibility for — one of Dr. Hwang’s papers, even though Dr. Schatten had performed none of the experiments and was not in a position to vouch for them. All the work was done in Seoul.

A second proposed change is to have all authors state that they agree with an article’s conclusions.

Both procedures may seem to include a certain potential for generating strife. Each author could overstate his or her contribution, arousing the wrath of all the others. Some authors may think a conclusion too timid, while others consider it an overstatement.

But some medical journals, like The Journal of the American Medical Association, already require authors to state who did what. The system works very well, said Drummond Rennie, the journal’s deputy editor and the instigator of the idea. Requiring authors to specify that they agree with the conclusions leads to conservative statements, a result that is also beneficial, in Dr. Rennie’s view.

Tightening up the reviewing system may remove some faults but will not erase the inescapable gap between textbook science and frontier science. A more effective protection against being surprised by the likes of Dr. Hwang might be for journalists to recognize that journals like Science and Nature do not, and cannot, publish scientific truths. They publish roughly screened scientific claims, which may or may not turn out to be true.

* Copyright 2006 The New York Times Company

Fumento loses Scripps Howard for concealing payoff – is this fair?

January 15th, 2006

Some happy to see him get his comeuppance, but we see his point

The embarrassing exposure of Michael Fumento this week raises the following questions: Is it right for a science columnist to take money that is given to his think-tank by Monsanto on his application and use it to write a book on biotechnology without mentioning his happy sponsor? Is it right for him to later write a column for syndication which praises the company’s products without revealing they paid for the book as he had suggested?

Although he has done some yeoman work over the years as a mythbuster Michael Fumento has in one important respect – AIDS – been something of a now-you-see-me, now-you-don’t kind of critic, a brave skeptic at one moment and a ranting, hostile supporter of a questionable paradigm the next. He currently has a perch at the Hudson Institute where he writes a nice bunch of skeptical stuff supporting biotech, DDT and other outrages to liberal sensibilities.

His claim to fame in AIDS is to have written a book exposing The Myth of Heterosexual AIDS, published in 1993, a gloriously vindicated analysis, while vehemently maintaining then and ever since that Peter Duesberg is wrong about HIV not being the cause of AIDS, a position which not only contradicts his betters but is totally inconsistent.

This extraordinary critical schizophrenia may have been an early indication of how Fumento’s brain is split further apart than normal into two independent halves, where verily the right hand writes and knoweth not whereof the left hand accepts what now look distinctly like solicited bribes, sorry to say.

For the latest news is that the famously combative scribe this week has managed to do exactly what the first paragraph above describes, without acknowledging the conflict of interest to himself or to the public even after he was let go on Friday by Scripps Howard, who will no longer syndicate his writings.


Asked about the payments, Fumento says, “I’m just extremely pro-biotech.” He says he solicited several agribusiness companies to finance his book, which was published by Encounter Books. “I went after everybody, I’ve got to be honest,” Fumento says of his fund-raising effort. “I told them that if I tell the truth in this book, the biotech industry is going to look really good, and you should contribute.

The book’s acknowledgements cite support from The Donner Foundation and “others who wish to remain anonymous.” Fumento didn’t disclose the payment from Monsanto either in the book or in at least eight columns he has written mentioning Monsanto since 1999. He explained in his recent column that he focused exclusively on Monsanto due to a “lack of space and because their annual report was plopped onto my lap while I was hunting for a column idea.”

The author says he sees no conflict of interest in his recent columns because the grant came several years ago. “If you’re thinking quid pro quo,” he says, “I think there’s a statute of limitations on that.”

BioEvolution argues that advances in biotechnology are overwhelmingly positive for humanity, and it quotes Monsanto scientists, along with those from other companies, at length. In one section, Fumento writes that Monsanto allowed outside researchers to use plant patents it had developed without a licensing fee, to help alleviate suffering in the Third World. “Has this all been good PR for Monsanto?” Fumento asks in the book. “Yes it has, as headlines have made clear. But a good deed is a good deed.””

The statement issued in opposition to this defense was as follows:

“Scripps Howard News Service requires writers to disclose any conflict of interest or even an appearance of a conflict in the stories and columns we offer to hundreds of newspapers.

“For three years, we have distributed columns by Michael Fumento, a fellow at the Hudson Institute. On Jan. 5, he wrote about biotechnology and the role of Monsanto. He did not tell SHNS editors, and therefore we did not tell our readers, that in 1999 Hudson received a $60,000 grant from Monsanto. The Hudson Institute said the grant was used to support Fumento’s work on a book he authored about biotechnology.

“Our policy is that he should have disclosed that information. We apologize to our readers.

The issue of the rights and wrongs was explored in more detail in

Syndicate Execs Discuss the Latest Paid Pundit Scandal by Aya Kawano in Editor and Publisher. She emphasizes the issue is not so much the money as disclosure:

“Disclosure is the most important thing,” said Creators Syndicate President Rick Newcombe. He noted that if a columnist hypothetically told Creators that he or she had taken money, “we would of course disclose it to the newspaper clients. If enough clients still wanted to run the column, we might not drop it.”

Editor and Publisher

Syndicate Execs Discuss the Latest Paid Pundit Scandal

Aya Kawano

By Dave Astor

Published: January 13, 2006 6:45 PM ET

NEW YORK With Scripps Howard News Service (SHNS) the latest distributor to drop a pundit for taking undisclosed payments, a question comes to mind: Is the main problem taking payments or not disclosing them?

SHNS Friday dropped columnist Michael Fumento of the conservative Hudson Institute for not disclosing he had accepted money from Monsanto in 1999. Fumento wrote in praise of Monsanto as recently as his Jan. 5 column.

“Disclosure is the most important thing,” said Creators Syndicate President Rick Newcombe. He noted that if a columnist hypothetically told Creators that he or she had taken money, “we would of course disclose it to the newspaper clients. If enough clients still wanted to run the column, we might not drop it.”

John Twohey, vice president for editorial and operations at Tribune Media Services (TMS), said: “Certainly accepting money from an entity you cover crosses a line. I can imagine exceptions, like going on the lecture circuit. But if columnists accept speaking fees from an organization they end up writing about, they would need to disclose that in the column.”

TMS was the syndicate that dropped Armstrong Williams a year ago after it was revealed that the broadcaster/columnist was taking money to promote the Bush administration’s No Child Left Behind initiative. At around the same time, Maggie Gallagher of Universal Press Syndicate and self-syndicated columnist Michael McManus were also accused of accepting government money.

Would syndicates reduce the chance of payola scandals if they signed more Op-Ed columnists who have journalism backgrounds rather than, say, think-tank backgrounds?

“We prefer columnists with journalism backgrounds,” said Newcombe. “On the other hand, there’s no guarantee a journalist won’t plagiarize or do something else.”

Newcombe added that Creators has some columnists who are economists and/or from academia. These commentators don’t have journalism backgrounds, he said, but they have “brilliant minds” and deserve syndication.

With paid pundits Fumento and Copley News Service’s Doug Bandow recently being dropped (after Business Week Online revealed they had accepted money), will syndicates contact their columnists to remind them about staying on the up-and-up?

King Features Syndicate Managing Editor Glenn Mott said it’s possible the issue might come up “informally” when he talks to King columnists, but he has no plans to send out formal reminders.

At least one syndicate — TMS — sent out ethical reminders a year ago after the Armstrong Williams scandal. Twohey told E&P he doesn’t see a need to do that again at this point. “Our creators know what our expectations are,” he said.

Syndicate executives also noted that they already have ethical guidelines in place, and that they check columnists as much as they can before signing them.

“We do a thorough review before we take anybody on,” said Mott. “I trust the people we have.” He did add that King has it easier than some distributors in reviewing Op-Ed columnists because it syndicates a relatively small number of them (fewer than 10).

“I do a fair amount of screening before we sign a columnist,” said Newcombe, while observing that “any syndicate can get burned” no matter what it does.

Editor/General Manager Peter Copeland of SHNS declined to comment when reached by phone Friday. He did e-mail E&P Online a statement that read:

“Scripps Howard News Service requires writers to disclose any conflict of interest or even an appearance of a conflict in the stories and columns we offer to hundreds of newspapers.

“For three years, we have distributed columns by Michael Fumento, a fellow at the Hudson Institute. On Jan. 5, he wrote about biotechnology and the role of Monsanto. He did not tell SHNS editors, and therefore we did not tell our readers, that in 1999 Hudson received a $60,000 grant from Monsanto. The Hudson Institute said the grant was used to support Fumento’s work on a book he authored about biotechnology.

“Our policy is that he should have disclosed that information. We apologize to our readers.

“We learned of the grant from Fumento after he responded to questions from Business Week. We immediately suspended his column, investigated and severed our relationship with Fumento. His Jan. 5 column was the last to move on SHNS.”

Dave Astor (dastor@editorandpublisher.com) is a senior editor at E&P.

© 2005 VNU eMedia Inc. All rights reserved

Business Week did the investigate spadework which unearthed the conflict, and their story shows that it did not and still does not trouble Fumento:

Fumento insists that disclosure of financial transactions between op-ed columnists and the companies they cover wouldn’t be practical. The op-ed money trail is only now getting attention, he argues in an e-mail, because of BusinessWeek Online’s recent revelation that Washington lobbyist Jack Abramoff had paid two columnists for years to deliver good press to his clients (see BW Online, 12/16/05, “Op-Eds for Sale”).

“We’re in a witch-hunting frenzy now but, as after all witch hunts, people do return to their senses and regret the piles of ashes at their feet,” Fumento writes. “Often it happened fast enough the witch hunters found themselves tied to the stake. I do hope that happens here.”

Fumento also points out that he criticized Monsanto publicly in a 1999 Forbes magazine column, calling the company “chicken-hearted” for caving in to pressure from environmentalists to terminate a seed program. “I acted completely ethically, and within a month or two nobody will doubt that,” Fumento says.

While Fumento doesn’t think he should have disclosed the payments to his readers, Hudson’s CEO Kenneth R. Weinstein is less sure. Asked if the scholar should have disclosed his financial relationship with Monsanto, Weinstein pauses and says, “that’s a good question, period.”

The Business Week article, A Columnist Backed by Monsanto, appeared on Friday (Jan 13). Fumento is saying he is the victim of a witch-hunting frenzy because of the other revelations along these lines in December:

Fumento insists that disclosure of financial transactions between op-ed columnists and the companies they cover wouldn’t be practical. The op-ed money trail is only now getting attention, he argues in an e-mail, because of BusinessWeek Online’s recent revelation that Washington lobbyist Jack Abramoff had paid two columnists for years to deliver good press to his clients (see BW Online, 12/16/05, “Op-Eds for Sale”).

Business Week

JANUARY 13, 2006

NEWS ANALYSIS

Eamon Javers

A Columnist Backed by Monsanto

Michael Fumento’s failure to disclose payments to him in 1999 from the agribusiness giant has now caused Scripps Howard to sever its ties to him

Scripps Howard News Service announced Jan. 13 that it’s severing its business relationship with columnist Michael Fumento, who’s also a senior fellow at the conservative Hudson Institute. The move comes after inquiries from BusinessWeek Online about payments Fumento received from agribusiness giant Monsanto (MON ) — a frequent subject of praise in Fumento’s opinion columns and a book.

In a statement released on Jan. 13, Scripps Howard News Service Editor and General Manager Peter Copeland said Fumento “did not tell SHNS editors, and therefore we did not tell our readers, that in 1999 Hudson received a $60,000 grant from Monsanto.” Copeland added: “Our policy is that he should have disclosed that information. We apologize to our readers.” In the Jan. 5 column, Fumento wrote that St. Louis-based Monsanto has about 30 products in the pipeline that will aid farmers, “but also help us all by keeping prices down and allowing more crops to be grown on less land.”

He listed some of the products Monsanto has on tap: drought-resistant corn, crops that could reduce the need for environment-damaging fertilizers, and soybeans that might reduce heart disease.

“YOU SHOULD CONTRIBUTE.” In his career at Hudson, Fumento has carved out a specialty debunking critics of the agribusiness and biotechnology industries. In 1999, he says, he solicited $60,000 from Monsanto to write a book on the business. The book, entitled BioEvolution was published in 2003. A spokesman for Monsanto confirmed the payments to the Hudson Institute.

Asked about the payments, Fumento says, “I’m just extremely pro-biotech.” He says he solicited several agribusiness companies to finance his book, which was published by Encounter Books. “I went after everybody, I’ve got to be honest,” Fumento says of his fund-raising effort. “I told them that if I tell the truth in this book, the biotech industry is going to look really good, and you should contribute.”

The Monsanto grant, he says, flowed from the company to the Hudson Institute to support his work. A portion went to overhead and “most of it” went into his salary. He says the money was simply folded into his salary for that year, and therefore represented no windfall to him personally.

“STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS.” The book’s acknowledgements cite support from The Donner Foundation and “others who wish to remain anonymous.” Fumento didn’t disclose the payment from Monsanto either in the book or in at least eight columns he has written mentioning Monsanto since 1999. He explained in his recent column that he focused exclusively on Monsanto due to a “lack of space and because their annual report was plopped onto my lap while I was hunting for a column idea.”

The author says he sees no conflict of interest in his recent columns because the grant came several years ago. “If you’re thinking quid pro quo,” he says, “I think there’s a statute of limitations on that.”

BioEvolution argues that advances in biotechnology are overwhelmingly positive for humanity, and it quotes Monsanto scientists, along with those from other companies, at length. In one section, Fumento writes that Monsanto allowed outside researchers to use plant patents it had developed without a licensing fee, to help alleviate suffering in the Third World. “Has this all been good PR for Monsanto?” Fumento asks in the book. “Yes it has, as headlines have made clear. But a good deed is a good deed.”

ONGOING RELATIONSHIP. Monsanto spokesman Chris Horner acknowledges two 1999 payments to Hudson of $30,000 each, but he says the company’s records don’t indicate whether the payments were expressly for the book, as Fumento says. “It’s our practice, that if we’re dealing with an organization like this, that any funds we’re giving should be unrestricted,” Horner says.

He adds that Monsanto maintains an ongoing financial relationship with Hudson, but explains that the company did not pay for the recent Fumento op-ed or any others he has written. “He received a press release from us, as did lots of others in his profession, and he chose to write about it on the basis of that,” Horner says.

New York-based Encounter Books says it doesn’t have an immediate response to queries about the book’s funding.

“WITCH-HUNTING FRENZY.” Fumento insists that disclosure of financial transactions between op-ed columnists and the companies they cover wouldn’t be practical. The op-ed money trail is only now getting attention, he argues in an e-mail, because of BusinessWeek Online’s recent revelation that Washington lobbyist Jack Abramoff had paid two columnists for years to deliver good press to his clients (see BW Online, 12/16/05, “Op-Eds for Sale”).

“We’re in a witch-hunting frenzy now but, as after all witch hunts, people do return to their senses and regret the piles of ashes at their feet,” Fumento writes. “Often it happened fast enough the witch hunters found themselves tied to the stake. I do hope that happens here.”

Fumento also points out that he criticized Monsanto publicly in a 1999 Forbes magazine column, calling the company “chicken-hearted” for caving in to pressure from environmentalists to terminate a seed program. “I acted completely ethically, and within a month or two nobody will doubt that,” Fumento says.

While Fumento doesn’t think he should have disclosed the payments to his readers, Hudson’s CEO Kenneth R. Weinstein is less sure. Asked if the scholar should have disclosed his financial relationship with Monsanto, Weinstein pauses and says, “that’s a good question, period.”

Javers is BusinessWeek’s Capitol Hill correspondent

Copyright 2000- 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.

All rights reserved.

Some people on Duesberg’s side of the HIV?AIDS issue are delighted that Fumento has suffered a bad tumble, even though they appreciate his achievement with his The Myth of Heterosxual AIDS, which was widely scorned at the time but has proven to be exactly right – right, that is, on his theme that heterosexual AIDS was never going to happen, but wrong about HIV causing AIDS, according to the scientific literature which Fumento cannot credit, for some reason, and which excites him to strange and rather unpleasant fulminations against Peter Duesberg.

In one email he sent last year which has made the rounds and horrified many observers with its inaccurate and oddly vindictive hostility toward Duesberg, Fumento expressed himself as follows:


I sure hate being cited in the same piece as Duesberg. He truly is the crackpot people claim. He didn’t invent the theory that HIV doesn’t cause AIDS; his claim to fame is adopting it after every other scientist abandoned it in light of the obvious. His cancer work is also junk. I was actually an evaluator of a grant proposal of his on the subject. He quite plainly lied throughout it. And finally as to this Nobel stuff, that’s what his apostles say ? and have been saying for the better part of two decades. Even if he were right on both AIDS and cancer, the fact that the medical establishment believes he’s utterly cracked would preclude him from ever being considered.

Best,

Mike Fumento

In case anyone is influenced by this, we can note that it is almost entirely misleading as well as uncalled for.

Duesberg, a member of the National Academy of Science, is no crackpot, as his many impeccably argued and finely phrased papers attest. None of his papers have ever been questioned on the grounds of quality or fact, or hidden interest, and indeed Walter Gilbert, the Nobelist who discovered how to efficiently sequence DNA, used Duesberg’s work to show his graduate students at Harvard how paradigms might be expertly challenged.

Duesberg never claimed to have invented the theory that HIV doesn’t cause AIDS, one reason being that it really isn’t a theory so much as the review and rejection of a theory of HIV as the “virus that causes AIDS” which has no basis that Duesberg could discover in scientific reason or evidence, either epidemiological or in the lab.

As to Duesberg’s cancer theory being junk. as we have noted in previous posts his approach (aneuploidy) has won the respect and interest of senior researchers at major institutions around the world, some of whom attended his conference at the beginning of 2004 on the topic, and this respect has been evidenced in Scientific American coverage of the field (for these references it is enough to go to the Peter Duesberg site, where you can also see the quality of his papers, which even the most belligerent Fumento fan is going to have a hard time characterizing as “crackpot”).

That Fumento was asked, among other people, to advise a foundation as to whether they should support Peter Duesberg in his research is true. But the idea that Duesberg would lie in describing his research is preposterous – no one has ever publicly accused Duesberg of improper behavior or research in any respect in his entire career, we are certain, and there is certainly no record of that anywhere. One suspects that this behind-the-back calumny says more about Fumento than about Duesberg.

His final thought is of course prima facie nonsense. If Duesberg was accepted as right on both AIDS and cancer the medical establishment would back his Nobel to the hilt, since one could hardly imagine a greater contribution to human welfare, which is what Nobels are all about. That Fumento’s sources in medicine tell him that Duesberg is “cracked” only suggests that his sources are people who have never met Duesberg or read his work and are probably no guide to reality on any level.

Like the entire message, the last thought raises the question as to what sources Fumento uses in his odd hostility to Duesberg and his contradiction of HIV=AIDS ideology. Whoever they are, it seems clear that they have beguiled him into a view which only suggests he is motivated by political and emotional factors, some of which may be private, not his usual productive public skepticism.

This is a pity, since Fumento does quite well when he is critiquing alarms, as he did for example in downplaying the mega-scare over bird flu in this piece, Bird flu: Much ado about nothing. However, it is clear that like virtually every other pundit commenting on science from a media or think tank perch, he is generally incapable or unwilling to read the scientific literature, which gives the simple answer to bird flu that we have so often noted in previous posts (see Bird flu flap continues needlessly. The antidote is Vitamin A, it’s clear):

Bird flu: Much ado about nothing

By MICHAEL FUMENTO

Jan 1, 2006, 00:59

Feathers are flying anew over so-called “bird flu.” Researchers have reported that four Vietnamese patients suffering from it and treated with an antiviral drug have died. Perhaps two received it too late, but the others had resistance to the medicine. The drug? Roche’s Tamiflu, which the media have anointed with almost mythical properties.

But if this has you running around like an infected chicken with its head cut off, stop it. You’re scaring the eggs.

The first reason not to panic over Tamiflu is that there’s no reason to panic over a pandemic.

It’s true that avian influenza type H5N1 is constantly mutating. But the best-kept secret of the flu fright-fest is that it’s been doing so since at least 1959 when it was identified in Scottish chickens. Despite unsupported claims from the World Health Organization that it will almost inevitably become transmissible from human-to-human, if it hasn’t yet it probably never will. If it did, it wouldn’t let media hysteria dictate its appearance and therefore be upon us before effective vaccines become widely available.

As to that resistance, this almost always means simply that more of the drug must be administered than was previously required. Health officials say that applies here. Granted, since there’s already a shortfall of Tamiflu, it’s bad if we’ll need even more. But that’s a lot better than finding that Tamiflu’s only purpose now would be as landfill to build New Orleans back up above sea level.

Further, so far at least, Tamiflu-resistant H5N1 appears to be limited to part of Vietnam. Tamiflu may be fully effective everywhere else, although this serves as a sharp warning of what’s possible.

Now smooth those feathers a bit more: Tamiflu isn’t the only antiviral game in town.

GlaxoSmithKline’s drug Relenza also appears effective in reducing avian flu symptoms and death after exposure to the virus. Its seeming weakness proves to be its strength here. While Tamiflu is easily taken either as a pill or an oral suspension, Relenza is inhaled. Because that’s bothersome a lot fewer people have been using Relenza, thereby giving H5N1 less chance to develop resistance to it.

Indeed, there are no identified cases of Relenza-resistant avian flu.

Yet another drug has, in some animal trials, proved equal to both Tamiflu and Relenza. Called peramivir, in pill form it proved safe in all phases of human clinical trials. But it wasn’t effective enough. Inventor BioCryst Pharmaceuticals wanted to test it as an injection, but its partner with the money bags pulled out.

Of course, that was before pandemic panic. Suddenly peramivir was back big time, and on Dec. 22 the FDA granted verbal approval to begin human injection tests. BioCryst claims peramivir would be far easier and cheaper to produce than Tamiflu and that, with an emergency FDA waiver, it could start producing 10 million treatments a month.

Like Relenza, injected peramivir would have the counter-intuitive advantage of being relatively difficult to administer.

Drug resistance such as we’re seeing here occurs when bacteria or viruses in the body are exposed to the drug in absence of disease. The Vietnamese who died were almost certainly taking Tamiflu as a preventative, rather than waiting for symptoms. Pill availability encouraged them; a needle probably would have stopped them.

As I warned in a recent article, “Prophylactic panic-popping of Tamiflu like Chiclets, as happened with the antibiotic Cipro during the U.S. anthrax scare, could encourage viral resistance to the drugs. By the time we would need them, they might not do any good. This is but one price tab for avian flu hysteria.”

Yet even as you read this, based on Roche’s sales reports, many Americans are doing just this. As such, they’re not only abandoning a defense against the very avian flu they fear so much, they would also be denying it to others by spreading a resistant strain.

They could also be making themselves and others Tamiflu-resistant to the seasonal flu, which kills an estimated 36,000 Americans annually.

So put the pills down on the ground and then slowly step back with your hands in the air. Or just put the pills down. Panic kills; don’t be a victim.

(Michael Fumento is a senior fellow at the Hudson Institute and a columnist for Scripps Howard News Service. E-mail fumento(at)pobox.com.)

© Copyright 2006 by Capitol Hill Blue

Perhaps it is just in the nature of things that those who make a living from criticism are often curmudgeonly in person, but Fumento does seem to be an extreme case. A blogger who clashed with him was served a put down recently which has boomeranged on Fumento rather quickly, to the great satisfaction of the blogger, Deltoid (Tim Lambert) on Scienceblogs:


When I criticised Michael Fumento’s innumerate writing about the Lancet study he responded with this:

You can blog all you want, but my next column is also on this. It goes out to over 350 newspapers

Not any more:

Scripps Howard News Service (SHNS) announced Friday that it severed its relationship with Michael Fumento — a senior fellow at the conservative Hudson Institute — for not disclosing he had taken payments in 1999 from agribusiness giant Monsanto. The payments were revealed by BusinessWeek Online.

January 14, 2006 09:26 PM Sat eve !

DELTOID Tim Lamberts blog

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Tim Lambert Tim Lambert (deltoidblog AT gmail.com) is a computer scientist at the University of New South Wales.

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* January 2006

When I criticised Michael Fumento’s innumerate writing about the Lancet study he responded with this:

You can blog all you want, but my next column is also on this. It goes out to over 350 newspapers

Not any more:

Scripps Howard News Service (SHNS) announced Friday that it severed its relationship with Michael Fumento — a senior fellow at the conservative Hudson Institute — for not disclosing he had taken payments in 1999 from agribusiness giant Monsanto. The payments were revealed by BusinessWeek Online, which also broke a similar story revealing columnist Doug Bandow receiving payments. Copley News Service subsequently dropped Bandow.

In a statement released Friday, SHNS Editor and General Manager Peter Copeland said Fumento “did not tell SHNS editors, and therefore we did not tell our readers, that in 1999 Hudson received a $60,000 grant from Monsanto.” Copeland added: “Our policy is that he should have disclosed that information. We apologize to our readers.”

SHNS sent out an advisory to subscribers last night that read: “The Jan. 5 column by Michael Fumento about new biotechnology products from Monsanto should have included more information. We believe the column should have disclosed a $60,000 grant from Monsanto that Fumento received in 1999 for a book about biotechnology. Fumento’s column will no longer be distributed by Scripps Howard News Service, but is available from Michael Fumento at fumento(at)pobox.com or www.fumento.com.”

In his Jan. 5 column, Fumento wrote that the St. Louis-based Monsanto has about 30 products in the pipeline that will aid farmers “but also help us all by keeping prices down and allowing more crops to be grown on less land.” He said he was only writing about Monsanto “because their annual report was plopped onto my lap while I was hunting for a column idea.”

Maybe Tracy Spenser could sign up with SHNS instead?

Posted on January 14, 2006 09:26 PM

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Comments

So if you’re a completely science ignoramus, you can make 60 grand just by saying DDT is wonderful? Bloody hell, does it never depress you to see idiots like this get so much money?

Posted by: Martin Wisse | January 14, 2006 08:17 PM

Nice company you keep, Tim.

Marty Wisse, the first poster to this thread thinks the US is a terrorist nation while proudly showing off this link to his visitors.

http://web.archive.org/web/20030525223748/goatse.cx/

In a couple of weeks you’ll be turning this into a porn site.

I guess it’s the quality of the reporting that gets the quality readers.

Posted by: JC | January 14, 2006 09:28 PM

Nice of Fumento to provide an endcap to National Unethical Writers Week.

Read the Editor & Publisher article, which includes his cheerleading for Monsanto as well as remarks about Cindy Sheehan:

“Arrest her? Goodness, no!” Fumento declared. “That’s her exit plan from the fence. Leave her there [chained to the fence] and maybe the crows will do the world a favor and eat her tongue out.”

Charming fellow.

Posted by: Robert S. | January 15, 2006 02:33 AM

Do we know whether Monsanto was paying him to be innumerate?

Posted by: Dr. Free-Ride | January 15, 2006 03:29 AM

Fractal-like, we see the nutbar right is similar at all scales of study.

Posted by: z | January 15, 2006 08:07 AM

Copyright ©2005-2006 ScienceBlogs LLC • Privacy Policy •

As one of the blog comments notes, Fumento is given to expressing himself rather savagely.

“Arrest her? Goodness, no!” Fumento declared. “That’s her exit plan from the fence. Leave her there [chained to the fence] and maybe the crows will do the world a favor and eat her tongue out.”

Wait a minute, though, is it that simple?

On the other hand, to give the man his due, we believe there are two sides to this issue. In the first place we retain a certain skepticism about the inevitability of compromise when critical thinkers are handed money from patrons with an agenda. It may induce a certain tactful politesse when there is something to criticize, but we doubt if it turns a fierce, even rather nasty temperament a la Fuming Fumento into a public relations flack.

For however unvarnished his style we believe that Fumento believes what he writes, and we are pretty sure that whatever he wrote, he meant it. And we are sorry to see any science skeptic shot down, since there are all too few out there. And we appreciate that given the economics of opinion these days, it is generally a hard thing for any writer to work independently as a science anti-alarmist unless they are entertainers of the calibre of Michael Crichton or John Stossel. If they are not, the only patrons they are likely to find are those who directly (like Monsanto) or indirectly (like the Hudson Institute) are attached to a politico-economic agenda. Fumento took money to promulgate views he already believed in.

Certainly to demonstrate our thesis and in support of Fumento’s right to take money from industry without being necessarily compromised we are willing to offer ourselves as a willing subject for a test study. Since Monsanto makes DDT, and that substance as we have said seems to be unjustly blocked from saving millions of children’s lives from malaria, we encourage whoever it is at that company who is writing the checks to send $60,000 our way immediately, in return for our willingness to repeat this opinion if it seems relevant to a topic we are writing about. In other words, exactly what we would do anyway.

What we don’t guarantee to do is to keep it secret, however. Nor do we contract to keep the same opinion if we find out differently. We may even bite the hand that has fed us. Sorry about that, since we came up with the suggestion in the first place. But we aren’t offering to sell our souls, only asking for support because we just happen to want to write in line with their agenda, and we need to feed our family too. And who else is going to pay for what a writer writes, unless he is a crowd pleasing entertainer? Bosses are no different from patrons in demanding work in line with their views, for the most part.

We can imagine that Michael Fumento said something like that to his conscience as he worked for Monsanto. But then, he found he had overlooked one thing. It’s not so much whether you can trust yourself, it’s whether other people who don’t know you can trust you to remain independent of your enabling patron. You can’t trust others to believe you are not influenced, that’s the rub. So you keep it secret, and perhaps soon curse your predicament as you realize you have made yourself a hostage to your friendly corporate sponsor. Then people find out, as they inevitably do, and you are scuttled.

So we sympathize, Michael. A good advisor would have ensured one thing. That you made it very clear that you were being sponsored by Monsanto, and you took the consequences up front. They would never be as bad as the consequences of a cover up. This is a general principle of national politics, Michael, after all. As a resident of Washington we are surprised you haven’t cottoned on.

But, you naively say, everyone does it, everyone finds sponsors in this way for op-ed pieces. Well, if some do it is not accepted in journalism, not directly, not yet. Journalists sell out a little to editors and publishers, cutting their cloth to suit those bosses, perforce. But as yet they don’t sell out to other corporations, unless they go public with it and call themselves pr.

As is perhaps natural for someone who works in a think tank and is also an author and syndicated columnist, you may be confusing the academic/think tank world and the press. The way it works in the press as we understand it is that if you want people to trust that you are reaching your conclusions without fear or favor, ahead of and regardless of the payment, then you have to trust them with the information that you have taken money from Monsanto. You don’t let Monsanto off the hook with the phrase “others who wish to remain anonymous.” Why would they want to conceal it? That in itself is a recognition of underhand influence, or will be viewed as such.

In fact, of course, it might simply be that they also know very well you cannot trust people to accept that you are not influenced. But that’s a fact of life. That’s politics. That’s the abysmal lack of faith of other people in our integrity. Everything is seen as self-interest. No one realizes that for men and women of character, you can pay us as much as you like and we won’t bend in your direction one degree. The only reason we accept money is that we already agree with the patron or boss who gives it to us. To those who distrust us, we say the heck with you, stop judging others by yourselves!

So we say right on, Michael, stick it to the witch hunting mob that uses spurious accusation to defeat your intellectual points and your reasoned point of view, and sail on proudly as a man who sets your own course, regardless of payoffs of any kind, from money to something sexier, like invitations to the inner circle, or even the approval of the mob. Just try not to be so nasty to people you don’t agree with.

And Mr. Monsanto, please send along that check, we already agree with you, by lucky coincidence, so we can accept it without qualms. Unlike the weaseling hypocrites of Scripps Howard, we stand up for our principles, Michael and I, our character and our integrity. Scripps Howard weasels may fly their flag in the wind of public opinion, in their desperate and rather pathetic attempt to keep their market and ensure their own salaries, but we stand upright in the hurricane, unbending.

Test us! $60,000 will not alter our opinion one iota. We stand as firm as a mountain in support of the health of the public as regards DDT. In fact, we are even going to change our name to the Monte Sanito Review, regardless of whether you send any money or not, (Monte… Sanito .. Get it? Mont for mountain, Sanito for…)

No wait, we don’t have any money at all right now, so we can’t afford to do that – until the check arrives. Then we will. But we can assure the mob, and our enemies, and the enemies of your distinguished corporation, that there will of course be no connection whatsoever, political speaking, between the two.

Retrain the brain – CBS tip for Dr Fauci

January 15th, 2006

Reading the scientific literature might be helpful

This morning CBS News Sunday Morning reminds us that scientists are proving that training the brain with exercise is a more effective treatment for stroke, Alzheimers and similar problems, than drugs or surgery.

What was striking about the imaging was the astonishingly rapid improvement over a matter of four months – the brain at first as smooth as an apple, then crinkly as a dried apricot.

Perhaps we misunderstood through inattention, but the story was clear in its import: the brain is quickly responsive to exercise at any age, growing a whole new structure almost as easily as it did in the womb.

This is a lesson that might be taken to heart by Dr Anthony Fauci and other scientific leaders who apparently are loathe to read the scientific review literature on HIV as the cause of AIDS.

Sadly we realise that this recommendation comes at an inopportune time for Dr Fauci and his colleagues at the NIAID who are probably currently preoccupied with keeping their rear ends out of the way of the meat grinder that Congress may yet roll through the corridors of power that the good Dr Fauci walks, when he is not appearing on Charlie Rose mouthing trite homilies about the need to combat bird flu with billions when if he had bothered to read any of the scientific literature on the topic he would have seen that this dire threat is easily deflected by running to the local drug store and popping a few Vitamin A pills (see earlier posts).

Of course, given this oversight we are now led to assume that the only reason Dr Fauci MD may have had for ignoring the scientific literature for over twenty years in the case of HIV?AIDS may be that he cannot understand it without using his index finger to trace the text while he moves his lips to the difficult words, and not that he has any deeper and darker reasons for avoiding it. Certainly not any understandable preoccupation he may have had with his personal and bureaucratic ambitions which have been so gratifyingly realized.

We are moved to this supposition by contemplating the way the cohort of Dr Fauci and other scientific leaders at the NIH and elsewhere treated Dr Peter Duesberg so shabbily for two decades for writing the reviews of HIV?AIDS which rejected the idea of HIV as “the virus that causes AIDS” as stupid.

All they had to do was be nice to Duesberg and give him plenty of research funds for his highly promising cancer research (which was privately funded in the end and has apparently brought us much closer to a solution to that dread killer) and his objections to HIV as “the cause of AIDS”: would have quietly floated downstream just as they so fervently wished. Instead they aroused the fighting spirit of any idealist anywhere who supported free speech in science and smelled a very large rat when they looked into the way Duesberg’s career was blighted by his once so friendly colleagues.

Apart from the stupidity issue however we respectfully grant the NIAID chief the benefit of the doubt as far as his motivations go and salute his efforts to solve the great health problems of the world as his chief priority in life, including the immense HIV?AIDS pandemic which is supposedly sweeping the world, at least in the fevered brains of Ms Laurie Garrett of the Council of Foreign Relation, Jeffrey Sachs, Dr Fauci and other leading advisers of where, in matters of global health, to spend our national and international resources.

That is to say, now on combating bird flu rather than “deadly scourges like tetanus, rabies, swine fever and poultry cholera” in the words of Keith Bradsher in the Times yesterday (Sat Jan 14), reporting from Laos, which hasn’t seen any bird flu at all so far but has been forced to spend its limited resources on making sure of this for the past two years.

As Keith remarks in Laos, Apparently Without Bird Flu, Is Still Pressed by the West to Join Global Fight.

Not one human case of bird flu was ever confirmed in Laos, and thousands of chickens have been tested in recent months without finding the slightest trace of the disease.

Despite the seeming disappearance of bird flu here, it has consumed most of the time and attention of Laos’s best doctors and veterinarians for the past two years.

Pressed by United Nations agencies, the United States, the European Union and other big donors, top officials at the health and agriculture ministries have set aside previous priorities – deadly scourges like tetanus, rabies, swine fever and poultry cholera – to focus on a disease that could someday set off a global epidemic but poses less of an immediate threat here.

As the global effort to combat bird flu has increased, Laos and other poor countries have become the front lines, expected to manage extensive programs to battle bird flu despite struggling to marshal enough doctors and veterinarians against diseases even in the best of times.

Next week, those pressures will reach a new level when health ministers, leaders of United Nations agencies and top officials from the World Bank and other lending institutions gather in Beijing to raise as much as $1.5 billion to fight bird flu.

The New York Times

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January 15, 2006

Laos, Apparently Without Bird Flu, Is Still Pressed by the West to Join Global Fight

By KEITH BRADSHER

VIENTIANE, Laos, Jan. 14 – Khamla Sengdavong, the manager of a state-owned farm here, still remembers his horror and dismay when bird flu suddenly killed a quarter of the farm’s 2,000 chickens in five days in January 2004.

“They bled from the nose and the backs of their heads turned purple and then black, and then they died,” he said, gesturing with his hands.

But bird flu seems to have disappeared almost as quickly as it appeared in Laos, and Mr. Khamla and others in this impoverished Communist country on China’s southern border have restocked their coops.

Not one human case of bird flu was ever confirmed in Laos, and thousands of chickens have been tested in recent months without finding the slightest trace of the disease.

Despite the seeming disappearance of bird flu here, it has consumed most of the time and attention of Laos’s best doctors and veterinarians for the past two years.

Pressed by United Nations agencies, the United States, the European Union and other big donors, top officials at the health and agriculture ministries have set aside previous priorities – deadly scourges like tetanus, rabies, swine fever and poultry cholera – to focus on a disease that could someday set off a global epidemic but poses less of an immediate threat here.

As the global effort to combat bird flu has increased, Laos and other poor countries have become the front lines, expected to manage extensive programs to battle bird flu despite struggling to marshal enough doctors and veterinarians against diseases even in the best of times.

Next week, those pressures will reach a new level when health ministers, leaders of United Nations agencies and top officials from the World Bank and other lending institutions gather in Beijing to raise as much as $1.5 billion to fight bird flu.

Almost nobody questions that a global campaign is needed to stop the disease: if the bird flu virus, A(H5N1), evolves to be able to pass easily from person to person in the next few years, it could kill enormous numbers of people. But health experts are starting to raise questions about the trade-offs involved in such a huge effort.

The danger, even some managers of bird flu programs are starting to say, is that donors focus so intently on a single disease that they unintentionally disrupt many other health programs. “We could overlook that people could quite literally be dying because of this,” said Finn Reske-Nielsen, the top United Nations official in Laos.

In separate interviews, Mr. Reske-Nielsen and two of Laos’s top disease fighters – Dr. Phengta Vongphrachanh, the country’s foremost epidemiologist; and Dr. Somphanh Chanphengxay, the director of veterinary planning – said continued routine testing had not yet shown a resurgence here of other diseases despite the preoccupation with bird flu. But they and other officials in Laos and at aid agencies elsewhere said participants in the Beijing conference would face a series of hard choices.

Among the first of those trade-offs will be between short-term programs, useful mostly for fighting bird flu, and longer-term programs that may carry broader health benefits but do less to stamp out bird flu this winter or next winter.

The Asian Development Bank, a Manila-based multilateral lending institution like the World Bank, is one of the first organizations to start worrying about the bird flu trade-offs, partly because it has already had to make a hard choice.

Indu Bhushan, the leader of the bank’s bird flu task force, said that after approving a $40 million preventive health program in Vietnam last year, the bank decided this winter to turn the effort into a bird flu project instead, saving time over having to design a program from scratch.

The redesigned project will still address other communicable diseases, like dengue fever, because it may improve detection. But it will no longer cover noncommunicable diseases like hypertension and diabetes, Mr. Bhushan said.

He noted that the Asian Development Bank was also preparing $68 million in new grants for bird flu that do not involve taking money from other programs. But he said it would be important at the Beijing conference that donors not redirect large sums previously approved for other programs.

“While emergency response is great, let’s not get carried away here,” he said.

The emerging debate over spending on bird flu closely parallels the debate in the 1990’s over whether donor nations were paying so much attention to AIDS in the developing world that they were neglecting diseases like malaria and tuberculosis. That debate has helped lead to increased aid for research into tropical diseases, mostly from rich countries and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Following that example, it is possible that bird flu may yet prompt broader and more strings-free aid to poor countries in areas like veterinary care. But for now, much of the money being offered to poor countries to fight bird flu involves loans, not grants.

And health officials in poor countries are leery of borrowing heavily; no country has yet tapped the Asian Development Bank’s $300 million in loans available for bird flu programs.

Laos is one of the world’s poorest countries, rivaling Chad in Central Africa in having one of the world’s highest maternal death rates – problems related to pregnancy kill one mother for every 2,000 births, mainly in childbirth.

With the government able to spend less than $2 per person annually for health care, officials have been reluctant to take on debt.

“We try our best to utilize the grants first, and we reserve the loans for emergency response,” Dr. Phengta said.

That emergency response has not been needed.

Unlike in neighboring Vietnam, Thailand and China, where live poultry is often transported large distances to markets, sometimes on bicycles, most chickens and ducks in sparsely populated Laos are raised in backyards and eaten by their owners. That limits the spread of the disease, Dr. Somphanh said.

Turkey has captured international attention with 18 human cases, three of them fatal, in the past two weeks.

But Dr. Shigeru Omi, the World Health Organization’s regional director for the Western Pacific, noted Thursday that Asia remains the center of the disease because contact between infected birds and humans is greatest in this region.

Laotian government officials reported to the W.H.O. within hours on a weekend last September the country’s only suspected human case of bird flu so far. A lab in Japan determined it was a false alarm.

The quick notification was one of several signs that Laos does not appear to be concealing any bird flu cases, although it may be hard at times even for the government to determine what is happening in the one-third of Laotian villages that lie a day’s walk or more from the nearest road of any sort, said Dr. Dean A. Shuey, the top World Health Organization official in Laos.

Dr. Shuey’s aunt and grandmother died in the Spanish influenza outbreak of 1918, which scientists now attribute to another avian influenza virus. Despite that family history, Dr. Shuey of Nebraska says he worries that too much emphasis now on bird flu may create problems for Laos’s health system.

“The intense donor meetings, the number of conferences, the travel is taking a lot of time for people who have other things to do,” he said.

The United States, Japan and the European Union have donated advanced virus freezers and other high-tech gear to help Laotians gather any viral samples and ship them to labs in rich countries as fast as possible, where they can be analyzed for the possible creation of a vaccine.

But with flu vaccine production capacity short in industrialized countries, no one expects Laos, with no vaccine factories, to receive more than a few doses of any vaccine.

American aid has included hundreds of sets of masks, goggles and full-body suits that would be sweltering in the tropical climate here and that have limited use except for slaughtering sick birds.

Dr. Phengta called for general-purpose protective equipment. Health workers in Laos now receive only one gown and one surgical mask each year.

Meanwhile it is worth noting that the CBS report contained the thought that this retraining the brain approach is novel because it doesn’t involve drugs or surgery, which tend to be the only two approaches that occur to established medicine for any ailment.

They refer to two places where the retraining is carried out which have a good reputation, Taubtherapy and Positscience

Altamura, City of Bread, defeats McDonald’s, but Italy succumbs

January 14th, 2006

So what is the rate of diabetes there?

A small defeat for McDonald’s three years ago in Italy – see The Bread Is Famously Good, but It Killed McDonald’s – might hearten those who fear that the company is taking over the world, but then we learn from this Times article from Thursday (Jan 12) that there are still 340 outlets in Italy and the burger barbarians plan many more.


“The long red mat was taken away secretly during the night,” it reported, noting too that the “enormous M” over Piazza Zanardelli was “also packed up surreptitiously.” The windows were covered “like a shroud on the victim of a culinary battlefield.”

“Today,” the newspaper (Libération) said, “there are no longer Big Macs, Chicken McNuggets or industrial fries in Altamura….

McDonald’s began fighting back, offering school trips to visit the kitchens, free rentals of the restaurant for children’s birthday parties, coupons for children and a television for customers to watch soccer. Nothing seemed to work.

“They’d watch the game, and as soon as it was over go out and get focaccia,” Mr. Pepe said….

“In no way is this a defeat for McDonald’s,” contended Mario Resca, president of McDonald’s in Italy, saying he hoped to double the number of McDonald’s here from the current 340. “If anything, I am proud that the local culture is appreciating its local cuisine because this means that McDonald’s has stimulated a healthy competition.”

This sad failure of Italians outside this enlightened town to know which side their focaccia is baked reminds us of the report many years ago in the Wall Street Journal. The children of NASA astronauts in Florida proved to prefer Tang over fresh orange juice.

The taste of food is governed by context and culture, it seems clear, not the tongue or brain. The chances of America rejecting McDonald’s in the same way as Altamura seem slim for now. In taste the brain process is probably governed by the mental framing of the left hemisphere. Gauloises and cheap wine taste a thousand times better in Paris, for example. In such a romantic context, they just have to.

In Naples, which invented espresso and also pizza, both things taste divine compared to the same offerings in Manhattan. Restaurants in Little Italy import clay ovens from Sicily, and huge espresso machines, but there is no comparison when it comes to the result.

Manhattan espresso is nothing compared to a powerful shot of tasty Italian espresso, and the pizza here is thick and crude junk food compared with the slim and delicate pizza of Southern Italy, where one can appropriately fit it into a night at the opera.

Or is it all an illusion? What would the same Italian pizza and espresso taste like if transported to Manhattan? No worse in Little Italy than real Italy? Probably worse, if the principle of dominant context holds.

But by the same logic, if it is all context, why doesn’t the Manhattan espresso taste just as good in Starbucks as the Italian espresso does in Rome, since the context is right in each case?

These are important questions which neuroscience will no doubt answer in future decades. Meanwhile, one wonders why the “but” in the headline? Shouldn’t it read “The Bread Is Famously Good, and It Killed McDonald’s” Or is the Times headline writer a habitue of McDonald’s? If so, surely he/she is out of place in such a culturally important institution, with its prominent role as a guide to Manhattan restaurants.

And, enquiring minds may also want to know, what is the rate of diabetes in Italy? Was there even an Italian word for diabetes before McDonald’s arrived?

he New York Times

January 12, 2006

Altamura Journal

The Bread Is Famously Good, but It Killed McDonald’s

By IAN FISHER

ALTAMURA, Italy, Jan. 10 – First, an inconvenient truth: This is not a new story. But somehow the tale of how the city with the best bread in Italy forced its McDonald’s out of business never really got told, and is spilling out now.

All the elements of a McDonald’s morality play remain relevant today: perceived corporate arrogance; traditional food triumphing over food product; a David in the form of a humble and graying baker against an expansionist American Goliath.

And, inevitably, it includes the French.

It was the leftist and Amero-skeptic French newspaper Libération that last week wrote the fullest account of what happened in Altamura, in southern Italy, where the road signs rightly welcome visitors to “The City of Bread.”

“The long red mat was taken away secretly during the night,” it reported, noting too that the “enormous M” over Piazza Zanardelli was “also packed up surreptitiously.” The windows were covered “like a shroud on the victim of a culinary battlefield.”

“Today,” the newspaper said, “there are no longer Big Macs, Chicken McNuggets or industrial fries in Altamura.”

What Libération neglected to say, as have most of the other articles in an irresistible landslide of coverage in print and on the Web, is that the McDonald’s closed in December 2002. The paper spoke vaguely of events a “number” of months ago.

But no matter. The protagonists here in Altamura as well as many others are thrilled with the belated attention, and the distinction as the city whose food was so good that it closed down a McDonald’s without really trying.

“What took place was a small war between us and McDonald’s,” said Onofrio Pepe, a retired journalist who founded an association here devoted to local delicacies. “Our bullets were focaccia. And sausage. And bread. It was a peaceful war, without any spilling of blood.”

Mr. Pepe and several like-minded citizens of Altamura, a city of 65,000 residents, made up one wing of the army. They say they fought largely for pride and for their food, which includes a local mushroom called the cardoncello, focaccia, mozzarella and, most of all, a coarse-grain bread famous for millennia around Italy. The bread is protected as unique in European Union regulations, which note that Horace called it, in 37 B.C., “far the best bread to be had, so good that the wise traveler takes a supply of it for his onward journey.”

When the McDonald’s first opened in early 2001, Mr. Pepe said, he was not opposed to it, and even welcomed the 25 or so jobs it created. “In the beginning,” he said, “it seemed like modernization.”

Then the modern seemed to take over: McDonald’s erected the huge arches on a pole near the old town center, jarringly near the 13th century cathedral, beaming yellow neon 24 hours a day (and disturbing, Mr. Pepe said, little falcons that nested in nearby trees).

“It gave the sense of a city being occupied,” he said. “It was considered a sort of challenge. Not a challenge to confront in anger but with a smile. They brought in their products, and we had ours.”

So his group held low-key protests to highlight local food, as another front on the war opened, very much unplanned.

A fourth-generation baker, Luca Digesu, now 35, opened Antica Casa Digesu, a small bakery right next to the McDonald’s. He said he had had no intention of challenging it, but had merely hoped to shake free some customers attracted to the spot by the novelty.

“I was afraid of McDonald’s,” he said in his bakery on Tuesday. “I was afraid we would be completely glossed over. I was afraid no one would even notice us.”

For a while, McDonald’s drew in the customers of Altamura. “In the beginning,” Mr. Digesu said, “McDonald’s was McDonald’s.”

But soon there was a migration of locals who preferred their own version of fast food: hunks of thick focaccia like the dozen that Mr. Digesu was tending in the oven as he spoke. Part of the reason seemed economic: Mr. Digesu said a big slice of focaccia cost the same as a single McDonald’s hamburger. It was also, clearly, preference.

McDonald’s began fighting back, offering school trips to visit the kitchens, free rentals of the restaurant for children’s birthday parties, coupons for children and a television for customers to watch soccer. Nothing seemed to work.

“They’d watch the game, and as soon as it was over go out and get focaccia,” Mr. Pepe said.

Finally, in December 2002, after less than two years in operation, the McDonald’s closed shop, according to the company, for lack of profitability. The huge space is now divided up into a jeans store and a bank. Mr. Digesu smiled broadly when asked how he felt that the Italian news media, which missed the story three years ago, are now hailing him as a modern-day David.

“I like it,” he said. “McDonald’s is big. I am small. Right now it is 1-0.”

The company sees it differently, of course. “In no way is this a defeat for McDonald’s,” contended Mario Resca, president of McDonald’s in Italy, saying he hoped to double the number of McDonald’s here from the current 340. “If anything, I am proud that the local culture is appreciating its local cuisine because this means that McDonald’s has stimulated a healthy competition.”

In the end, it seems there may simply be places in the world where McDonald’s is out of its depth on every front.

The landlord both for McDonald’s and Mr. Digesu happened to be Mr. Digesu’s brother-in-law. The brother-in-law gave Mr. Digesu a good deal on the rent. He did not do so for McDonald’s.

Then there is the local food – cheap and overwhelmingly good – and the people who have eaten it for centuries and consider it as much their tradition as their history. Odd as it might seem in a corporate boardroom, they put no value on a McDonald’s in Altamura.

“The majority couldn’t imagine McDonald’s becoming an integral part of their lives,” said Patrick Girondi, 48, an entrepreneur from Chicago who has lived here for 15 years. “McDonald’s didn’t get beat by a baker. McDonald’s got beat by a culture.”

Peter Kiefer contributed reportingfor this article.

* Copyright 2006The New York Times Company

Five million buy a book saying AIDS is great deception

January 14th, 2006

But the source is banned huckster

Yes, before the AIDS dissidents get too excited, the author is Kevin Trudeau, the unstoppable infomercial salesman who is banned from selling any product on TV after being ordered to pay back $2 million for misleading the public about his cures.

However a book is not a product according to the rule, so he now has the best selling book on the Times advice list which five million people have bought so far ie a mega seller. It is “Natural Cures They Don’t Want You to Know About,”

Trudeau was getting hammered on ABC Nightline tonight (Fri 13 Jan), but he opened his wide blue eyes and asked, “What fine?” “What finding of wrongdoing?” He then said that he was thinking of running for president, Senate or Congress.

What was interesting from the point of view of those following the uphill battle to open up the closed debate on whether HIV is truly “the virus that causes AIDS” was that he evidently mentions Duesberg and says in his book that AIDS is a tissue of lies and is caused by drugs.

Sadly this is not the kind of support that is likely to do Peter Duesberg any good. But that unfortunate Berkeley scientist must be used by now to troublesome supporters.

How much valid information is in Trudeau’s book is obviously questionable since he has no research qualifications in medicine or science of any kind, and has little regard for the truth. But it seems to us that his book’s rocketing success is not just the result of his huge performance as a TV huckster.

There is a hunger out there for some alternative treatment to drugs and surgery for cancer and other ailments, and the word “natural” is magical.

But it is a great irony that the best scientific review literature would agree with him about HIV?AIDS.

His Nightline appearance:

ABC News

January 13, 2006 | Get Your Local News and Weather

Is Infomercial King a Helper or Huckster?

Kevin Trudeau Courts Controversy Along With Great Success

kevin trudeau

Kevin Trudeau has a successful — but controversial — infomercial empire. (ABC News)

By JAKE TAPPER

Jan. 13, 2006 — Kevin Trudeau is handsome, charming and a financial success.

A few weeks ago in Chicago, at the multimillion-dollar pool tournament he has personally founded and financed, Trudeau bounded through his legions of fans and supporters like Sinatra at the Sands.

With a best-selling book, “Natural Cures They Don’t Want You to Know About,” as well as the No. 1 ranked infomercial to promote the book, Trudeau says he has a following of millions.

Without question, he has a familiar face. If you’ve watched late night TV, you know Trudeau. “Since 1989, I’ve been on TV, talking about the products that I’ve authored — like Mega Memory, Mega Speed Reading and Mega Math,” Trudeau says. In infomercial after infomercial, he’s pitched products that he promised will improve — if not save — your life.

But at least some of those claims went a little too far for the U.S. government. In 2004, Trudeau became the only person ever banned from selling a product on television. The Federal Trade Commission said that Trudeau falsely claimed that a coral calcium product could cure cancer and other serious diseases and that a product called Biotape could cure or relieve severe pain.

“This ban is meant to shut down an infomercial empire that has misled American consumers for years,” said Lydia Parnes from the FTC’s Bureau of Consumer Protection. “Other habitual false advertisers should take a lesson: mend your ways or face serious consequences.” Read the FTC release at www.ftc.gov/opa/2004/09/trudeaucoral.htm.

Still Selling

Trudeau is permitted to sell his book since, under the First Amendment, it does not qualify as a “product.” As part of his agreement with the FTC, he paid $2 million in “consumer redress.”

But here’s how Trudeau presents his interaction with the FTC:

“There’s been no finding of any wrongdoing,” he says. “They filed charges against me, for alleged misconduct, and they had to drop all the charges.”

It was pointed out to him that a settlement is different from dropping the charges.

“How is it different?” he asked.

Dropping charges involves an acknowledgment that the government could not make its case, it was said. His 2004 settlement with the FTC “bans him from appearing in, producing or disseminating future infomercials that advertise any type of product, service or program to the public, except for truthful infomercials for informational publications.

“In addition, Trudeau cannot make disease or health benefits claims for any type of product, service or program in any advertising, including print, radio, Internet, television and direct mail solicitations, regardless of the format and duration.”

Plus he had to fork over $2 million.

“No,” Trudeau says. “There was not one penny in fines.” ABC News hadn’t called it a fine, however. It was $2 million in “consumer redress,” which Trudeau satisfied by giving the government more than $500,000 in cash, as well as his house in Ojai, Calif., and a Mercedes-Benz.

He’s a fast-talking fellow, Mr. Trudeau.

“The government situation is a joke,” he says when pressed, “and everybody knows it’s a joke. The government is trying to discredit me because of the book, because I’m exposing them.”

Dangerous Cures?

Instead of products such as Coral Calcium, Trudeau now hits the airwaves to sell his book, which promises magical natural cures. But not all of them are in the book. “Natural Cures” often refers readers to his Web site, which requires lifetime membership at a price of approximately $500.

But in the book or on the Web site, many doctors have expressed serious concerns about Trudeau’s cures, saying his advice is not only misleading, it could actually hurt people.

“Stop taking nonprescription and prescription drugs,” the book instructs. “Remember, drugs are poisons. This includes vaccines.”

Trudeau says drugs are only OK in exceptional circumstances — such as trauma or in surgery. His book makes other outrageous claims.

Trudeau writes in his book — which has sold more than 5 million copies and will be listed as No. 1 on this Sunday’s New York Times best-seller list for hardcover “advice” books — that “the sun does not cause cancer. Sun block has been shown to cause cancer. The ingredients in sun block are now strongly believed to be the number one cause of skin cancer.” He says “antiperspirants and deodorants contain deadly poisons,” and that AIDS is “one of the greatest hoaxes and deceptions ever perpetrated on the American public.”

The government and the pharmaceutical companies conspire to keep natural cures from you, he insists, to make money by selling medicine.

“It’s so profitable to the companies that sell it,” he says. “Chemotherapy kills more people than cancer itself.”

Trudeau has no medical training and no particular health expertise. What he does have is a following, and that’s what concerns so many in the established medical community.

“I tell people, ‘Don’t listen to me,'” Trudeau responds when asked why anyone should listen to him instead of their doctor. “I say, ‘I’m reporting, and I’m giving you facts, make an informed decision.'”

Trudeau asks why anyone should listen to the Food and Drug Administration. “This is the same organization that said Vioxx is safe and effective,” he said.”Then they said, ‘Oops, we were wrong.’ Why should we listen to them?”

But some of Trudeau’s claims do not stand scrutiny.

Asked for his “natural cure” for diabetes, Trudeau continually cites a study from the University of Calgary, which he says “has 25 years of research” of a natural way to make it so “diabetes can be, if not completely cured and wiped out in America, dramatically reduced by this herbal combination.”

But when asked, the University of Calgary told ABC News that “there is no scientific evidence that any herbal remedy can cure any form of diabetes. In our review of the claims made by Kevin Trudeau’s book, we have established that there have been no human studies conducted at the University of Calgary in the past 20 years on herbal remedies for diabetes.”

Trudeau responded that he was “shocked and amazed” and that he would send us documentation he was referring to. We never did receive that documentation.

The book also claims: “All of the author’s royalties on the sale of this book are being used to help fund the mission of educating people about natural health care and exposing corporate and government corruption.”

But that “mission of educating people” includes paying for Trudeau’s flights and luxury hotel stays as he jets around the country for interviews, he acknowledges.

He says it’s “just like when you give money to the American Cancer Society, and the president flies on a corporate private Gulfstream [jet], stays in the Four Seasons hotel, your donation paid for that because he’s — in his opinion — helping to spread the news about cancer.”

A Future in Politics?

But his latest, quite successful incarnation as an author isn’t the final stage of Kevin Trudeau’s career, he says.

After one of his rants against the pharmaceutical industry and tort reform, it’s noted to Trudeau that he sounds like he’s going to run for office.

“I am,” he says.

Really?

“Absolutely,” he says. “There’s 25 million people in this country who purchase my products.”

He says he hasn’t decided what office he’ll run for, but it would be as an independent and it would be for federal office. “In order to make a change, you have to stand up and expose the corruption in government, and the … connection between big corporations and government.”

House? Senate? Presidency?

“One of those three,” he says.

ABC News’ Ted Gerstein, Zena Barakat and Melinda Arons contributed to this report

Copyright © 2006 ABC News Internet Ventures

Here is the FDC decision of September 2004:

FTC

September 7, 2004

Kevin Trudeau Banned from Infomercials

Trudeau Settles Claims in Connection with Coral Calcium Supreme and Biotape

A Federal Trade Commission settlement with Kevin Trudeau – a prolific marketer who has either appeared in or produced hundreds of infomercials – broadly bans him from appearing in, producing, or disseminating future infomercials that advertise any type of product, service, or program to the public, except for truthful infomercials for informational publications. In addition, Trudeau cannot make disease or health benefits claims for any type of product, service, or program in any advertising, including print, radio, Internet, television, and direct mail solicitations, regardless of the format and duration. Trudeau agreed to these prohibitions and to pay the FTC $2 million to settle charges that he falsely claimed that a coral calcium product can cure cancer and other serious diseases and that a purported analgesic called Biotape can permanently cure or relieve severe pain.

Trudeau is paying $500,000 in cash and transferring residential property located in Ojai, California, and a luxury vehicle to the Commission to satisfy the $2 million monetary judgment against him. In the event that the court finds that Trudeau or his companies misrepresented their financial condition, the order would require Trudeau to pay $20 million pursuant to an avalanche clause.

“This ban is meant to shut down an infomercial empire that has misled American consumers for years,” said Lydia Parnes, Acting Director of the FTC’s Bureau of Consumer Protection. “Other habitual false advertisers should take a lesson; mend your ways or face serious consequences.”

In nationally-televised infomercials, Trudeau advertised that Coral Calcium Supreme, a dietary supplement purportedly made from Japanese marine coral, provided the same amount of bioavailable calcium as two gallons of milk, could be absorbed into the body faster than ordinary

calcium, and could cure cancer, heart disease, high blood pressure, lupus, and other illnesses. In a separate infomercial, Trudeau claimed that Biotape, an adhesive strip, provided permanent relief from severe pain, including debilitating back pain, and pain from arthritis, sciatica, and migraines. In June 2003, the FTC filed a complaint in the Northern District of Illinois against Trudeau and some of his companies, alleging that these disease claims for Coral Calcium Supreme were false and unsubstantiated. The Commission also alleged in a separate action that Trudeau violated a 1998 FTC order by making the Coral Calcium Supreme claims and the pain-relief claims for Biotape.

In July 2003, Trudeau entered into a stipulated preliminary injunction that prohibited him from continuing to make the challenged claims for Coral Calcium Supreme and Biotape. This summer the court found Trudeau in contempt of court for violating this preliminary injunction when he disseminated a direct mail piece and an infomercial making the prohibited coral calcium claims. The court ordered Trudeau to cease all marketing for coral calcium products.

The settlement announced today permanently bans Trudeau and the other defendants, Shop America (USA), LLC, Shop America Marketing Group, LLC, and Trustar Global Media, Limited (“defendants”), from appearing in, producing, or disseminating infomercials that advertise any product, service, or program and, regardless of the advertising medium used to make the claim, from making representations that any product, program, or service can cure, treat, or prevent any disease or provide health benefits. The order’s ban on future infomercials exempts infomercials for books, newsletters, and other informational publications.

In addition, the order prohibits the defendants from transferring, selling, or renting personal information collected from customers who purchased Coral Calcium Supreme and requires the defendants to destroy this information for certain customers. Finally, the order contains standard recordkeeping provisions to assist the FTC in monitoring the defendants’ compliance with its prohibitions and requirements.

The Commission vote to authorize staff to file the stipulated final order was 5-0. The stipulated final order for permanent injunction was entered in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois, Eastern Division on September 3, 2004.

Note: This stipulated final order is for settlement purposes only and does not constitute an admission by the defendants of a law violation. A stipulated final order has the force of law when signed by the judge.

Copies of the stipulated final order are available from the FTC’s Web site at http://www.ftc.gov and also from the FTC’s Consumer Response Center, Room 130, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20580. The FTC works for the consumer to prevent fraudulent, deceptive, and unfair business practices in the marketplace and to provide information to help consumers spot, stop, and avoid them. To file a complaint in English or Spanish (bilingual counselors are available to take complaints), or to get free information on any of 150 consumer topics, call toll-free, 1-877-FTC-HELP (1-877-382-4357), or use the complaint form at http://www.ftc.gov. The FTC enters Internet, telemarketing, identity theft, and other fraud-related complaints into Consumer Sentinel, a secure, online database available to hundreds of civil and criminal law enforcement agencies in the U.S. and abroad.

MEDIA CONTACT:

Brenda Mack,

Office of Public Affairs

202-326-2182

STAFF CONTACT:

Heather Hippsley or Daniel Kaufman

202-326-3285 or 202-326-2675

(FTC File No. X980014/X030066)

(Civil Action No. 03-C-3904)

(http://www.ftc.gov/opa/2004/09/trudeaucoral.htm)

Related Documents:

Federal Trade Commission, Plaintiff v. Kevin Trudeau, Shop America (USA) LLC, Shop America Marketing Group, LLC, Trustar Global Media, Limited, Robert Barefoot, Deonna Enterprises, Inc., and Karbo Enterprises, Inc., Defendants, and K.T. Corporation, Limited, and Trucom, LLC, Relief Defendants., United States District Court, Northern District of Illinois, Eastern Division, and, Federal Trade Commission, Plaintiff v. Kevin Trudeau, Defendant., United States District Court, Northern District of Illinois, Eastern Division Civ. No. 98-C-0168, File No. 032 3064, Civil Action No. 03 C3904

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The lesson of the diabetes epidemic which the Times ignores

January 13th, 2006

Acres of newsprint but not this one grain of sense

The mammoth diabetes series at the Times is now over, leaving us stunned in its wake and still unsure whether this just threatens the poor or whether the rich also suffer from diabetes in alarming numbers. Presumably if you are wealthier you are less likely to gorge on junk food and more likely to eat nutritious meals, but given the level of ignorance about nutrition that most of us suffer from this may not be true. One thing we should all do in self defense is read labels for ingredients. This often leads to instant diet reform.

Do the rich buy any less white bread and white flour products, and white rice, than the disadvantaged? We had a bad dream last night that we lived in a strange society where all the good vitamins and minerals were removed from bread and rice at the grain stage. Then we woke up and found we lived in that society, which is the United States. where these staples in the form of grain are prepared for storage and transport by removing a slew of vitamins and minerals which might attract insects to the grain or flour.

The insects are simply not interested in such nutritionally hollow fodder, and they pass it up, setting an example we would do well to follow.

This apparently is what enables the food industry to store and transport it without worrying about spoilage to our supermarkets and dinner tables, where we can then enjoy eating food which is so empty of nourishment that insects won’t have anything to do with it.

Well, that’s a slight exaggeration, of course, because flour is then “enriched” by adding back about four or five of the fifteen or so vitamins and elements removed – iron, B1, B2, sometimes niacin which is B3, and folic acid. But the others are still missing when white bread or white rice arrives on your plate.

The particular ingredients that are removed permanently which are involved in the diabetes epidemic include Vitamin B6 and magnesium. For some unfathomable reason (cost?) these are not put back into white bread and rice when it is restored to the form in which it is served and eaten. Since these are needed for the control of blood sugar and the health of the pancreas, diabetes results unless they are obtained from other sources.

As nutritional expert Robert Houston has noted in his comment to the Diabetes 4 post, none of this is mentioned in the acres of newsprint devoted to the diabetes crisis in New York City this week by the Times. It is a sad oversight.

It is a particularly sad omission because otherwise the series performed a public service in drawing attention to the principle that reforming nutrition may often be a better answer to ailments than the usual weapons employed by the members of the medical profession to whom we pay such large sums for advice, which is to say the profit-based artificial drugs and surgical intervention they resort to at the drop of a hat.

We recently listened to a friend recounting his experience with a small benign growth under his eye. He was on the point of resorting to the dermatologist to have it cut out when he tried eating a blend of sweet almonds and stewed apricots, both organic. The growth darkened in a few hours, blackened and fell away in four days.

Possibly this was merely the power of mind over matter, and scientifically purely anecdotal, but the literature of nutrition and alternative medicine suggests that ingredients in these items are effective in this way. The friend is convinced that this was the case, since he is philosophically opposed to standard medical thinking in the US.

His success in this case matches his preference for nutritional approaches to cancer that he says stands as “counterpoint to the whole medical notion that you have to use heroic measures of toxic or invasive therapies that put the patient through hell and to the brink of death to save them when all that may be needed is a couple of pieces of fresh and tasty fruit,” He sounds quite exercised as he speaks.

He reminds us of the reason that the English are called limeys, which is that their sailors were the first among Europeans to eat or suck limes, oranges and lemons to counter scurvy, which arises from a lack of Vitamin C.

They were led to this strategy by Dr James Lind, the Navy surgeon who conducted what may have been the first controlled experiment in nutrition when he studied scurvy and fed different possible answers such as vinegar to different groups.

The astonishing result was that a couple of slices of oranges a day or sucking on a lemon or lime for two weeks proved enough to cure the ravages of an ailment which otherwise sent many sailors to a horrible death.

The lesson of all this may be that nutrition and diet are the most powerful cures for many ailments and should never be overlooked, as they tend to be in a society where the medical profession is overly fond of more remunerative and possibly less effective and more dangerous cures.

Certainly the scientific and medical scene in HIV?AIDS seems to be a case study in this kind of distortion.

In this regard one of the most poignant points made in the Times series was that the reason why Asian parents allow their children to be too easily beguiled by Western junk food, instead of being alarmed and provoked to battling to keep them on a healthy traditional cusine of fresh chicken, duck and vegetables, so rapidly and easily cooked in a wok, is that for a thousand years natural food and its ingredients has been used as a cure in China.

It takes some time for them to realize that in this country some kinds of food can in effect be poison.

Signs of skepticism about the literature now in the media

January 13th, 2006


But they fail to understand the subtler point

The Times notes that the naive faith that many science reporters have in the impeccable validity of papers in science journals is a little dented by the Dr Hwang debacle.

For their benefit, Nicholas Wade tells it like it is:

“Beyond Hwang, the more fundamental issue is that journals do not and cannot guarantee the truth of what they publish,” said Nicholas Wade, a science reporter for The New York Times. “Publication of a paper only means that, in the view of the referees who green-light it, it is interesting and not obviously false. In other words, all of the results in these journals are tentative.”

However, there is no hint of the biggest elephant on the room, which is that science journals do virtually nothing to counter the overly zealous tendency of established scientists to protect a ruling paradigm from demolition, at least initially.

Science journals would do the public and science itself a favor if they would break free from this pattern, since a fundamental characteristic of science is that progress often means that ruling wisdom is replaced.

Journals should host worthy paradigm debate, rather than exclude it too easily. As the cases of Science and Nature in HIV?AIDS shows, it is all too easy for them to become the fellow travelers of those in power in a field, rather than serve science and the public interest by empowering debate.

1) HEALTHY SCEPTICISM: REPORTERS FIND SCIENCE JOURNALS HARDER TO TRUST

The New York Times, 13 January 2006

http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/13/business/media/13journal.html

By JULIE BOSMAN

When the journal Science recently retracted two papers by the South Korean researcher Dr. Hwang Woo Suk, it officially confirmed what he had denied for months: Dr. Hwang had fabricated evidence that he had cloned human cells.

The journal Science recently retracted two papers by the South Korean researcher Dr. Hwang Woo Suk.

But the editors of Science were not alone in telling the world of Dr. Hwang’s research. Newspapers, wire services and television networks had initially trumpeted the news, as they often do with information served up by the leading scientific journals.

Now news organizations say they are starting to look at the science journals a bit more skeptically.

“My antennae are definitely up since this whole thing unfolded,” said Rob Stein, a science reporter for The Washington Post. “I’m reading papers a lot more closely than I had in the past, just to sort of satisfy myself that any individual piece of research is valid. But we’re still in sort of the same situation that the journal editors are, which is that if someone wants to completely fabricate data, it’s hard to figure that out.”

But other than heightened skepticism, not a lot has changed in how newspapers treat scientific journals. Indeed, newspaper irs openly acknowledge their dependence on them. At The Los Angeles Times, at least half of the science stories that run on the front page come directly from journals, said Ashley Dunn, the paper’s science editor. Gideon Gil, t

he health and science editor for The Boston Globe, said that two of the three science stories that run on a typical day were from research that appeared in journals.

Beyond newspapers, papers from journals are routinely picked up by newsweeklies, network news, talk radio and Web sites.

“They are the way science is conducted, they’re the way people share information, they’re the best approximation of acceptance by knowledgeable people,” said Laura Chang, science editor for The New York Times. “We do rely on them for the starting point of many of our stories, and that will not change.”

There are limits to the vetting that science reporters, who are generally not scientists themselves, can do. Most journal articles have embargoes attached, giving reporters several days to call specialists in the field, check footnotes on an article and scrutinize the results.

“Scientific discoveries are more difficult because they often require in the generalist reporter a good deal of study, follow-up interviews and some guidance on how to make sense of technical matters,” said Roy Peter Clark, a senior scholar at the Poynter Institute, which studies journalism. “But I think the scandals do require both a new level of skepticism on the part of the reporter and also maybe some new protocols between scientists and journalists.”

The Hwang case was not the first time journals had been duped: recently, editors at The New England Journal of Medicine said they suspected two cancer papers they published contained fabricated data. In December, the same journal said that the authors of a 2000 study on the painkiller Vioxx had omitted the fact that several patients had had heart attacks while taking the drug in a trial. A study on the painkiller Celebrex that appeared in The Journal of the American Medical Association was discredited when it was discovered that the authors had submitted only six months of data, instead of the 12 months of data they had collected.

While the journals have a peer review process that is in part meant to filter out fallacious papers by checking research techniques and conclusions, perhaps the greatest difficulty for science reporters is trying to catch what journal editors have missed.

After hearing the news of Dr. Hwang’s fabrications, Mr. Gil of The Globe said he immediately remembered his newspaper’s coverage of the stem cell papers.

“We were blown away, in part because we had written those stories on Page 1,” Mr. Gil said. “And when we wrote them, we called the leading experts in the world on all this embryonic stem cell stuff, who are here in Boston. And they were as hoodwinked as anybody else.”

Despite the fraud cases, most of what the journals publish is basically credible, said David Perlman, the science editor of The San Francisco Chronicle. Among the most prestigious science journals that reporters consult regularly are Nature, Science, The New England Journal of Medicine and The Journal of the American Medical Association.

“I think they and we have been burned enough that they’re making efforts,” Mr. Perlman said. “They’re being more careful now, and I think reporters are too. I definitely have more of a ‘Hey, let’s look more carefully’ attitude now that I did 5 or 10 years ago.”

Donald Kennedy, the editor of Science, said in a statement in December that the journal itself was not an investigative body. But when reporting on journal findings, most news outlets fail to caution that studies must be replicated to be truly authenticated.

“Beyond Hwang, the more fundamental issue is that journals do not and cannot guarantee the truth of what they publish,” said Nicholas Wade, a science reporter for The New York Times. “Publication of a paper only means that, in the view of the referees who green-light it, it is interesting and not obviously false. In other words, all of the results in these journals are tentative.”

The journals’ own peer review processes, which are intended to be the first barrier against fraud, have come under criticism lately. A cover story in the February issue of The Scientist said that the top-tier journals were receiving more submissions every year, overtaxing peer reviewers and weakening the screening process.

After the Hwang scandal, Science announced it was considering a set of changes to better prevent fraud: Dr. Kennedy said in January that new rules could include “requiring all authors to detail their specific contributions to the research submitted, and to sign statements of concurrence with the conclusions of the work,” as well as “implementing improved methods of detecting image alteration, although it appears improbable that they would have detected problems in this particular case.” (Through a spokeswoman, Dr. Kennedy declined to be interviewed and said the editors were currently conducting a review of the episode.)

Some newspapers have adopted guidelines of their own to check for conflicts of interest involving authors of journal articles. The Globe instituted guidelines last July requiring reporters to ask researchers about their financial ties to studies, and to include that information in resulting articles. In its weekly health and science section, The Globe outlines any shortcomings of a study under the heading “Cautions.”

Kit Frieden, the health and science editor for The Associated Press, said: “We’ve always had our own peer review process, where on the major studies we seek outside expert comment. We’ve always regarded scientific research cautiously because mistakes can be made, and I don’t think that’s changed.”

The growing competition for the most important research among the journals may contribute to mistakes and fabrications, even in the most prestigious of the bunch. But in the end, the severe consequences of presenting fraudulent research generally act as a deterrent, said Mr. Dunn of The Los Angeles Times.

“Unlike financial fraud, where you can bamboozle somebody of their money and disappear and then start over again, in science the researchers are in one place,” he said. “If they get caught in this type of thing, their careers are over.”

Copyright 2006, NYT

Diabetes 4 – Asian children easily sold on US snacks are at high risk

January 12th, 2006

Fat and sugar are much greater threats to Asians

Having barely had time to absorb the unhappiness and irrationality of the third shocking piece yesterday in the Times’ comprehensive survey of diabetes in New York City, we are today (Thu Jan 12) faced with East Meets West, Adding Pounds and Peril by Marc Santora, which explains that Asian immigrant children are easily seduced by Western junk food and have twice the risk of getting diabetes from it.

Meanwhile, schools pay their way by selling sugar-high Snapple and end up throwing fruit in the trash, and they flout state law by cutting down on gym and recess, so kids don’t exercise nearly as much as they need to.

The food and beverage industry protects its predatory access to children by spending millions in Albany, where legislators make fun of bills to make fast food restaurants tell customers what they are really eating.

Asians, especially those from Far Eastern nations like China, Korea and Japan, are acutely susceptible to Type 2 diabetes, the most common form of the disease and the subject of this series. They develop it at far lower weights than people of other races, studies show; at any weight, they are 60 percent more likely to get the disease than whites…

Even in China, the number of obese people has tripled since 1992 to 90 million, as Western food has become popular and prosperity has made it possible to eat more. The World Health Organization has warned that Asia faces a “tsunami” of diabetes in the coming decade, and health officials have assailed the Chinese government for its tepid response to the crisis….

At age 3, Henry Chen is learning his first words in English. “Mother” was first, followed by “father.” What came next, however, surprised his aunt, Cindy Chen.

“McDonald’s,” she said. “It was one of his first words.”

Given that this information stands squarely in the path of the food and restaurant industry, which one assumes plays a big part in the finances of the precious institution that is the Times, one can only wonder with awe what is going on inside that citadel that allowed its publication,

Kudos to Times

Suddenly a paper that seemed intent on trashing its own reputation with its unwillingness or inability to fact check its own reporters has produced an exemplary series which is on the side of the poor and ignorant and seriously affects the interests of one of its biggest advertiser segments.


The restaurant labeling bill looked like another loser. It had no support from the Democratic leadership. Although it was backed by the American Diabetes Association, which has spent $9,000 lobbying New York lawmakers in the past few years, it was opposed by the food industry, which contributed more than $4 million to legislative and gubernatorial campaigns between 1999 and 2005, according to state records.

One interesting section provides the background to the new universality of high fructose corn syrup as a sweetener in so many foods these days.

When 18-year-old Jin Yang dashed into a Key Food supermarket one rainy afternoon to buy food for her friends at Flushing High School, she wasn’t looking at nutrition labels. If she had, she might have noticed that nearly every purchase she considered – the low-fat yogurt, the basil vinaigrette and even the chicken noodle soup she ended up buying – shared the same major ingredient: high-fructose corn syrup, a sweetener first derived from corn in the 1960’s.

Underwritten by roughly $40 billion in federal subsidies paid to corn growers in the past 10 years alone, it is now so cheap that it has all but replaced cane sugar as the sweetener of choice in processed foods.

The syrup has been singled out by many health experts as one of the chief culprits in the rise of obesity. Its inexpensiveness, they say, has helped soda producers create the larger portions that have led to overconsumption. It is so versatile, they say, that it now shows up in many foods that would not have been sweetened at all in the past.

There is wide disagreement among scientists over some studies indicating that high-fructose corn syrup can hinder the body’s ability to process sugar, and can promote faster fat growth than sweeteners derived from cane sugar.

What no one disputes, however, is that since the advent of the syrup, consumption of all sweeteners has soared; the average American’s intake has increased about 35 percent, according to the Federal Department of Agriculture. And a 2004 study in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition showed that the rise of Type 2 diabetes since 1980 had closely paralleled the increased use of sweeteners, particularly corn syrup.

Food industry officials say there is nothing wrong with the syrup as long as people eat it in moderation.

The article ends with a depressing story of an Asian legislator failing to get his colleagues to take a bill seriously that would force restaurants to say what the fat. salt and calorie content of their offerings was.

The New York Times

January 12, 2006

Bad Blood

East Meets West, Adding Pounds and Peril

By MARC SANTORA

May Chen is slender and healthy, a lively little girl whose parents left their rural Chinese village just a decade ago in search of a better life. But at age 9, still in pigtails, she is already coming face to face with the forces that many say are making America fat and diabetic.

When May watches cartoons in her family’s apartment in Flushing, Queens, the commercials tell her that junk food is good food – the latest message from an industry that spends $10 billion a year marketing to children.

When she strolls down Main Street, she walks a growing gantlet of fast-food restaurants, many of them built with the help of government loans.

At her public school, the city sells sugary Snapple in vending machines to raise money. But it does not pay for a full physical education program, so May’s fourth-grade class has gym just once a week, in violation of state law.

And when she and her friends gather for snacks, she basks in their approval as she produces the high-calorie American-style treats, from chips to sweets, that are rapidly replacing traditional foods in the local markets.

Children all over the world are walking the same sort of obstacle course as obesity and Type 2 diabetes increasingly strike the young.

But to spend time with May Chen and the other children of immigrants in Flushing – at home in front of the TV, in the places where they eat and buy food, in their schools – is to appreciate the everyday threat confronting a particularly vulnerable group: the Asian-Americans who make up half the community’s population.

It is also to understand what alarms health authorities about the future of New York, a city of immigrants where Asians are the fastest-growing racial group.

Asians, especially those from Far Eastern nations like China, Korea and Japan, are acutely susceptible to Type 2 diabetes, the most common form of the disease and the subject of this series. They develop it at far lower weights than people of other races, studies show; at any weight, they are 60 percent more likely to get the disease than whites.

And that peril is compounded by recent immigrants’ sudden collision with American culture. Many of them left places where factory and field work was strenuous, televisions were rare and advertising was limited. They may speak little English and have poor access to medical care.

Many have never even heard of diabetes, much less the recent scientific studies showing that a Western diet, high in fat and sugar, puts them in danger of getting Type 2 diabetes, which has been linked to obesity and inactivity, as well as to heredity. (Type 1, which comprises only 5 percent to 10 percent of cases, is not associated with behavior, and is believed to stem almost entirely from genetic factors.)

Many recent Chinese immigrants have come from places where food was scarce, and experts say some view fat as a trophy of wealth and status. Their children try to fit into their new country by embracing its foods and its sedentary pastimes.

“When they give you the visa to the United States in Shanghai, Fujian or Beijing, they should stamp a clear warning: danger to your health,” said Marcelo M. Suarez-Orozco, co-director of immigration studies at New York University.

So far, that danger has not been fully realized. Flushing has only half as many diabetics as the New York neighborhoods where the disease has made its deepest inroads. City epidemiologists say they have limited data on its spread among Asians.

But they do know that 14 percent of Asian children in New York are obese, more than twice the rate among their parents. And they say there is mounting evidence – including soaring diabetes rates in major cities in China, and in other countries with Chinese immigrants – that New York will soon experience a similar explosion as more Asians arrive and have their first encounters with Western ways.

The clash of cultures is vividly apparent in Flushing, one of the city’s new Chinatowns. On streets like Roosevelt Avenue, older immigrants still throng traditional Asian markets, with their signs in Chinese, and dine at noodle shops where windows fog with steam. Their children, however, are increasingly lured by fast food. Along a 100-yard strip of storefronts are a McDonald’s, a Burger King, a Taco Bell, a Pizza Hut, and a Joe’s Best Burger.

Even in China, the number of obese people has tripled since 1992 to 90 million, as Western food has become popular and prosperity has made it possible to eat more. The World Health Organization has warned that Asia faces a “tsunami” of diabetes in the coming decade, and health officials have assailed the Chinese government for its tepid response to the crisis.

But in this country, where children are bombarded with much more food advertising, many health experts say the response has not been much stronger.

In Washington, money for school gym programs is measured in the millions, while billions are spent on subsidies for those who produce food sweeteners.

In Albany, where the restaurant and food industries are generous campaign donors, bills to raise awareness of nutrition and diabetes have been dismissed or derided.

In New York’s City Hall, a former councilwoman who has been outspoken on childhood obesity, Eva S. Moskowitz, sees similar apathy. “We have a massive problem on our hands,” she said. “There is an utter lack of urgency to do anything about it.”

And in Flushing, where the Small Business Administration has lent $4.6 million in the last decade to spur fast-food franchises, the community health center has trouble finding money for diabetes education.

Here, for anyone who cares to look, are the people left to fend for themselves: a new generation that will soon fill New York’s schools and workplaces, making the daily choices that could mean the difference between a healthy city and a colony of the sick.

A Melting Pot, Boiling Fiercely

Incredible, Li Li kept repeating, simply incredible.

For 14 years, ever since he moved to Flushing from Canton, China, he has hewed to the same diet that his ancestors ate for hundreds, if not thousands, of years. “Chicken, frog, duck, all very fresh – that is what we like,” said Mr. Li, a 40-year-old business consultant, as he steered a cart through the Hong Kong Market on Main Street.

But at only 3 years old, his twin daughters have already blazed their own path away from history. “They both like the American food,” he said. “I cannot stop that.”

He found the switch profoundly unsettling – not because he saw health consequences, but because it had happened so fast.

“Only recently, they tried Coke and they loved that,” he said, as one twin tried to grab a package of candy. “They won’t drink tea anymore. Can you believe it? They will not drink tea.”

It was a classic scene from the well-known story of American immigration: the children of newcomers eagerly assuming the ways of their new world, and rejecting the old.

But a rite of passage that used to take most immigrant families a generation or two – fully adopting the American diet – has accelerated for Asians, said James L. Watson, a Harvard anthropologist who has studied their response to fast food. Many have moved in just a few years from villages to China’s increasingly Westernized cities and then to the United States, he said, quickly abandoning traditional foods.

“Everything is happening at warp speed,” Dr. Watson said. “The melting pot may have been simmering in the past, but now it is raging.”

And the American diet they are taking up is far different from what it was for earlier generations of immigrants: a mind-boggling array of processed products, with added sugars and fats that can turn these unfamiliar foods into seductive pleasures.

Even the store Mr. Li was shopping in is a startling departure from the small produce and poultry shops that still crowd Flushing. The Hong Kong Market, which opened in 1996, is a meeting spot for old and new: a huge supermarket that stocks Chinese versions of processed American foods.

One shopper, Jian Kang Qiu, 43, an artist who moved from a coastal village in the province of Guangdong six years ago, said his family’s eating had changed radically.

“At home we would shop in the open market,” he said. “There was not so much packaged food. We would eat maybe two meals a day. Rice with something on the side, fish or vegetables.” Now, faced with the unlimited choices here, they eat a far broader diet, with many treats.

Mr. Qiu’s mother has Type 2 diabetes, and recently his younger sister learned that she does, too. It has made him a little more conscious of what he consumes. But he has given up trying to control what his 16-year-old daughter, Vicky, eats.

“She would prefer American food,” he said. “Her friends are going for pizza, she wants to go for pizza. It is normal. She wants to do what her friends are doing.”

The need to fit in is no less important for the fourth graders at Public School 120, where May Chen, the pigtailed 9-year-old, was the center of attention one afternoon as snack time rolled around.

May’s parents co-own a sushi restaurant, but she had come to school with a bag of all-American snacks: a shiny blue can of Lay’s Stax potato chips and a package of neon-orange Cheetos Puffs. She passed out chips to her friends, and in no time hands were stretched out all over the classroom.

No one gave a second glance to the steamed dumplings that a classmate, Annie Wu, had brought from home.

“There is a kind of shame issue,” said Professor Suarez-Orozco of N.Y.U., who has spent the last five years studying the lives of 400 immigrant families, with a focus on Asians. “The kids feel if they bring food from home, some ethnic dish, they are seen as not as cool and not with it.”

School is one place where good eating habits can be taught. Yet at P.S. 120, fats, sugars and calories figure heavily in cafeteria fare: burgers, pizza and chicken nuggets.

In the last two years, the Bloomberg administration has made some changes: hiring an executive chef to make food in all schools more nutritious; installing salad bars at many schools, including P.S. 120; and cutting the fat and calories in some of the most popular items. At lunch, every student gets a banana or an apple – a requirement that schools must meet to receive federal reimbursements.

But schools, critics say, are reluctant to change their menus too drastically and risk a drop in sales that would reduce those reimbursements. And at the end of each school day, the trash baskets at P.S. 120 are filled with the compulsory fruit.

‘If It Is Delicious, I Love It’

A sweet tooth is standard equipment on any child. But the sweetness that satisfies it is no longer limited to cookies and candy.

When 18-year-old Jin Yang dashed into a Key Food supermarket one rainy afternoon to buy food for her friends at Flushing High School, she wasn’t looking at nutrition labels. If she had, she might have noticed that nearly every purchase she considered – the low-fat yogurt, the basil vinaigrette and even the chicken noodle soup she ended up buying – shared the same major ingredient: high-fructose corn syrup, a sweetener first derived from corn in the 1960’s.

Underwritten by roughly $40 billion in federal subsidies paid to corn growers in the past 10 years alone, it is now so cheap that it has all but replaced cane sugar as the sweetener of choice in processed foods.

The syrup has been singled out by many health experts as one of the chief culprits in the rise of obesity. Its inexpensiveness, they say, has helped soda producers create the larger portions that have led to overconsumption. It is so versatile, they say, that it now shows up in many foods that would not have been sweetened at all in the past.

There is wide disagreement among scientists over some studies indicating that high-fructose corn syrup can hinder the body’s ability to process sugar, and can promote faster fat growth than sweeteners derived from cane sugar.

What no one disputes, however, is that since the advent of the syrup, consumption of all sweeteners has soared; the average American’s intake has increased about 35 percent, according to the Federal Department of Agriculture. And a 2004 study in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition showed that the rise of Type 2 diabetes since 1980 had closely paralleled the increased use of sweeteners, particularly corn syrup.

Food industry officials say there is nothing wrong with the syrup as long as people eat it in moderation.

But Jin, who came here just a year ago from rural northeastern China, said she had never even heard of the sweetener – or diabetes, for that matter. Thin and healthy, she subjects each food purchase to only one test. “If it is delicious,” she said, “I love it.”

Moderation may also be a foreign concept to many new immigrants from China because of deep-seated attitudes they have brought with them.

In many Chinese families, it is difficult to get parents and grandparents who were raised during the deadly famines and deprivations of the 1950’s to stop overfeeding their children. “Increased girth is an indicator of wealth,” said Dr. Thomas Tsang, medical director of the Charles B. Wang Community Health Center in Flushing.

But any extra weight is dangerous for Asians, research shows, because of their susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes. For example, a 5-foot-9 Japanese man who weighs 156 pounds – and who may never develop the sort of belly that is a warning sign for the disease – is twice as likely as a white man that size to become diabetic.

Because of that, Dr. Tsang said he believed that the number of Asian diabetics is underestimated; he has recently diagnosed at least a dozen new cases among his longtime patients. “It’s astounding,” he said. “And it puts a lot of pressure on us to educate them.”

The Wang Center has hired three diabetes nurse educators and a nutritionist in the last two years. But the effort to prevent, diagnose and treat the disease is hobbled, Dr. Tsang said, by cultural barriers. Asian immigrants who are in the country illegally tend to avoid doctors, and some Chinese people will not test their blood sugar.

“My own mother has diabetes,” the doctor said, “and she will not draw her own blood. She believes blood is the life essence and should not be lost.”

Selling Frosted Flakes and Fitness

At age 3, Henry Chen is learning his first words in English. “Mother” was first, followed by “father.” What came next, however, surprised his aunt, Cindy Chen.

“McDonald’s,” she said. “It was one of his first words.”

Neither fast food nor television was part of the Chens’ life in Fuzhou, a Chinese city where they struggled to find work before moving to Flushing four years ago.

Now Henry and his family show up at least once a week at McDonald’s. At home, he perches on the sofa to watch Nickelodeon. By his aunt’s estimate, he spends as much as 30 hours a week in front of the TV – more than double the average for a child in China, according to data collected for The New York Times by AGB Nielsen Media Research. Like a human SpongeBob, he soaks up ads for Pop-Tarts and Lucky Charms.

There is nothing new about the marketing of food to children, with all of its cartoon characters and free toys. According to a study released in May by the Grocery Manufacturers Association, the average child watches 4,900 food commercials a year.

What is new, though, is the message that child – and his parents – are hearing.

Ronald McDonald now snowboards, and his once-portly frame looks to have shed at least 30 pounds. The box for Henry’s Happy Meals reads, “A game of tag keeps me happy and fit.” In one commercial, a woman does a victory jig when she finds out her Lay’s potato chips are low-fat. A Frosted Flakes ad shows children running around a soccer field with Tony the Tiger.

“Without a doubt, the food industry, while not moving away from convenience, has begun to push health as the main driver of food packaging and promotion,” said Don Montuori, publisher of Packaged Facts, which does consumer research for food companies.

The companies say they are doing their part to combat obesity by offering lower-calorie, lower-fat choices, and encouraging children to exercise. McDonald’s sponsors track events for young runners, and Coca-Cola has created the Tiger Woods Foundation to promote children’s sports.

But what would seem to be welcome news has simply created a different problem, according to many nutritionists and public health officials. Despite a salad here or a lower-fat oil there, they say, the food industry has done little to change the basic unhealthfulness of its best-selling products. And by making the link to fitness, they say, the companies are telling children that all of those foods are good for them.

New immigrants from China are keenly receptive to such claims because the Chinese have used foods to cure illnesses and promote general health for thousands of years, said Dr. Watson, the Harvard anthropologist. One cure for a cough, for instance, involves duck gizzards, apricot kernels and watercress. A variety of foods are thought to improve brain function.

Many Chinese people have replaced those traditional foods with processed foods, Dr. Watson said, and have little idea what is in them. Still, the faith in food persists: for instance, he said, there is a widespread perception in China that eating at McDonald’s can somehow make you smarter. In New York, Professor Suarez-Orozco said, immigrant parents often reinforce that connection by rewarding academic achievement with a McDonald’s meal.

And many Chinese companies have adopted the same kind of health pitches as their American counterparts. At the Hong Kong Market, a juice box called Vita Chrysanthemum Tea promotes itself as a health drink for children, though nutritionally it is little different from Snapple.

Ye Zhou, a sixth grader whose parents arrived from China shortly before she was born, said she tried to eat right, and knew that some foods were unhealthful. On this day she had come to the McDonald’s on Main Street to try the new Premium Crispy Chicken Breast Sandwich, drawn by the ads that touted the “energy” packed in the meal, which includes French fries and a soda.

How, she was asked, did it compare nutritionally with the stir-fried chicken and rice her mother made at home?

“They taste different,” she said. “But one is not healthier than the other.”

Actually, the fast-food meal has at least one-third more calories, carbohydrates and grams of fat than a typical homemade one.

Even before the latest blitz of health messages, children were confused, the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation said in a 2004 report on childhood obesity. In a 1997 study it cited, fourth and fifth graders were asked which of two foods – say, corn flakes or frosted flakes – was more healthful; the children who watched the most TV were the most likely to pick the less nutritious one.

For more than two decades, Dr. Daniel S. Acuff helped hone food ads aimed at children as a marketing consultant to companies like Coca-Cola and Nestle. But about two years ago, he said, he stopped consulting on products he did not consider nutritious after recognizing the threat posed by obesity. He called the industry’s new sales strategies disingenuous. “To position themselves as leaders in providing healthy food for children is nonsense,” he said.

He and others – including the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Psychological Association – have called for tighter restrictions on advertising to children, similar to limits in Australia, Canada and England. They are also concerned about the increasing use of the Internet and video games to sell food.

But repeated attempts to enact such strictures in the United States have failed for three decades, and at a meeting last July in Washington, the Federal Trade Commission told food and advertising executives that it favored letting the industry police itself.

A few companies have done just that – most notably Kraft Foods, which decided last January to curb its advertising of certain products, like Oreos and Kool-Aid, to children under 12. The move raised eyebrows both in the food industry and in public health circles because of its implicit suggestion that there are bad foods. The industry has long maintained that there are no bad foods, only bad habits – like overeating.

Tim Wong is only 10, but he had no problem polishing off a large dinner platter from the adult menu one afternoon at the KFC on Main Street in Flushing. He had asked his mother to take him and his 6-year-old sister, Tiffany, so they could try “the new stuff” on the menu. “I see the new items on television and I want them,” he said.

When he was asked what his favorite foods were, his mother laughed.

“Look at him,” she said in a matter-of-fact way, as Tim is obviously overweight. “He likes his junk.”

Time for Gym! O.K., Time’s Up!

“Two fingers in the air!” the teacher aides shouted at the more than 100 children squirming in the auditorium seats.

Two fingers held high is the way students at May Chen’s school signal that they are sitting quietly enough to be let out for recess. It was 10:30 a.m., less than two hours after they had been served a breakfast that included chocolate milk, a doughnut and a juice box – at least 400 calories and 47 grams of sugar waiting to be burned off.

Finally the doors opened, and the students scampered out to the playground, a parking lot ringed by a chain-link fence. Several boys ran around like mad. In a makeshift game of keep-away, May and some other girls tossed around a bag of cheese snacks.

They had to play fast. Twelve girls were lined up to jump rope, but only three had a chance before a bell summoned them back inside for lunch.

May’s recess had lasted eight minutes.

It was, as always, the only recess for the day, and fortunately the weather was mild. On cold or rainy days, the children stay inside and watch movies.

Recess and physical education are treated like luxuries in the New York City schools. Though half the grade schoolers are overweight and roughly one in four are obese, the city did little until last year to promote one of the best antidotes: exercise.

May, like most schoolchildren in the city, does not get even the minimum amount of physical education mandated by state law, two hours a week. She has a single gym class each week, for 50 minutes.

She is among the lucky ones. More than half the city’s 700 elementary schools have no usable outdoor play space, according to a 2003 survey by the City Department of Education. May’s school has only one gym teacher for its 1,000 students, but roughly one in seven elementary schools in the city have no teacher dedicated to physical education.

And although P.S. 120 has a functioning gym, many elementary schools do not, according to reports by the City Council and the State Assembly. Even those that have gyms often use them for classes or meetings. There has been no standardized testing of student fitness in more than a generation.

The sad state of the school gym class is a legacy of the city’s fiscal crisis in the 1970’s, when the budget for physical education was slashed to protect other academic programs. But New York’s plight is not much worse than the rest of the country’s.

Even as the health authorities pronounced obesity a national epidemic, daily participation in gym classes dropped to 28 percent in 2003 from 42 percent in 1991, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. And the Bush administration recently proposed cutting Physical Education Program grants to schools by more than one-quarter, to $55 million, though Congress rejected the proposal.

Schools are so desperate to finance exercise programs that many have turned to food companies for help. McDonald’s is offering curriculums and undisclosed sums to 31,000 schools across the country to improve physical education through an effort called Passport to Play; every piece of program literature that children see will carry the company’s golden-arches logo.

Two years ago, even as New York’s health department was assigning a team to improve the treatment of diabetics, the city signed a deal with Snapple that made its fruit drinks the only beverages, besides water, sold in school vending machines. A 12-ounce can of Snapple contains 170 calories and 40 grams of sugar, as much as most colas. The calories in three cans – the amount many students drink every day – would take at least three hours to walk off.

The 29 fourth graders in May Chen’s class have gym directly after lunch, and their stomachs were full this day with chicken nuggets. They did not change into gym clothes. The teacher, Bruce Adler, started them off with calisthenics, moving quickly to situps and three leisurely laps around the basketball court. There were groans, and several children were winded, but few broke a sweat.

Mr. Adler, 55, said the school could really use a second teacher, recalling how different things were when he was growing up in Yonkers. Students there had at least three gym classes a week, he said.

New York school officials say they are adding more physical education teachers each year. And two years ago, the Bloomberg administration created the Office of Fitness and Physical Education. Its director, Lori Rose Benson, has begun a program called Physical Best, which will track students’ fitness, charting progress for each school. She said she hoped to start the program by the end of this school year in every grade school with a physical education teacher, including May’s.

She conceded it was merely a first step. “It is very difficult to reverse a culture that existed for 20 to 30 years,” she said.

Tilting at Golden Arches

At least two unthinkable things happened in Albany in the past year.

One made headlines: The Legislature passed a budget on time. The other went unnoticed: The Assembly actually debated a bill that tried to address, in some small way, the leap in obesity and Type 2 diabetes.

It was a rare moment of attention for a cause that has drawn little more than lip service from government officials, and it was short-lived. The debate, and the bill, died in mocking laughter.

The story of that bill, known as A5664, is a lesson in the ways of Albany – and the apathy that diabetes experts say is blocking any effective response to the epidemic.

The lesson was an abrupt one for Assemblyman Jimmy Meng of Flushing, who had already embarked on a sharp learning curve. When he was elected the previous fall – the first Asian-American voted into state office in New York – diabetes was nowhere near the top of his list of health issues.

But as he became more aware of the disease’s threat to children and young adults in his community, Mr. Meng said, he became frustrated with the ignorance and inaction he discovered.

In April, he organized and led the first march in Queens to raise money and awareness in the battle against diabetes. And he agreed to support legislation by a fellow Assembly Democrat, Felix Ortiz of Brooklyn.

The bill would require all restaurants to prominently post the amounts of calories, fat and salt in each menu item. It was hardly a radical notion. Many fast-food chains had already begun listing calorie counts in restaurants and on Web sites, and months later McDonald’s would decide to print nutritional data right on its wrappers.

But Mr. Ortiz felt those moves were only a start. Who knew how many calories were in a slice of the neighborhood pizza or a Starbucks caramel macchiato?

His passion for the issue – this was just one of six bills he introduced in the 2004-5 session to fight obesity and diabetes – was fed by his own loss. His mother died of the disease when she was only 58.

“Everything was caused because she did not take care of her weight,” he said.

In Albany, the path from legislation to law is thorny, and Mr. Ortiz brought along his own set of hurdles. He was hardly an insider within the Democratic conference, which is controlled by Speaker Sheldon Silver, and some of his bills were considered odd. One would have made it a crime for a person not to come to the aid of another in trouble.

The restaurant labeling bill looked like another loser. It had no support from the Democratic leadership. Although it was backed by the American Diabetes Association, which has spent $9,000 lobbying New York lawmakers in the past few years, it was opposed by the food industry, which contributed more than $4 million to legislative and gubernatorial campaigns between 1999 and 2005, according to state records.

And diabetes had hardly caught fire as a pressing health issue. The Pataki administration is investing $9 million this year to encourage physical activity among children, but the state has not moved to limit the sale of unhealthful snacks in schools, as a half-dozen other states have. Only $1.9 million of the $100 billion state budget goes directly to diabetes prevention and control, roughly the same amount spent to fight anorexia and bulimia.

Two months after the Health Committee approved Mr. Ortiz’s bill, it had still not come up for a full Assembly vote. But on June 22, as the legislative session wound down, the bill found its moment.

Many members were in a hurry to leave town. As evening approached, Mr. Ortiz spotted Mr. Silver, chased him down a corridor and cornered him outside the speaker’s office, in a space where legislators often horse-trade in whispers. Mr. Ortiz, however, was shouting: “I get the same excuse every year!”

He wanted his bill debated and voted on by the full Assembly – an unusual request in Albany, where measures rarely make it to the floor of either house unless they are assured passage. Mr. Ortiz’s five other bills to fight obesity had languished in committees.

If a bill this mild could not succeed in New York, Mr. Ortiz argued, what hope was there for more sweeping measures?

Mr. Silver relented. And when the bill came up for a vote, near midnight, Mr. Ortiz had the floor. “This is about the future of our children,” he said.

When he stopped, the sarcasm began.

James D. Conte, a Long Island Republican, said his family owned a burger restaurant. What would happen, he asked, in the case of all-you-can-eat buffets?

Mr. Ortiz said the law would apply only to standard menu items.

“What about the weekly specials?” Mr. Conte asked.

Laughter rose in the chamber. Daniel J. O’Donnell, a fellow Democrat from Manhattan, kept it going. “I watch people who work at McDonald’s, and they don’t measure how much salt they put on fries,” he said. “Do you expect there to be a shaker lesson?”

Mr. Ortiz said he guessed that employees were adequately educated.

An hour went by. A few colleagues defended the measure. Others argued that enforcing it would be a nightmare, and that the costs would hurt small restaurants.

As the time for debate waned, Joel M. Miller, a Republican from Poughkeepsie, rose to state his position. “I did not develop this physique by eating healthy,” Mr. Miller, a stout man, said to guffaws. A colleague completed the joke by bringing him a generous plate of cookies.

“The bottom line is, it is not going to matter,” Mr. Miller said. “We are fooling and deluding ourselves.”

Mr. Ortiz made one last plea. “When we look at the rate of diabetes in our state,” he said, “and when we look at this bill, we should remind ourselves that the decision we make here tonight will make an impact on our kids.”

The result was clear as soon as the voting began. The yes votes showed up on an electric signboard in green, the no votes in red. Within minutes, the board was glowing red.

Before the tally could be completed, Mr. Ortiz stood and delivered the final word: “I would like to say, with a lot of passion, I withdraw this bill.”

* Copyright 2006The New York Times Company

Science admits it has to reassess its review process

January 12th, 2006

But Donald needs a push in the direction of a conference

Nicholas Wade notes today (Jan 11 Wed) in Journal to Examine How It Reviewed Articles that Donald Kennedy, the editor of Science, has acknowledged at last that his review procedures may need updating in the wake of Dr Hwang’s scientific shell game.

But Kennedy has no good ideas to suggest so far except to make every scientist who puts his name to a paper (sometims there are six or more, including as in the Dr Hwang case someone who has never seen the experiment it records) own up in writing to what his contribution to the work was, exactly.

He maintains that realistically, it may be impossible to filter out all fraud from his pages,

Authors may also be required to sign statements saying that they agree with a report’s conclusions.

Dr. Kennedy said in an interview that the review system could not be relied on to prevent fraud.

“I do not think a perfect system can be designed for detecting fraud, and I do not think we can make a dramatic improvement in our capacity to detect it,” he said.

It will be interesting to hear his reasons, after he has devoted a little more thought to the topic. The problem of HIV?AIDS indicates just how important it is avoid claims being supported for the non scientific reasons of fortune and fame, and the issue of how to make peer review a little tougher is obviously wider than simply blocking outright fraud.

With the scientific literature the only stable measure of the quality of science, and peer review the only means of guarding its virtue, in a century where the unscientific stakes of money, power and fame can exert an overwhelming influence on the behavior of scientists, we need a whole conference on the topic.

We at the Committee for Scientific Progress support such a conference and its goal of improving the quality and integrity of the peer review process as a leading priority in the self-governance of science today.

For historical, geographical and ethical reasons we suggest Rockefeller University would be the ideal site.

We are thinking that not only is it sufficiently far removed from the influence of Washington politics, but it is also the place where a certain scientist lost his high position in the wake of his poor behavior in protecting a questionable paper to which he had signed his name without actually checking the experiment done, or so it seemed, including (all this according to testimony in front of the investigating Dingell Committee in Congress) mounting a massive effort to protect it from review and to destroy the career of the whistleblower who had sucked him into such public embarrassment, behavior which resulted in such a wave of disapproval from the majority of the professors at Rockefeller that he was forced to flee in shame and humiliation.

Surely this is the correct venue for a reassessment of how science must guard its virtue.

The New York Times

January 11, 2006

Journal to Examine How It Reviewed Articles

By NICHOLAS WADE

Science magazine, the leading scientific journal that published Dr. Hwang Woo Suk’s two now-discredited reports on cloning human cells, said yesterday that it would evaluate how the articles had been reviewed and search for ways to improve its procedures.

The journal’s statement followed the announcement yesterday by an investigatory panel of Seoul National University that Dr. Hwang had never generated embryonic stem cells from human cells, as he reported in articles in March 2004 and June 2005.

The 2005 paper was retracted by the authors, and the journal is now retracting the 2004 paper.

Journal editors have usually taken the position that their reviewers cannot be expected to detect fabrication. This was the view expressed by Donald Kennedy, the editor of Science, and Philip Campbell, the editor of Nature, at an earlier phase of the Hwang scandal.

Nature has emerged the luckier of the two journals, having published only Dr. Hwang’s claim that he had cloned a dog, Snuppy. The Seoul panel said yesterday that Snuppy was a true clone.

Science, however, must recover from publishing the two articles on human embryonic stem cells, which seemed to bring therapeutic cloning – treating patients with new tissues generated from their own cells – almost within reach.

One change Science is considering is to require a statement from each author describing his or her contribution to an article. These statements would be published, probably online, Dr. Kennedy said.

By longstanding practice, scientific reports carry only a list of authors. The first and last named authors generally garner most of the credit for a discovery. The custom is that the first author is the one who did most of the research and the last is the most senior author.

Authors may also be required to sign statements saying that they agree with a report’s conclusions.

Dr. Kennedy said in an interview that the review system could not be relied on to prevent fraud.

“I do not think a perfect system can be designed for detecting fraud, and I do not think we can make a dramatic improvement in our capacity to detect it,” he said.

Benjamin Lewin, a former editor of the journal Cell, said the requirement to state individual contributions might prevent scientists from getting an authorship credit when they had made a minor contribution or raised money. “If this proposal took hold, it wouldn’t be a bad thing since you would have a better sense of people’s contributions,” he said.

* Copyright 2006The New York Times Company

Diabetes 3 – how insurance companies worsen suffering

January 11th, 2006

Success of clinics stymied by pencil pushers

The Times this morning (Wed Jan 11) delivers the third round of its blockbuster illumination of the neglected diabetes crisis in New York City, by Ian Urbina.

This time the focus is on the irrational behavior of insurers who are unwilling to pay small amounts for preventive measures, yet will happily shell out huge sums for the major interventions needed later as patients literally rot.

But seven years later, even as the number of New Yorkers with Type 2 diabetes has nearly doubled, three of the four centers, including Beth Israel’s, have closed.

They did not shut down because they had failed their patients. They closed because they had failed to make money. They were victims of the byzantine world of American health care, in which the real profit is made not by controlling chronic diseases like diabetes but by treating their many complications.

Insurers, for example, will often refuse to pay $150 for a diabetic to see a podiatrist, who can help prevent foot ailments associated with the disease. Nearly all of them, though, cover amputations, which typically cost more than $30,000.

Patients have trouble securing a reimbursement for a $75 visit to the nutritionist who counsels them on controlling their diabetes. Insurers do not balk, however, at paying $315 for a single session of dialysis, which treats one of the disease’s serious complications.

This insanity has sabotaged the success of professionals in treating the disease:

It usually took Dr. Bernstein seven minutes to walk from his office in Fierman Hall to the hospital president’s office across 17th Street. On Jan. 4, 2000, he had a bounce in his step, and it took him half that time, he recalled.

He had a good story to tell, and graphs and tables to back it up. The Beth Israel center was an unqualified medical success. In fact, patient loads were growing by 20 percent each month as its reputation spread.

When he arrived, Dr. Fink, then the hospital’s president, asked the three other executives to take their seats. Dr. Bernstein began talking before he had reached his chair.

“Things are really coming along well,” he said as he handed out a spreadsheet. “Patients are starting to turn their lives around.”

Pausing, Dr. Bernstein looked around the table. He was struck by an awkward silence.

“Jerry, we need to talk about what is happening at the hospital,” Dr. Fink said. “We’re going to have to close your program.”

Placement of the story is once again top left front page. The Times are ensuring that no one of any related responsibility is going to miss seeing this series.

Dr. Bernstein says the lone hope on the horizon is a restructured reimbursement system that puts the business of chronic care on a more competitive footing with acute care. Experts say this restructuring could start if government insurance programs like Medicaid began paying more for preventive efforts like education, a move that the private sector would be likely to follow.

Whatever changes in response will indicate the level of beneficial influence we’ll lose if and when the nibbling of Craigs List and the Internet siphoning of ads from the financial base of this print giant finally brings it down, if that is what the future holds.

Room for the Times to examine itself thoroughly too – in HIV?AIDS

With this kind of work, the prospect of losing the Times gives one pause. Just as scientific journals are the voice of scientific progress, and the essential data base for advances, so the Times is the paper of record and a data base which presents and frames much of the knowledge and opinion on which the city and the nation depends in rethinking the future.

It may be a long time before any blog or web site can match the substance of this series on diabetes, if they ever do.

On the other hand, the Times has also shown, by its fellow traveling coverage of a paradigm in HIV?AIDS that has been demolished in top level reviews, that it can also be a very bad influence in medicine when its reporters are naive or lazy in dealing with politically empowered scientists whose consensus they accept without examination, being either unwilling or incapable of investigating by reading the literature themselves to see if the consensus is justified, rather than relying on their sources’ reassurances.

Perhaps the final solution to a vexed issue of this kind, where an unsustainable paradigm is able to escape the kind of massive investigation and writeup managed here for diabetes, may well be a marriage of Times-level throughness, values and good writing with the blogs of science critics, if any can be found (the number of these in the US can probably be counted on two hands).

This kind of 21 Century paradigm busting may be modeled by the review mechanism that led to the downfall of Dr Hwang last week, a combination of youthful Korean scientists who posted in the Internet and the review they pressured Science into.

The New York Times

January 11, 2006

Bad Blood

In the Treatment of Diabetes, Success Often Does Not Pay

By IAN URBINA

With much optimism, Beth Israel Medical Center in Manhattan opened its new diabetes center in March 1999. Miss America, Nicole Johnson Baker, herself a diabetic, showed up for promotional pictures, wearing her insulin pump.

In one photo, she posed with a man dressed as a giant foot – a comical if dark reminder of the roughly 2,000 largely avoidable diabetes-related amputations in New York City each year. Doctors, alarmed by the cost and rapid growth of the disease, were getting serious.

At four hospitals across the city, they set up centers that featured a new model of treatment. They would be boot camps for diabetics, who struggle daily to reduce the sugar levels in their blood. The centers would teach them to check those levels, count calories and exercise with discipline, while undergoing prolonged monitoring by teams of specialists.

But seven years later, even as the number of New Yorkers with Type 2 diabetes has nearly doubled, three of the four centers, including Beth Israel’s, have closed.

They did not shut down because they had failed their patients. They closed because they had failed to make money. They were victims of the byzantine world of American health care, in which the real profit is made not by controlling chronic diseases like diabetes but by treating their many complications.

Insurers, for example, will often refuse to pay $150 for a diabetic to see a podiatrist, who can help prevent foot ailments associated with the disease. Nearly all of them, though, cover amputations, which typically cost more than $30,000.

Patients have trouble securing a reimbursement for a $75 visit to the nutritionist who counsels them on controlling their diabetes. Insurers do not balk, however, at paying $315 for a single session of dialysis, which treats one of the disease’s serious complications.

Not surprising, as the epidemic of Type 2 diabetes has grown, more than 100 dialysis centers have opened in the city.

“It’s almost as though the system encourages people to get sick and then people get paid to treat them,” said Dr. Matthew E. Fink, a former president of Beth Israel.

Ten months after the hospital’s center was founded, it had hemorrhaged more than $1.1 million. And the hospital gave its director, Dr. Gerald Bernstein, three and a half months to direct its patients elsewhere.

The center’s demise, its founders and other experts say, is evidence of a medical system so focused on acute illnesses that it is struggling to respond to diabetes, a chronic disease that looms as the largest health crisis facing the city.

America’s high-tech, pharmaceutical-driven system may excel at treating serious short-term illnesses like coronary blockages, experts say, but it is flailing when it comes to Type 2 diabetes, a condition that builds over time and cannot be solved by surgery or a few weeks of taking pills.

Type 2 , the subject of this series, has been linked to obesity and inactivity, as well as to heredity. (Type 1, which comprises only 5 percent to 10 percent of cases, is not associated with behavior, and is believed to stem almost entirely from genetic factors.)

Instead of receiving comprehensive treatment, New York’s Type 2 diabetics often suffer under substandard care.

They do not test their blood as often as they should because they cannot afford the equipment. Patients wait months to see endocrinologists – who provide critical diabetes care – because lower pay has drawn too few doctors to the specialty. And insurers limit diabetes benefits for fear they will draw the sickest, most expensive patients to their rolls.

Dr. Diana K. Berger, who directs the diabetes prevention program for the City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, said the bias against effective care for chronic illnesses could be seen in the new popularity of another high-profit quick fix: bariatric surgery, which shrinks stomach size and has been shown to be effective at helping to control diabetes.

“If a hospital charges, and can get reimbursed by insurance, $50,000 for a bariatric surgery that takes just 40 minutes,” she said, “or it can get reimbursed $20 for the same amount of time spent with a nutritionist, where do you think priorities will be?”

Back in the Pantsuit

Calorie by calorie, the staff of Beth Israel’s center tried to turn diabetic lives around from their base of operations: a classroom and three adjoining offices on the seventh floor of Fierman Hall, a hospital building on East 17th Street.

The stark, white-walled classroom did not look like much. But it was functional and clean and several times a week, a dozen or so people would crowd around a rectangular table that was meant for eight, listening attentively, staff members said.

Claudia Slavin, the center’s dietitian, remembers asking the patients to stand, one by one.

“Tell me what your waking blood sugar was,” she told them, “and then try to explain why it is high or low.”

People whose sugars soar damage themselves irreparably, even if the consequences are not felt for 10 or 20 years. Unchecked, diabetes can lead to kidney failure, blindness, heart disease, amputations – a challenging slate for any single physician with a busy caseload to manage.

One patient, Ella M. Hammond, a retired school administrator, recalled standing up in the classroom one day in 1999.

“Has anyone noticed what’s different about me?” Ms. Hammond asked.

Blank stares.

“Now, come on,” she said, ruffling the fabric of a black gabardine pantsuit she had not worn since slimmer days, years earlier.

“Don’t y’all notice 20 pounds when it goes away?” she asked.

Ms. Slavin, one of four full-time staff members who worked at the center, remembers laughing. There were worse reasons for an interruption than a success story.

Like many Type 2 diabetics, Ms. Hammond had been warned repeatedly by her primary care doctor that her weight was too high, her lifestyle too inactive and her diet too rich. And then she had been shown the door, until her next appointment a year later.

“The center was a totally different experience,” Ms. Hammond said. “What they did worked because they taught me how to deal with the disease, and then they forced me to do it.”

Two hours a day, twice a week for five weeks, Ms. Hammond learned how to manage her disease. How the pancreas works to create insulin, a hormone needed to process sugar. Why it is important to leave four hours between meals so insulin can finish breaking down the sugar. She counted the grams of carbohydrates in a bag of Ruffles salt and vinegar potato chips, her favorite, and traded vegetarian recipes.

After ignoring her condition for 20 years, Ms. Hammond, 63, began to ride a bicycle twice a week and mastered a special sauce, “more garlic than butter,” that made asparagus palatable.

She also learned how to decipher the reading on her A1c test, a periodic blood-sugar measurement that is a crucial yardstick of whether a person’s diabetes is under control.

“I was just happy to finally know what that number really meant,” she said.

Many doctors who treat diabetics say they have long been frustrated because they feel they are struggling single-handedly to reverse a disease with the gale force of popular culture behind it.

Type 2 diabetes grows hand in glove with obesity, and America is becoming fatter. Undoubtedly, many of these diabetics are often their own worst enemies. Some do not exercise. Others view salad as a foreign substance and, like smokers, often see complications as a distant threat.

To fix Type 2 diabetes, experts agree, you have to fix people. Change lifestyles. Adjust thinking. Get diabetics to give up sweets and prick their fingers to test their blood several times a day.

It is a tall order for the primary care doctors who are the sole health care providers for 90 percent of diabetics.

Too tall, many doctors say. When office visits typically last as little as eight minutes, doctors say there is no time to retool patients so they can adopt an entirely new approach to food and life.

“Think of it this way,” said Dr. Berger. “An average person spends less than .03 percent of their entire life meeting with a clinician. The rest of the time they’re being bombarded with all the societal influences that make this disease so common.”

As a result, primary care doctors often have a fatalistic attitude about controlling the disease. They monitor patients less closely than specialists, studies show.

For those under specialty care, there is often little coordination of treatment, and patients end up Ping-Ponging between their appointments with little sense of their prognosis or of how to take control of their condition.

Consequently, ignorance prevails. Of 12,000 obese people in a 1999 federal study, more than half said they were never told to curb their weight.

Fewer than 40 percent of those with newly diagnosed diabetes receive any follow-up, according to another study. In New York City, officials say, nearly 9 out of 10 diabetics do not know their A1c scores, that most fundamental of statistics.

In fact, without symptoms or pain, most Type 2 diabetics find it hard to believe they are truly sick until it is too late to avoid the complications that can overwhelm them. The city comptroller recently found that even in neighborhoods with accessible and adequate health care, most diabetics suffer serious complications that could have been prevented.

This grim reality persuaded hospital officials in the 1990’s to try something different. The new centers would provide the tricks for changing behavior and the methods of tracking complications that were lacking from most care.

Instead of having rushed conversations with harried primary care physicians, patients would discuss their weights and habits for months with a team of diabetes educators, and have their conditions tracked by a panel of endocrinologists, ophthalmologists and podiatrists.

“The entire country was watching,” said Dr. Bernstein, director of the Beth Israel center, who was then president of the American Diabetes Association.

By all apparent measures, the aggressive strategy worked. Five months into the program, more than 60 percent of the center’s patients who were tested had their blood sugar under control. Close to half the patients who were measured had already lost weight. Competing hospitals directed patients to the program.

“For the first time in my 23 years of diabetes work I felt like we had momentum,” said Jane Seley, the center’s nurse practitioner. “And it wasn’t backwards momentum.”

Failure for Profit

From the outset, everyone knew diabetes centers were financially risky ventures. That is why Beth Israel took a distinctive approach before sinking $1.5 million into its plan.

Instead of being top-heavy with endocrinologists, who are expensive specialists, Beth Israel relied more on nutritionists and diabetes educators with lower salaries, said Dr. Fink, the hospital’s former president.

The other centers that opened took similar precautions.

The St. Luke’s-Joslin diabetes center, on the Upper West Side, tried lowering doctors’ salaries, hiring dietitians only part time and being aggressive about getting reimbursed by insurers, said Dr. Xavier Pi-Sunyer, who ran the center.

Mount Sinai Hospital’s diabetes center hired an accounting firm to calculate just how many bypass surgeries, kidney transplants and other profitable procedures the center would have to send to the hospital to offset the cost of keeping the center running, said Dr. Andrew Drexler, the center’s director.

Nonetheless, both of these centers closed for financial reasons within five years of opening.

In hindsight, the financial flaws were hardly mysterious, experts say. Chronic care is simply not as profitable as acute care because insurers, and consumers, do not want to pay as much for care that is not urgent, according to Dr. Arnold Milstein, medical director of the Pacific Business Group on Health.

By the time a situation is acute, when dialysis and amputations are necessary, the insurer, which has been gambling on never being asked to cover procedures that far down the road, has little choice but to cover them, if only to avoid lawsuits, analysts said.

Patients are also more inclined to pay high prices when severe health consequences are imminent. When the danger is distant, perhaps uncertain, as with chronic conditions, there is less willingness to pay, which undercuts prices and profits, Dr. Milstein explained.

“There is a lesser sense of alarm associated with slow-moving threats, so prices and profits for chronic and preventive care remain low,” he said. “Doctors, insurers and hospitals can command much higher prices and profit margins for a bypass surgery that a patient needs today than they can for nutrition counseling likely to prevent a bypass tomorrow.”

Ms. Seley said the belief was that however marginal the centers might be financially, they would bring in business.

“Diabetes centers are for hospitals what discounted two-liter bottles of Coke are to grocery stores,” she said. “They are not profitable but they’re sold to get dedicated customers, and with the hospitals the hope is to get customers who will come back for the big moneymaking surgeries.”

Indeed, former officials of the Beth Israel center said they anticipated that operating costs would be underwritten by the amputations and dialysis that some of their diabetic patients would end up needing anyway, despite the center’s best efforts. “In other words, our financial success in part depended on our medical failure,” Ms. Slavin said.

The other option was to have a Russ Berrie.

Mr. Berrie, a toymaker from the Bronx, made a fortune in the 1980’s through the wild popularity of a product he sold, the Troll doll, a three-inch plastic monster with a puff of fluorescent hair. Mr. Berrie took more than $20 million of his doll money and used it to finance the diabetes center at Columbia University Medical Center in memory of his mother, Naomi, who had died of the disease. The center was also helped by a million-dollar grant from a company that makes diabetes drugs and equipment.

Even with its stable of generous donors, even with more than 10,000 patients filing through the doors each year, the Columbia center struggles financially, said Dr. Robin Goland, a co-director. That, she said, is because the center runs a deficit of at least $50 for each patient it sees.

Without wealthy benefactors, Beth Israel’s center had an even tougher time surviving its financial strains.

Ms. Slavin said the center often scheduled patients for multiple visits with doctors and educators on the same day because it needed to take advantage of the limited time it had with its patients. But every time a Medicaid patient went to a diabetes education class, and then saw a specialist, the center lost money, she said. Medicaid, the government insurance program for the poor, will pay for only one service a day under its rules.

The center also lost money, its former staff members said, every time a nurse called a patient at home to check on his diet or contacted a physician to relate a patient’s progress. Both calls are considered essential to getting people to change their habits. But medical professionals, unlike lawyers and accountants, cannot bill for phone time, so more money was lost.

And the insurance reimbursement for an hourlong diabetes class did not come close to covering the cost. Most insurers paid less than $25 for a class, said Denise Rivera, the secretary for the center.

“That wasn’t even enough to pay for what it cost to have me to do the paperwork to get the reimbursement,” she said.

Beth Israel was not alone in this predicament. Dr. C. Ronald Kahn, president and director of the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston, the nation’s largest such center, with 23 affiliates around the country, said that for every dollar spent on care, the Joslin centers lost 35 cents. They close the gap, but just barely, with philanthropy, he said.

“So you have the institutions, which are doing much of the work in dealing with this major health epidemic, depending on charity,” he said. “In the long run, this is definitely not a tenable system.”

Plastic Strips and Red Tape

Sidney Schonfeld was not a patient at Beth Israel, but he ran into his own set of financial obstacles in trying to manage his disease.

“Controlling my condition isn’t that hard,” said Mr. Schonfeld, 82, a retired businessman from Washington Heights. “The hard part are the things outside my control, like getting the test strips and the medicines.”

Test strips are not complicated pieces of medical equipment. They are inch-long pieces of plastic with tiny metal tabs that diabetics use to measure the sugar in their blood. After pricking their finger, diabetics place a drop of blood on the strip and then insert it into the side of a handheld meter that analyzes their sugar levels.

Each strip costs only about 75 cents, but many diabetics are poor and, over the course of a year, those who test their blood frequently, as instructed, will spend more than $500 on strips.

Mr. Schonfeld, like many diabetics, is supposed to test his blood at least twice a day so he can make adjustments to his diet and medications that can ward off serious complications. But many insurers cover only one strip per day unless a patient obtains written justification from a doctor. Even with letters from his doctor, Mr. Schonfeld has had a tough time getting insurers to pay for his strips, his doctor and nurse said.

“Fighting the disease is only half of this job,” said Mr. Schonfeld’s doctor, Dr. Goland. She held up a manila folder thick with letters that she had sent to his insurer explaining Mr. Schonfeld’s case. Mr. Schonfeld had his own pile of letters: the rejection notices he got back.

Dr. Goland says that Mr. Schonfeld has good reason to be vigilant. His mother lost her left foot to Type 2 diabetes. She died several months later after gangrene spread to her right. Mr. Schonfeld’s six uncles and aunts on his mother’s side had the disease. Three of them underwent amputations. His son, Gary, is also diabetic.

“You can’t get a more textbook high-risk case than Sidney,” Dr. Goland said.

Though the health care system asks diabetics to become rigorously involved in daily management of their conditions, red tape and the cost of drugs and supplies put self-management out of reach for many patients. As a result, many diabetics either do without or pay out of their own pockets. Some resort to other means to get their supplies.

In Indiana, hospital workers organized Diabetes Bingo Night last May to collect money for strips and supplies. In California, F.B.I agents found that diabetics were buying stolen strips on eBay. Last year, the agents charged a couple with mail fraud and accused them of having sold $2.5 million worth of stolen test strips and supplies.

In East Harlem, doctors at Mount Sinai were mystified by a number of cases in 2002: patients came into the hospital asserting that they had been testing themselves daily and were sure that their blood sugar was under control. Hospital tests, however, showed just the opposite.

“We finally figured out,” said Dr. Carol R. Horowitz, an assistant professor at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine, “that patients who could not afford the strips for their blood monitor were buying cheaper strips that were incompatible and that were giving false reads.”

At least they knew they had the disease. A third of diabetics do not, in part because doctors do not screen as often as they should, studies show. Since symptoms do not appear for 7 to 10 years on average, the effects of the elevated sugars begin to build and become irreversible.

Mr. Schonfeld has known about his diabetes for more than 20 years and prides himself on keeping it in check.

“I’ve seen what it can do,” he said. “So I know better than to ignore it.”

When Dr. Goland told him to limit the chocolate mousse and frankfurters, he did.

When she told him to start walking two miles a day, he did that, too. But her instructions to test his blood at least twice a day were not as easy to follow.

Mr. Schonfeld runs out of strips even though he tries to plan ahead by ordering extras, said Kathy Person, his nurse. “The insurance reps say they don’t want the strips to end up on the black market, so they don’t let people preorder extras,” she said.

The Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center has a full-time staff member who tries to do the clerical work associated with insurance coverage. “Still, it’s a struggle to keep up with the paperwork,” Dr. Goland said.

Some doctors simply do not have time and patients are left to haggle with insurers – usually unsuccessfully – on their own.

Although a recent federal study found that an increasing number of health insurers cover strips, few cover more than one a day, according to strip manufacturers. In fact, a study last year by Georgetown University found that insurance restrictions on strips and other services for diabetics were reducing the quality of care.

“I was a businessman for more than 40 years,” said Mr. Schonfeld, a former food importer. “What I just don’t understand is how these insurance companies can operate the way they do and keep their customers.”

Sick Patient? Expensive Patient

As it turns out, keeping customers who are diabetic is not the goal of most health insurance companies, experts said. Avoiding diabetics is actually more the point.

Understanding why, the experts said, requires an appreciation of one of the crucial obstacles to better diabetes care.

Most insurers do not operate the way Mr. Schonfeld did in the import business, luring additional customers by advertising a good product at a fair price. Were they to operate in that fashion, health plans looking to grow might advertise better coverage for diabetics, such as a wide choice of blood-sugar monitors.

But in the insurance business – and virtually all businesses based on risk – the point is not to attract the most customers but rather the best ones. As businesses, not charities, insurers need to attract healthy customers, not sick ones, said David Knutson, a former insurance executive who studies the industry’s economics for the Park Nicollet Institute, a health research organization in Minneapolis.

As a result, experts say, insurance executives usually think twice before bolstering their diabetes benefits, for fear they will attract the chronically ill.

In a 2003 survey, 87 percent of health insurance actuaries queried by Mr. Knutson said that if they were to improve coverage with richer drug benefits or easier access to specialists, they would incur financial problems by attracting the sickest, most expensive patients.

“Insurers are as eager to attract the chronically ill as banks are interested in loaning to the unemployed,” Mr. Knutson said. “The chances of losing money are simply too high.”

Insurers are not alone in these concerns. Large employers, many of which devise and finance their own employee health plans, know that their allotted reserves are jeopardized if too much of their work force is seriously ill. Last year, for example, a Wal-Mart executive suggested in an internal memo that the company could reduce costs by discouraging unhealthy people from applying for work.

Even when insurers are simply third-party administrators, processing claims but not covering the actual medical expenses, they try to keep claims down by attracting healthier patients to their plans, Mr. Knutson said.

Similarly, coverage for Medicaid recipients, though underwritten by the government, can be subject to the same private-sector pressures. More than 70 percent of Medicaid recipients in New York now receive their health care through private health maintenance organizations that operate under government contract. These H.M.O.’s get the same annual flat fee from the government, regardless of whether the patient is robustly healthy or chronically ill, thus creating an incentive to attract the healthiest customers.

For insurers, the high cost of attracting the sick is far from a hypothetical problem, said David V. Axene, president of Axene Health Partners, a consulting firm that advises these companies. For each additional session of nutritional counseling, he said, an insurer must account for the likely cost of luring sick patients away from its competitors.

Mr. Axene cited an example from several years ago when, he said, an insurer became puzzled about why a provider network that it had set up at a Boston hospital was consistently over budget. Mr. Axene’s company found that two-thirds of the hospital’s diabetics had chosen to enroll in that network over others.

The reason? The insurer had mistakenly listed an endocrinologist on its network’s primary care physician list, he said.

“These patients no longer needed to get a referral to see the endocrinologist, and with one visit they could get their general and their diabetes needs filled,” Mr. Axene said. Within months, the network had redrafted its lists, dropping the endocrinologist, he said.

Mohit Ghose, a spokesman for America’s Health Insurance Plans, an industry trade association, said insurers were working to improve chronic care coverage. Many have created disease management programs to track their sickest patients and pay bonuses to doctors who show results in treating the chronically ill.

“Is there still a long way to go? Yes, definitely,” Mr. Ghose said. “But we’re on the right track.”

Some preventive measures would, at first glance, seem sure money savers for health insurers since they might eliminate or forestall expensive diabetes complications down the road. But many insurers do not think that way. They figure that complications are often so far into the future, insurance analysts say, that many people will have already switched jobs or insurers, or have even died, by the time they hit. As a result, any savings from preventive measures will only go to their competitors anyway, analysts say.

In fact, experts say, people generally change their health insurance about every six years.

“It’s perverse,” Mr. Knutson said. “But it’s the reality of there being a weak business case for quality when it comes to handling chronic care.”

‘Jerry, We Need to Talk’

It usually took Dr. Bernstein seven minutes to walk from his office in Fierman Hall to the hospital president’s office across 17th Street. On Jan. 4, 2000, he had a bounce in his step, and it took him half that time, he recalled.

He had a good story to tell, and graphs and tables to back it up. The Beth Israel center was an unqualified medical success. In fact, patient loads were growing by 20 percent each month as its reputation spread.

When he arrived, Dr. Fink, then the hospital’s president, asked the three other executives to take their seats. Dr. Bernstein began talking before he had reached his chair.

“Things are really coming along well,” he said as he handed out a spreadsheet. “Patients are starting to turn their lives around.”

Pausing, Dr. Bernstein looked around the table. He was struck by an awkward silence.

“Jerry, we need to talk about what is happening at the hospital,” Dr. Fink said. “We’re going to have to close your program.”

Dr. Bernstein cannot say which was more jarring: the news or the way it arrived.

Numb, he kept his composure for 25 minutes, he said. The administrators explained that the hospital was running a deficit. The diabetes program was not helping matters.

“It was really not about the medicine but the business,” Dr. Fink said recently about the meeting. “That didn’t make it any easier to deliver the news, especially since I had been one of the main advocates behind getting the center started.”

After the meeting, as Dr. Bernstein walked back to his office, he wondered where he would direct the program’s 300 or so patients. Still, he remained sympathetic to the hospital’s plight.

“I was not of the belief that we should save the center only to end up losing the hospital,” he said.

For many of the patients, the news was a second strike of lightning. They had come to Dr. Bernstein only after being cut loose by the closing of the St Luke’s diabetes center earlier that year. Now they were being cut loose again, to drift back to a life of limited care options: understaffed and overwhelmed clinics; general practitioners with too little time; a city with about 100 overbooked diabetes educators surrounded by 800,000 patients; and a shortage of endocrinologists, the specialists who are often critical providers of diabetes care.

Since endocrinology is one of the lower-paying specialties, there is a national shortage of such doctors. In New York, with its armies of diabetics, patients must often wait months for an appointment with one of fewer than 200 endocrinologists. The poorest patients face the biggest problem, as only a fraction of the specialists accept Medicaid.

Once the center had closed, Dr. Bernstein continued to teach at Beth Israel, but he began to devote more and more time to a side project. He was working on an inhaler that delivers insulin in the form of a mist. The product is being developed by Generex, and it is designed to appeal to patients who are reluctant to use insulin because they do not like the idea of injections or needles.

But the device will probably cost about 15 percent more than traditional insulin and is likely to be too expensive for many of the poorest diabetics, who are often the patients who need it most because their illness is most severe.

“The center was a way to really make a dent in this epidemic,” Dr. Bernstein said. “The inhaler is a promising breakthrough. But it’s mostly a business opportunity.”

Other pharmaceutical innovations are likely to soften the toll of diabetes for many patients in coming years, doctors said. With an average diabetic spending more than $2,500 per year on drugs and equipment, pharmaceutical companies have good reason to focus their attention on the more than $10 billion market in controlling the disease’s complications.

But there is only so much the drugs can do, they add, if they are not accompanied by the sort of changes in patient habits that the centers fostered through education and monitoring.

Health economists suggest that if these preventive measures were practiced on a wide scale, complications from diabetes would be largely eliminated and the American medical system, and by extension taxpayers, could save as much as $30 billion over 10 years. The experts disagree on what such an effort would cost. (How much nutrition counseling does it take to wean the average person from French fries?) Nonetheless, many of them believe the cost would be largely offset by the savings.

Dr. Bernstein says the lone hope on the horizon is a restructured reimbursement system that puts the business of chronic care on a more competitive footing with acute care. Experts say this restructuring could start if government insurance programs like Medicaid began paying more for preventive efforts like education, a move that the private sector would be likely to follow.

“Until we address the financing and the reimbursement structure, this disease is going to rage out of control,” Dr. Bernstein said.

Not everyone believes the centers were the best answer to diabetes care. Even with their demise, many hospitals, clinics and endocrinology practices say they are providing cost-effective, quality treatment.

“The care we provide now is on the par with what was offered before,” said Dr. Leonid Poretsky, who became director of Beth Israel’s endocrinology division after the diabetes program closed. “The main difference is that we are financially viable because half of our patients are not diabetic.”

These facilities, though, often find themselves in the same position the centers did: financing prevention efforts with profits from the very kidney transplants and amputations that preventive care is meant to deter.

It is tough to convince a former patient like Ms. Hammond that the closing of the Beth Israel center was anything but a mistake. She had started to make critical changes in her lifestyle after just a few weeks there. She did not find out it had closed, she said, until several months after the doors had shut, when she called looking to sign up for a refresher class. She was starting to fall back into old habits.

“I needed reminding,” she said.

With the center gone, Ms. Hammond said she has had to try to muddle through. She goes to the podiatrist once a year, but she said she could not remember the last time she visited an eye doctor. She has gained about 40 pounds.

Some days she wakes up and her blood sugar is high. Other mornings she doesn’t bother to check, she said.

“I couldn’t get to where I was before,” she said.

Two years ago, she said, she took a last look at that favorite gabardine pantsuit she had once modeled for her class. Then, she said, she gave it to her cousin.

* Copyright 2006The New York Times Company

Dr Hwang busted as having cloned only a dog named Snuppy

January 10th, 2006

Nine other scientists barred from fleeing

A Seoul National University panel report today says the handsome Dr Hwang didn’t clone any human embryo, just a dog, and Hwang and nine colleagues are banned from leaving the country until Korean prosecutors can investigate their culpability for this fiasco.

According to Researcher Faked Evidence of Human Cloning, Koreans Report by Nicholas Wade and Choe Sang-Hun in the New York Times


The finding strips any possibility of legitimate achievement in human cell cloning from a researcher who had been propelled to international celebrity and whose promise to make paralyzed people walk had been engraved on a Korean postage stamp.

In his string of splashy papers, his one legitimate claim was to have cloned the dog he named Snuppy, the panel said.

This hasn’t deterred a crowd of 150 supporters from gathering and hanging banners from trees.

Dr. Hwang still has public support. Last night 150 people festooned trees and shrubs at the gate of Seoul National University with strips of yellow, blue and green cloth. Banners that were hung between the trees showed the Korean flag and slogans such as “The Pride of Korea” or “Biotechnology is Our Future.”

Meanwhile the special stamp issued in his honor presumably is rocketing in price.

The farce once again draws attention to the fallibility of the peer review process, in this case at Science. If the cultural and language barrier was a problem, perhaps a special effort should have been made to ensure that it was penetrated. The New York Times evidently gets such help for Nicholas Wade when needed, judging from the byline to the article.

Part of the problem according to Nicholas Wade in the article was that Hwang appeared to have had his technique so “sewn up” that other leading figures in the field were not motivated to repeat it for themselves.

Dr. Hwang’s escapade may have prevented other researchers entering the field of human cloning because he seemed to have it all sewn up. “I have to admit that I decided not to push the efforts here at Stanford because it would have been almost unethical to work with human eggs if he had made the process so efficient,” said Dr. Irving Weissman, a leading stem cell researcher.

Also, a American prominent in the field was beguiled into being a senior co-author of a paper reporting an experiment he played no part in performing.

Dr. Hwang also enlisted a leading American expert on cloning monkeys, Dr. Gerald Schatten of the University of Pittsburgh, as the senior co-author on his 2005 report, even though Dr. Schatten had done none of the experiments. “Everyone wondered how Schatten got to be the senior co-author, but his vouching for Hwang made it a little more likely,” Dr. Weissman said.

Can the editors and peer reviewers be blamed for being fooled? Some say they were sloppy to overlook the fact that photos in two different papers were identical. It is hard not to agree.


“It sounds as though their processes were rather sloppy,” said Dr. Benjamin Lewin, the founder and former editor of Cell, a biology journal known for its rigor. “At a minimum, Science should have been more careful and should never have reached the stage of publishing a paper with identical photos,” he said, referring to the fact that some photos of cell colonies in Dr. Hwang’s 2005 article were duplicates of one another.

It must be doubly painful for the editor of Science that it was Nature that published the Hwang paper on cloning the puppy, which has apparently stood up under review. But neither journal has a reputation for really rigorous review, it is pointed out.

Dr. Lewin said that a journal editor needed to develop an intimate knowledge of his reviewers’ strengths and weaknesses, and that “Nature and Science don’t have the reputation for rigorous review.”

We can imagine why. The pressures of rivalry between Science and Nature can only add to the burden of reviewing what must be an overwhelming number of submissions these days, with science vastly expanded compared with thirty years ago, and globally competitive to boot. Shades of Derek de Solla Price, the Yale historian of science who was writing more than thirty years ago that the number of scientists alive was greater than all of the scientists who had lived before, and the number of journals and papers were already beyond reason.

But clearly there must be some way of introducing more skepticism into peer review when great claims are made. For as the field of HIV?AIDS also shows, once they are allowed and then are funded by governments the leading members of a field tend to support claims of their peers without thinking much about them. Soon enough they become so firmly established that any critics are run out of town on a rail.

Luckily in this case it was an easy case to crack, because the issue was whether experiments had been done correctly or not. Just as in the case of cold fusion, the fact that experiments had not been done well or in this case not done at all soon emerged, once they were questioned.

The common theme running through all this post facto analysis is that competition rules – it encourages rival journals to race into print without proper review, it lures leading figures into associating themselves with success and endorsing what turns out later to be a fraud, and it makes science a turf war where a Dr Hwang can bluff his way into staking out an area of accomplishment and keeping rivals from it, when he hasn’t actually accomplished the breakthrough.

Science has always been competitive but clearly it is more competitive these days with the media ready to endorse claims with world headlines overnight that will open the doors to millions in funding.

What is obviously needed is a way to referee the game more closely to curb competitive excesses, but apparently no one is working on the problem hard enough to have come up with good suggestions.

Perhaps the existence of the Web will be enough, added to television coverage, as it was in this case, to do the job.

The New York Times

January 10, 2006

Researcher Faked Evidence of Human Cloning, Koreans Report

By NICHOLAS WADE and CHOE SANG-HUN

Dr. Hwang Woo Suk, the South Korean researcher who claimed to have cloned human cells, fabricated evidence for all of that research, according to a report released today by a Seoul National University panel investigating his work.

The finding strips any possibility of legitimate achievement in human cell cloning from a researcher who had been propelled to international celebrity and whose promise to make paralyzed people walk had been engraved on a Korean postage stamp.

In his string of splashy papers, his one legitimate claim was to have cloned the dog he named Snuppy, the panel said.

“Dr. Hwang’s team cannot avoid taking grave responsibility for fabricating its papers and concealing data,” said Chung Myunghee, the head of the university’s investigatory panel.

Last month the panel said there was no evidence to support Dr. Hwang’s claim of June 2005 to have cloned cells from 11 patients with an efficient new technique using very few human eggs.

But that still left open the possibility that he had gotten the cloning technique to work to some degree, as he wrote in the report first announcing his success in an earlier article of March 2004. The panel has now found the 2004 article was also fabricated, according to wire service reports.

Dr. Hwang’s professional demise is a severe embarrassment for the Korean government, which invested copiously in his laboratory and in making him a national hero. But the blow to Korea’s scientific reputation abroad may be cushioned by the fact that other Korean institutions, notably the television program “PD Notebook” and a group of skeptical young Korean scientists, took the lead in discovering the problems with Dr. Hwang’s work and in eventually forcing today’s investigation by the university.

Dr. Hwang still has public support. Last night 150 people festooned trees and shrubs at the gate of Seoul National University with strips of yellow, blue and green cloth. Banners that were hung between the trees showed the Korean flag and slogans such as “The Pride of Korea” or “Biotechnology is Our Future.”

Korean prosecutors, however, have banned Dr. Hwang and nine other South Korean scientists from leaving the country. They have said they will launch an investigation as soon as the university panel has announced its findings.

As for the field of embryonic stem cells, researchers in the United States say it should not be much affected in the long run, at least on a scientific level, since its theoretical promise is unchanged by one man’s misdeeds.

In practical terms, however, the panel’s new finding is a sharp setback for therapeutic cloning, the much discussed goal of converting a patient’s own cells into new tissue to treat a wide variety of degenerative diseases from diabetes to heart disease. The technique for cloning human cells, which seemed to have been achieved since March 2004, now turns out not to exist at all, forcing cloning researchers back to square one.

The Seoul panel’s finding also raises the question of how an important but fabricated result could survive unchallenged, in a presumably rigorous and competitive scientific field, for almost two years.

Dr. Hwang’s escapade may have prevented other researchers entering the field of human cloning because he seemed to have it all sewn up. “I have to admit that I decided not to push the efforts here at Stanford because it would have been almost unethical to work with human eggs if he had made the process so efficient,” said Dr. Irving Weissman, a leading stem cell researcher.

Dr. Robert Lanza, vice president of Advanced Cell Technology, a Massachusetts company that had been active in the human cloning research, said the company’s funding had dried up after Dr. Hwang claimed success in 2004.

One reason Dr. Hwang’s results seemed credible is that he gave lectures in the United States in which he explained each step of his process. “He went through the exact method, telling people how to do it,” Dr. Weissman said. Dr. Hwang also enlisted a leading American expert on cloning monkeys, Dr. Gerald Schatten of the University of Pittsburgh, as the senior co-author on his 2005 report, even though Dr. Schatten had done none of the experiments. “Everyone wondered how Schatten got to be the senior co-author, but his vouching for Hwang made it a little more likely,” Dr. Weissman said.

Scientific journals play an important gatekeeping role in science by screening out fallacious reports. But Dr. Hwang’s two reports on human cloning were published by Science and his claim to have cloned a dog was accepted by Nature, another leading journal and Science’s rival in recruiting important papers. The editors of each journal has said in the Hwang case that the expert reviewers who scrutinize submitted manuscripts cannot be expected to detect fabricated data. Not everyone agrees.

“It sounds as though their processes were rather sloppy,” said Dr. Benjamin Lewin, the founder and former editor of Cell, a biology journal known for its rigor. “At a minimum, Science should have been more careful and should never have reached the stage of publishing a paper with identical photos,” he said, referring to the fact that some photos of cell colonies in Dr. Hwang’s 2005 article were duplicates of one another.

Dr. Lewin said that a journal editor needed to develop an intimate knowledge of his reviewers’ strengths and weaknesses, and that “Nature and Science don’t have the reputation for rigorous review.”

With Dr. Hwang’s professional implosion, the goal of cloning human cells is once again open. Dr. George Daley, of Harvard Medical School, said there was no reason to suppose human cells could not be cloned, despite Dr. Hwang’s failure to do so even with rich funding and copious supplies of human eggs.

Dr. Daley said that two laboratories at Harvard, his own and Dr. Kevin Eggan’s, had been seeking approval for more than a year to clone human cells. Two groups in England are pursuing the same goal, one at Newcastle University and the other led by Ian Wilmut, the cloner of Dolly the sheep. Advanced Cell Technology, of Worcester, Massachusetts, is also back in the game. “I think it’s just a matter of time before other groups produce this,” Dr. Daley said, although he added that it may be a long time before anyone attains the level of efficiency claimed by Dr. Hwang.

* Copyright 2006The New York Times Company


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