Damned Heretics

Condemned by the established, but very often right

I am Nicolaus Copernicus, and I approve of this blog

I am Richard Feynman and I approve of this blog

Qualified outsiders and maverick insiders are often right about the need to replace received wisdom in science and society, as the history of the Nobel prize shows. This blog exists to back the best of them in their uphill assault on the massively entrenched edifice of resistance to and prejudice against reviewing, let alone revising, ruling ideas. In support of such qualified dissenters and courageous heretics we search for scientific paradigms and other established beliefs which may be maintained only by the power and politics of the status quo, comparing them with academic research and the published experimental and investigative record.

We especially defend and support the funding of honest, accomplished, independent minded and often heroic scientists, inventors and other original thinkers and their right to free speech and publication against the censorship, mudslinging, false arguments, ad hominem propaganda, overwhelming crowd prejudice and internal science politics of the paradigm wars of cancer, AIDS, evolution, global warming, cosmology, particle physics, macroeconomics, health and medicine, diet and nutrition.

HONOR ROLL OF SCIENTIFIC TRUTHSEEKERS

Henry Bauer, Peter Breggin , Harvey Bialy, Giordano Bruno, Erwin Chargaff, Nicolaus Copernicus, Francis Crick, Paul Crutzen, Marie Curie, Rebecca Culshaw, Freeman Dyson, Peter Duesberg, Albert Einstein, Richard Feynman, John Fewster, Galileo Galilei, Alec Gordon, James Hansen, Edward Jenner, Benjamin Jesty, Michio Kaku, Adrian Kent, Ernst Krebs, Thomas Kuhn, Serge Lang, John Lauritsen, Mark Leggett, Richard Lindzen, Lynn Margulis, Barbara McClintock, George Miklos, Marco Mamone Capria, Peter Medawar, Kary Mullis, Linus Pauling, Eric Penrose, Max Planck, Rainer Plaga, David Rasnick, Sherwood Rowland, Carl Sagan, Otto Rossler, Fred Singer, Thomas Szasz, Alfred Wegener, Edward O. Wilson, James Watson.
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Many people would die rather than think – in fact, they do so. – Bertrand Russell.

Skepticism is dangerous. That’s exactly its function, in my view. It is the business of skepticism to be dangerous. And that’s why there is a great reluctance to teach it in schools. That’s why you don’t find a general fluency in skepticism in the media. On the other hand, how will we negotiate a very perilous future if we don’t have the elementary intellectual tools to ask searching questions of those nominally in charge, especially in a democracy? – Carl Sagan (The Burden of Skepticism, keynote address to CSICOP Annual Conference, Pasadena, April 3/4, 1982).

It is really important to underscore that everything we’re talking about tonight could be utter nonsense. – Brian Greene (NYU panel on Hidden Dimensions June 5 2010, World Science Festival)

I am Albert Einstein, and I heartily approve of this blog, insofar as it seems to believe both in science and the importance of intellectual imagination, uncompromised by out of date emotions such as the impulse toward conventional religious beliefs, national aggression as a part of patriotism, and so on.   As I once remarked, the further the spiritual evolution of mankind advances, the more certain it seems to me that the path to genuine religiosity does not lie through the fear of life, and the fear of death, and blind faith, but through striving after rational knowledge.   Certainly the application of the impulse toward blind faith in science whereby authority is treated as some kind of church is to be deplored.  As I have also said, the only thing ever interfered with my learning was my education. My name as you already perceive without a doubt is George Bernard Shaw, and I certainly approve of this blog, in that its guiding spirit appears to be blasphemous in regard to the High Church doctrines of science, and it flouts the censorship of the powers that be, and as I have famously remarked, all great truths begin as blasphemy, and the first duty of the truthteller is to fight censorship, and while I notice that its seriousness of purpose is often alleviated by a satirical irony which sometimes borders on the facetious, this is all to the good, for as I have also famously remarked, if you wish to be a dissenter, make certain that you frame your ideas in jest, otherwise they will seek to kill you.  My own method was always to take the utmost trouble to find the right thing to say, and then to say it with the utmost levity. (Photo by Alfred Eisenstaedt for Life magazine) One should as a rule respect public opinion in so far as is necessary to avoid starvation and to keep out of prison, but anything that goes beyond this is voluntary submission to an unnecessary tyranny, and is likely to interfere with happiness in all kinds of ways. – Bertrand Russell, Conquest of Happiness (1930) ch. 9

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Letters in the NY Press highlight the lack of real AIDS debate

June 29th, 2005

A handful of letters in the lively NY Press this week in response to the Bergman-Farber clash over AIDS Drugs Worse than The Disease? range from the dissident Frank Lusardi’s judicious comments pointing out the telling contrast in styles to an asinine one liner (“Re: Celia Farber’s article “Drugs, Disease, Denial” (6/22): I believe she’s the one in denial”) and an attack on one dissident by another.

Most interesting is the one from a man whose wife was tested positive but whose suspicions were aroused by the fact he had never become positive himself, after fourteen years of apparently athletic marital sex. On further investigation be became a convinced skeptic on HIV and AIDS.

The gene for love of thinking

What gene is it that enables the small fraction of the population that thinks for itself, as this gentleman does? Or is the capacity for thought independent of authority a product of nurture? The billions spent on AIDS research have led nowhere as far as understanding the moduc operandi of the virus is concerned, let alone any preventive or cure. Perhaps a small part could be diverted to this challenging topic of why certain people like to think for themselves, unlike the majority of the human race.

Perhaps the research of Allen Snyder, the Australian scientist who won the Marconi prize a few years ago for enabling laser communications down wires, could be expanded.

After all, Snyder has achieved a breakthrough in the field already. He has discovered that if he outfitted experimental subjects with suitable helmets he could sear a certain area of their brains with focused magnetic resonance and remove the mental framework with which people process data input.

While the helmets were activated the subjects demonstrated the openminded receptivity of autistic children, and one of the symptoms of this was that they made drawings in a remarkably unfiltered way.

It is not too much to say that many supporters of the HIV paradigm are apparently in dire need of being fitted with Snyder helmets.

WWW.NYPRESS.COM | JUNE 29, 2005

THE MAIL

Drugs, Disease, Debate

I would like to congratulate you for the courage to enable an open debate on the subject of AIDS drugs. Hopefully we will see more discussions of this kind in order to overcome the domination of the prevailing mainstream view (“Drugs, Disease, Denial,” 6/22). It is one of the most tragic contradictions of our time that AIDS-specialists pretend to treat immunodeficiency by using drugs that kill the immune system.

Christian Fiala, MD, Vienna, Austria

South African Presidential Aids Advisory Panel

“Drugs, Disease, Denial” (6/22) once again illustrates the unfortunate fact that it requires the chutzpah of a New York Press to permit a public airing of this vitally important discussion. It also perfectly illustrates the tone of this now 20-year-old scientific disagreement.

On the one side, representing received authority, Jeanne Bergman gives us a farrago of invective and adulation, freighted hardly at all with history, facts, names, citations or argumentation, but wisely laced with caveats (side-effects can be fatal, ACS often abuses its power, American medicine has a history of racism, and the pharmaceuticals pursue profits single-mindedly).

On the other side of the debate, representing the “dissidents,” Celia Farber offers an analysis of how language can rigidify into ideology, delineates a history of the AIDS medications, cites newspapers, journals, books and the experiences of individuals “in the trenches,” and, in general, presents something resembling a reasoned argument.

Frank Lusardi, Manhattan

I guess you would now call me a “denialist” concerning HIV (“Drugs, Disease, Denial,” 6/22). But back in 1999, when my pregnant wife tested positive on a routine test, we were initially shattered by the news. A strange sequence of events, however, provoked a suspicion that soon became a certainty.

Kathleen, my wife, and I had been at that time monogamously married for 14 years. A vigorous athlete, she would, before she became pregnant, train each year to run a 26-mile marathon. No noticeable health problems had ever been apparent.

After her HIV positivity had been thoroughly established I took the test. It came back negative. I took it again. Negative. She took it again. Positive.

Before I continue I should assure the reader that Kathleen and I had had an active sex life. If HIV has even the remotest possibility of being transmitted sexually it would have been. However, this did not jibe with the propaganda promulgated by the Centers for Disease Control.

I became obsessed with a more scientific approach. Surely with the billions being spent on research some solid, useable science would have emerged. Here again I was disappointed. But don’t take my word for it. See if you can find, after 21 years and $40 billion, a paper that describes conclusively the mechanism of pathogenicity for HIV. You won’t. It doesn’t exist. Proof that HIV has any deleterious effect on the human metabolism whatsoever does not exist. Ample evidence abounds, on the other hand, that AZT and the assorted protease inhibitors effectively poison.

David H. Tyson, Eugene, OR

Re: Celia Farber’s article “Drugs, Disease, Denial” (6/22): I believe she’s the one in denial.

David Maciorkowski, Fords, NJ

I would like to see a debate between Jeanne Bergman and Celia Farber (“Drugs, Disease, Denial,” 6/22). It would be nice to see where Jeanne gets her facts regarding the claim that the dissidents’ theories have been disproved. It would be my bet that Jeanne would not go near such a debate.

Kyle Shields, via email

Re: “Drugs, Disease, Denial” (6/22): I can’t believe that Celia Farber quoted Paul King. What a huge disappointment in an otherwise excellent article. Paul King isn’t even the man’s real name. There are so many dissidents that are credible and whom have integrity and are in relatively good repute, why on earth would you quote a hack and a liar like Paul King?

Todd Phillips, San Francisco

© 2005 New York Press

The twenty year evasion of HIV debate

It is interesting that letter-writer Kyle Shields wants to see a genuine debate but she imagines that Jeanne Bergman would probaably refuse to go near such a debate where she would be challenged on her facts.

With this she reminds us of the fact that it is the scientists who promote the paradigm in this field that have failed in precisely this way for the duration of the entire AIDS scare. Not once have they dared any live confrontation with the reviewers who reject the theory, and they have failed even to answer the reviewers in the same journals they were published in (which have included the topmost journals Cancer Research and the Proceedings of the National Academy).

The one time in the past two decades a “debate” of sorts on the rationale for HIV took place in print in Science, it took the same form as this “debate” in the New York Press. Rival statements were written, followed in Science by one set of rival rebuttals, before the discussion was cut off by the editor. The editor of Nature also followed the same policy of cutting off debate, at one point famously proclaiming that the chief HIV reviewer and “denier” Peter Duesberg of Berkeley did not deserve the right of reply.

As Kyle Shields seems perceptively to divine, the greatest flaw in AIDS science is this lack of free debate and free speech. Is there anything which more powerfully suggests that the paradigm is vulnerable to any free and open inspection?

Like Saddam Hussein pretending he had weapons of mass destruction in the hope that America would not topple his regime, the purveyors of the AIDS paradigm may be just as empty handed.

In fact, it is very hard to imagine another motive for the resistance of the rulers of AIDS science to genuine debate, however much they protest that they are too busy saving lives to spare any time for defending their view.

With millions of lives and billions of dollars at stake, there is certainly no excuse for not holding hearings on this vital matter which has continued to be scientifically unresolved for two decades, in that the objections of the reviewers have not been refuted in the literature.

Times puts down parents with autism studies

June 25th, 2005

Today (June 25 Sat) the Times carries a front page center, above the fold story wrapping up the autism story by presenting an account of the fears and suspicions of parents of autistic children, and the one small study giving them some support, and countering with a scientific broadside, listing the five or six huge studies carried out here and in Europe which could find no correleation, or even a reverse correlation, between vaccines containing mercury and autism in children:

The New York Times

June 25, 2005

On Autism’s Cause, It’s Parents vs. Research

By GARDINER HARRIS and ANAHAD O’CONNOR

Kristen Ehresmann, a Minnesota Department of Health official, had just told a State Senate hearing that vaccines with microscopic amounts of mercury were safe. Libby Rupp, a mother of a 3-year-old girl with autism, was incredulous.

“How did my daughter get so much mercury in her?” Ms. Rupp asked Ms. Ehresmann after her testimony.

“Fish?” Ms. Ehresmann suggested.

“She never eats it,” Ms. Rupp answered.

“Do you drink tap water?”

“It’s all filtered.”

“Well, do you breathe the air?” Ms. Ehresmann asked, with a resigned smile. Several parents looked angrily at Ms. Ehresmann, who left.

Ms. Rupp remained, shaking with anger. That anyone could defend mercury in vaccines, she said, “makes my blood boil.”

Public health officials like Ms. Ehresmann, who herself has a son with autism, have been trying for years to convince parents like Ms. Rupp that there is no link between thimerosal – a mercury-containing preservative once used routinely in vaccines – and autism.

They have failed.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Food and Drug Administration, the Institute of Medicine, the World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics have all largely dismissed the notion that thimerosal causes or contributes to autism. Five major studies have found no link.

Yet despite all evidence to the contrary, the number of parents who blame thimerosal for their children’s autism has only increased. And in recent months, these parents have used their numbers, their passion and their organizing skills to become a potent national force. The issue has become one of the most fractious and divisive in pediatric medicine.

“This is like nothing I’ve ever seen before,” Dr. Melinda Wharton, deputy director of the National Immunization Program, told a gathering of immunization officials in Washington in March. “It’s an era where it appears that science isn’t enough.”

Parents have filed more than 4,800 lawsuits – 200 from February to April alone – pushed for state and federal legislation banning thimerosal and taken out full-page advertisements in major newspapers. They have also gained the support of politicians, including Senator Joseph I. Lieberman, Democrat of Connecticut, and Representatives Dan Burton, Republican of Indiana, and Dave Weldon, Republican of Florida. And Robert F. Kennedy Jr. wrote an article in the June 16 issue of Rolling Stone magazine arguing that most studies of the issue are flawed and that public health officials are conspiring with drug makers to cover up the damage caused by thimerosal.

“We’re not looking like a fringe group anymore,” said Becky Lourey, a Minnesota state senator and a sponsor of a proposed thimerosal ban. Such a ban passed the New York State Legislature this week.

But scientists and public health officials say they are alarmed by the surge of attention to an idea without scientific merit. The anti-thimerosal campaign, they say, is causing some parents to stay away from vaccines, placing their children at risk for illnesses like measles and polio.

“It’s really terrifying, the scientific illiteracy that supports these suspicions,” said Dr. Marie McCormick, chairwoman of an Institute of Medicine panel that examined the controversy in February 2004.

Experts say they are also concerned about a raft of unproven, costly and potentially harmful treatments – including strict diets, supplements and a detoxifying technique called chelation – that are being sold for tens of thousands of dollars to desperate parents of autistic children as a cure for “mercury poisoning.”

In one case, a doctor forced children to sit in a 160-degree sauna, swallow 60 to 70 supplements a day and have so much blood drawn that one child passed out.

Hundreds of doctors list their names on a Web site endorsing chelation to treat autism, even though experts say that no evidence supports its use with that disorder. The treatment carries risks of liver and kidney damage, skin rashes and nutritional deficiencies, they say.

In recent months, the fight over thimerosal has become even more bitter. In response to a barrage of threatening letters and phone calls, the centers for disease control has increased security and instructed employees on safety issues, including how to respond if pies are thrown in their faces. One vaccine expert at the centers wrote in an internal e-mail message that she felt safer working at a malaria field station in Kenya than she did at the agency’s offices in Atlanta.

An Alarm Is Sounded

Thimerosal was for decades the favored preservative for use in vaccines. By weight, it is about 50 percent ethyl mercury, a form of mercury most scientists consider to be less toxic than methyl mercury, the type found in fish. The amount of ethyl mercury included in each childhood vaccine was once roughly equal to the amount of methyl mercury found in the average tuna sandwich.

In 1999, a Food and Drug Administration scientist added up all the mercury that American infants got with a full immunization schedule and concluded that the amount exceeded a government guideline. Some health authorities counseled no action, because there was no evidence that thimerosal at the doses given was harmful and removing it might cause alarm. Others were not so certain that thimerosal was harmless.

In July 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Public Health Service released a joint statement urging vaccine makers to remove thimerosal as quickly as possible. By 2001, no vaccine routinely administered to children in the United States had more than half of a microgram of mercury – about what is found in an infant’s daily supply of breast milk.

Despite the change, government agencies say that vaccines with thimerosal are just as safe as those without, and adult flu vaccines still contain the preservative.

But the 1999 advisory alarmed many parents whose children suffered from autism, a lifelong disorder marked by repetitive, sometimes self-destructive behaviors and an inability to form social relationships. In 10 to 25 percent of cases, autism seems to descend on young children seemingly overnight, sometime between their first and second birthdays.

Diagnoses of autism have risen sharply in recent years, from roughly 1 case for every 10,000 births in the 1980’s to 1 in 166 births in 2003.

Most scientists believe that the illness is influenced strongly by genetics but that some unknown environmental factor may also play a role.

Dr. Tom Insel, director of the National Institute for Mental Health, said: “Is it cellphones? Ultrasound? Diet sodas? Every parent has a theory. At this point, we just don’t know.”

In 2000, a group of parents joined together to found SafeMinds, one of several organizations that argue that thimerosal is that environmental culprit. Their cause has been championed by politicians like Mr. Burton.

“My grandson received nine shots in one day, seven of which contained thimerosal, which is 50 percent mercury as you know, and he became autistic a short time later,” he said in an interview.

In a series of House hearings held from 2000 through 2004, Mr. Burton called the leading experts who assert that vaccines cause autism to testify. They included a chemistry professor at the University of Kentucky who says that dental fillings cause or exacerbate autism and other diseases and a doctor from Baton Rouge, La., who says that God spoke to her through an 87-year-old priest and told her that vaccines caused autism.

Also testifying were Dr. Mark Geier and his son, David Geier, the experts whose work is most frequently cited by parents.

Trying to Build a Case

Dr. Geier has called the use of thimerosal in vaccines the world’s “greatest catastrophe that’s ever happened, regardless of cause.”

He and his son live and work in a two-story house in suburban Maryland. Past the kitchen and down the stairs is a room with cast-off, unplugged laboratory equipment, wall-to-wall carpeting and faux wood paneling that Dr. Geier calls “a world-class lab – every bit as good as anything at N.I.H.”

Dr. Geier has been examining issues of vaccine safety since at least 1971, when he was a lab assistant at the National Institutes of Health, or N.I.H. His r�sum� lists scores of publications, many of which suggest that vaccines cause injury or disease.

He has also testified in more than 90 vaccine cases, he said, although a judge in a vaccine case in 2003 ruled that Dr. Geier was “a professional witness in areas for which he has no training, expertise and experience.”

In other cases, judges have called Dr. Geier’s testimony “intellectually dishonest,” “not reliable” and “wholly unqualified.”

The six published studies by Dr. Geier and David Geier on the relationship between autism and thimerosal are largely based on complaints sent to the disease control centers by people who suspect that their children were harmed by vaccines.

In the first study, the Geiers compared the number of complaints associated with a thimerosal-containing vaccine, given from 1992 to 2000, with the complaints that resulted from a thimerosal-free version given from 1997 to 2000. The more thimerosal a child received, they concluded, the more likely an autism complaint was filed. Four other studies used similar methods and came to similar conclusions.

Dr. Geier said in an interview that the link between thimerosal and autism was clear.

Public health officials, he said, are ” just trying to cover it up.”

Assessing the Studies

Scientists say that the Geiers’ studies are tainted by faulty methodology.

“The problem with the Geiers’ research is that they start with the answers and work backwards,” said Dr. Steven Black, director of the Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center in Oakland, Calif. “They are doing voodoo science.”

Dr. Julie L. Gerberding, the director of the disease control centers, said the agency was not withholding information about any potentially damaging effects of thimerosal.

“There’s certainly not a conspiracy here,” she said. “And we would never consider not acknowledging information or evidence that would have a bearing on children’s health.”

In 2003, spurred by parents’ demands, the C.D.C. asked the Institute of Medicine, an arm of the National Academy of Sciences and the nation’s most prestigious medical advisory group, to review the evidence on thimerosal and autism.

In a report last year, a panel convened by the institute dismissed the Geiers’ work as having such serious flaws that their studies were “uninterpretable.” Some of the Geiers’ mathematical formulas, the committee found, “provided no information,” and the Geiers used basic scientific terms like “attributable risk” incorrectly.

In contrast, the committee found five studies that examined hundreds of thousands of health records of children in the United States, Britain, Denmark and Sweden to be persuasive.

A study by the World Health Organization, for example, examined the health records of 109,863 children born in Britain from 1988 to 1997 and found that children who had received the most thimerosal in vaccines had the lowest incidence of developmental problems like autism.

Another study examined the records of 467,450 Danish children born from 1990 to 1996. It found that after 1992, when the country’s only thimerosal-containing vaccine was replaced by one free of the preservative, autism rates rose rather than fell.

In one of the most comprehensive studies, a 2003 report by C.D.C. scientists examined the medical records of more than 125,000 children born in the United States from 1991 to 1999. It found no difference in autism rates among children exposed to various amounts of thimerosal.

Parent groups, led by SafeMinds, replied that documents obtained from the disease control centers showed that early versions of the study had found a link between thimerosal and autism.

But C.D.C. researchers said that it was not unusual for studies to evolve as more data and controls were added. The early versions of the study, they said, failed to control for factors like low birth weight, which increases the risk of developmental delays.

The Institute of Medicine said that it saw “nothing inherently troubling” with the C.D.C.’s adjustments and concluded that thimerosal did not cause autism. Further studies, the institute said, would not be “useful.”

Threats and Conspiracy Talk

Since the report’s release, scientists and health officials have been bombarded with hostile e-mail messages and phone calls. Dr. McCormick, the chairwoman of the institute’s panel, said she had received threatening mail claiming that she was part of a conspiracy. Harvard University has increased security at her office, she said.

An e-mail message to the C.D.C. on Nov. 28 stated, “Forgiveness is between them and God. It is my job to arrange a meeting,” according to records obtained by The New York Times after the filing of an open records request.

Another e-mail message, sent to the C.D.C. on Aug. 20, said, “I’d like to know how you people sleep straight in bed at night knowing all the lies you tell & the lives you know full well you destroy with the poisons you push & protect with your lies.” Lynn Redwood of SafeMinds said that such e-mail messages did not represent her organization or other advocacy groups.

In response to the threats, C.D.C. officials have contacted the Federal Bureau of Investigation and heightened security at the disease control centers. Some officials said that the threats had led them to look for other jobs.

In “Evidence of Harm,” a book published earlier this year that is sympathetic to the notion that thimerosal causes autism, the author, David Kirby, wrote that the thimerosal theory would stand or fall within the next year or two.

Because autism is usually diagnosed sometime between a child’s third and fourth birthdays and thimerosal was largely removed from childhood vaccines in 2001, the incidence of autism should fall this year, he said.

No such decline followed thimerosal’s removal from vaccines during the 1990’s in Denmark, Sweden or Canada, researchers say.

But the debate over autism and vaccines is not likely to end soon.

“It doesn’t seem to matter what the studies and the data show,” said Ms. Ehresmann, the Minnesota immunization official. “And that’s really scary for us because if science doesn’t count, how do we make decisions? How do we communicate with parents?”

* Copyright 2005 The New York Times Company

All very impressive, with an exemplary presentation of scientific studies to back up the reporting, and a salutary rap on the knuckles to any parents who are misguided enough to believe their own gut instinct about their own child rather than vast studies of hundreds of thousands of children.

Still, one cannot help but retain a nagging doubt after reading this piece. The trouble is not just that the Times’ reporters have put hasty conclusions on the front page before, which later have been exploded or quietly forgotten. It is that long experience of studies in many areas, let alone those in AIDS, teaches one that scientists are not necessarily always very good at designing studies or interpreting their results. The reason for this is simple enough. Not all scientists—just as not all journalists, and not all lawyers—are very bright.

On the other hand, in visiting the book party for Evidence of Harm, posted below, we were impressed by the quick intelligence of many of the excited parents who crowded round the author, David Kirby, as well as the level headed account of evidence of harm he had gathered in his book.

As the Times article notes, Kirby predicted that this year should reveal if there is anything to the theory that the mercury used in vaccines (in the thimerosal used to keep them uninfected) caused the rise in autism and related disorders. Now that the thimerosal has been removed, will the occurrence of autism decline?

Anyone who has been exposed to the parents at that party will probably prefer to wait for that indication before accepting that the correlation did not reflect causation.

Meanwhile, we can reflect on the possibility that the correlation of HIV with what is labeled “AIDS” may not mean causation, either.

NY Press shows who are the true “denialists”

June 23rd, 2005

This week a crack in the wall of mainstream media neglect of the AIDS dissidents appeared at the New York Press (Jun 22 Wed-28 2005 Vol 18 – Issue 25). This “alternative paper” with its independent politics is a frank and feisty weekly in New York City which, since it appeared some years ago, has become more interesting and relevant than the once dominant gay-mainstream weekly Village Voice, which it has largely replaced and thrown into hard times.

A while ago the New York Press devoted considerable space to a discussion of whether HIV really caused AIDS, and eventually followed this unprecedented break from the high stepping media AIDS chorus line with “Orphans on Trial”, a notable article last year by Liam Scheff, an investigative AIDS reporter (a rare species) who exposed the fact that experimental AIDS antiretroviral drugs had been tested on orphaned black children in the foster care of the city without reference to anyone acting in the interests of the children.

As noted in the post below New York researchers did abuse children this highhandedness doubly outrages AIDS skeptics since they are familiar with the peer-reviewed literature, and the NIH field studies, which demonstrate that these drugs are not “life saving” but in fact, after some temporary improvement due apparently to their killing effect on infections suffered by the AIDS patients (other than HIV, which is not much seen in AIDS patients) eventually cause groteque fat buildup and kidney aand liver damage annd death. No only that but the whole theory underlying their use is condemned by the most intensely peer-reviewed review literature in the field as utterly without scientifc or even common sense.

What the New York Press now offers readers is a “debate” between two proponents of the two sides, with the title�emblazoned on the front page and displayed from thousands of street bins in Manhattan�”Drugs�worse than the Disease? An AIDS debate”. In fact there is no debate as such but a blind exchange. The two opponents have each written an article without even being able to see in advance what their rival is saying.

Like virtually any AIDS debate on this level the discussion is incomplete, rife with error and evasion and on the HIV defenders’ side loaded with political, emotional and religious attitudes disparaging the motivations of the critics.

Nonetheless the exchange offers not only a chance to see how the two styles differ in this way, but also to make one serious point which conclusively establishes which side has to be talen seriously according to our scientific measure.

The editors introduce the clash as follows:

DRUGS, DISEASE, DENIAL

Last July, New York Press published an article by Liam Scheff entitled �Orphans on Trial.� The piece sparked a slow-building wave of media interest in the children of Incarnation Children�s Center in Washington Heights, who have since become a lightning rod for a larger debate on HIV/AIDS drugs. A small but increasingly influential faction, commonly known as AIDS denialists, claims that HIV does not cause AIDS, and that the drugs used to treat HIV/AIDS are worse than the disease. We have invited longtime human-rights activist Jeanne Bergman and Celia Farber, a journalist and self-described �AIDS dissident,� to discuss the positions of their respective camps. We hope the heat generates some light.

—The editors

It is unfortunate that the editors repeat the wretchedly illiterate and politically loaded formulation “denialist”, a usage aimed at identifying HIV-AIDS questioners with holocaust deniers. The words we prefer are “doubter” or “questioner”, since lay HIV critics make no claims to scientific expertise. Scientists, science journalists and others who do understand the science very well and emerge HIV critics are, however, invariably “dissident” to the point of denying HIV any functional relevance, and denying that HIV=AIDS has any basis in fact, so “denier” would not be inappropriate, if it were not subject to the same Holocaust-denier overtones.

But the “debate” forms a prize specimen of the different styles of argument adopted by a typical mainstream believer and an experienced doubter of the medications flowing from a prima facie grossly anomalous paradigm, HIV=AIDS. Both are typical, and telling.

On the mainstream side we have Jeanne Bergman, a “human rights activist” whose article is replete with ad hominem insults, general scorn, I-know-better smugness and the chanting of dogma with little supporting fact. Bergman knows without study that HIV dissidents are “HIV denialists, the dangerously deluded people who have “been around for years” though “every wingnut claim” they make has been “thoroughly and completely demolished”. But their “lies” continue, “destructive” and “cynical” “misinformation”, and now they are in this case “a sensationalist stew of lies, partial truths and innuendo”.

Her maligning of those who question the gospel has a lynch mob spirit, an appeal to shared political-religious feeling rather than any evidence of desire to deal with the problems the HIV=AIDS paradigm presents. The issue in play is the tangled rationale for admittedly dangerous and eventually lethal medications, but the problems are simply dismissed as if they didn’t exist.

But then, given the modus operandi of such adamant supporters as Bergman, objections do vanish. This is because every difficulty (for example, the eventual death of patients) is reinterpreted as a success (their lives were prolonged beyond immediate death, it is claimed). Meanwhile, supporting evidence is barely visible. Where it appears it consists of flat statements such as “almost all HIV+ infants are ill by the time they are three” which are inherently problematical (almost all? how ill? and in what way? were they medicated? if so, what with?) and without any reference.

This is not science but politics, of course, and it smacks of a shared religion in that we see tribal anger and outrage directed against doubters, rather than a genuine discussion of the science. Often, it seems, the most conviction is shown by those with the least science in hand. Yet Bergman has the effrontery to say that “creationism and HIV denial have a common enemy in science”,

Why the best science supports HIV critics

All this would be trivial except that it raises the only important point that can and must be made in answer to reflex defenders of the status quo in AIDS on any occasion at any time, which is this: Contrary to Bergman, it is the HIV doubters who have the most thoroughly examined science on their side.

This is easily established, as follows. Thousands upon thousands of HIV-AIDS papers have been published in scientific journals, but the peer review they have recieved has been of only the kindest, most collegial sort. For the peer reviewers chosen by major science journals are invariably orthodox, and have no reason to challenge the basic premises of HIV-AIDS,. and every reason to oppose it. Authors of mainstream AIDS papers and their peer reviewers are family, and as suggested by the telling dissident criticism of published orthodox papers over the years, the gatekeepers (like all of us) overrate work in line with their own view, and overlook the flaws.

The few very large and substantial articles written at the top level reviewing the theory that HIV is causing what is now labeled “AIDS” have also all been peer reviewed ie scientifically validated by orthodox peer reviewers. In their case, however, the gatekeeprs are not kindly disposed towards the articles because all of them have consistently rejected the HIV theory as unlikely, unsubstantiated, and unscientific, and in the end, plainly wrong. The reviewers naturally are all either very hostile to such papers which undermine the ground they themselves stand on, or at the very least are very, very anxious and careful not to allow any wrong claims or arguments along these lines pass into print, simply to protect their own rear ends with their colleagues.

Yet, and this is the key to the whole scientific debate over HIV as the cause of AIDS, in each case they ran out of objections which they could sustain, and the articles were published. Over the last twenty years, these damning review articles, rejecting HIV as the cause of AIDS, have met no answering articles in the same journals, although these have been requested and in one important case promised, but never delivered.

The last major review article condemning HIV-AIDS theory was published in 2003, and like the rest stands unrefuted by the peers that reviewed it and any peers that read it. It was published in the Journal of Biosciences of the Indian Academy of Sciences, as serious and scholarly a journal as any you can name. (Of course, the reasons why the article was not even considered by the editors of the Western equivalent journals are relevant and worth investigating, but whatever they are they are political and not scientific. Any article which is not rejected by peer reviewers but by the editors before peer review is by definition rejected for political reasons, unless it is completely incompetent, and the Indian Academy of Science does not, of course, publish completely incompetent papers.)

As things stand, then, the plain fact of the matter the best, most rigorously tested scientific literature condemns the HIV-AIDS hypothesis as having nothing to it, scientifically speaking—groundless in theory and evidence.

The best science is on the side of the HIV-AIDS questioners, and not as the unread Bergman fondly believes, on the side of the global congregation amassed by the conventional wisdom. Amongst these faaithful, even the scientists in the field are not well acquainted with the arguments, we have found, so she need not be ashamed of her own evident ignorance of them.

Here is the Bergman article in full:

WWW.NYPRESS.COM | JUNE 22, 2005

JEANNE BERGMAN

NEWS & COLUMNS

For the last year and a half, Incarnation Children’s Center, a small skilled nursing facility in Washington Heights for children with AIDS, has been the target of a concerted attack by HIV denialists, the dangerously deluded people who believe that HIV is not the cause of AIDS and that people with HIV should not receive treatment.

The denialists accused ICC of abusing the foster children who live there as “guinea pigs” for deadly medical experiments, and these charges have elicited interest and some support within the Black community in northern Manhattan, which is acutely aware of both the racist history of American medicine and the routine incompetence and hostility of the Administration of Children’s Services (ACS), New York City’s troubled foster care agency.

HIV denialists have been around for years. Scientists, AIDS activists, clinicians and service providers ignore them when they can. Every wingnut claim they make�that HIV does not exist, that AIDS does not exist, that HIV medicines are the cause of the disease�has been thoroughly and completely demolished. But the lies spread by the denialists are beginning to have a destructive effect, hampering prevention efforts and obstructing access to treatment for people with HIV, in the U.S. and globally. By selecting ICC as a target, the HIV denialists are cynically exploiting the African-American community’s deep and legitimate concerns about medical racism, pharmaceutical profiteering and ACS’s abuses of government power in order to spread disinformation about HIV and AIDS in communities of color.

The attacks on Incarnation Children’s Center began with a sensationalist stew of lies, partial truths and innuendo cooked up by an AIDS denialist and free-lance writer named Liam Scheff and circulated on the Internet in early 2004. The New York Post picked up the story in March of that year, eliciting a spasm of misinformed grandstanding by a couple of City Council members. Scheff got New York Press to print his story that July [vol. 17, issue 28]. But his claim that children at ICC were being tortured in hideous experiments by a cabal of plotters including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Catholic Archdiocese, GlaxoSmithKline, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, and the Administration of Children’s Services wasn’t taken seriously until the story was rendered by people with British accents on BBC Two in November 2004. Regrettably, the HIV denialists driving this hoax have since been joined by African-American activists affiliated with small groups like the December 12th Movement, whose rage is directed primarily at ACS. They started organizing protests outside ICC, thus outing the residents as children with AIDS and characterizing their home as a “slaughterhouse.”

The HIV denialists have also effectively worked the independent media networks. Over the last six months several programs on WBAI, NYC’s Pacifica radio station, have repeatedly and thoughtlessly reiterated the charges against ICC and the deadly lie that anti-HIV treatment, not HIV itself, is the cause of AIDS. Last month, the New York City Council’s General Welfare Committee convened a hearing showcasing the HIV denialists’ claims. Christian right-wing extremists have also joined the call for a criminal investigation of the National Institutes of Health for supporting foster children’s inclusion in clinical trials. The Executive Director of the Traditional Values Coalition, Mrs. Andrea Lafferty, parroted the denialists’ attack on medicine and ICC when she declared, “Powerless and parentless children � are being scrutinized by the ‘scientists’ of the NIH. But using HIV-infected foster children, some as young as infants, for their AIDS experiments is beyond despicable. � these voiceless little ones have no rights and no one to speak for them when the NIH is in charge.”

Creationism and HIV denial have a common enemy in science.

When Incarnation Children’s Center was founded in 1988, children with HIV/AIDS who were in foster care in New York City were not allowed to participate in clinical trials. As new medications were developed, including those for AIDS-defining opportunistic infections and eventually antiretrovirals, they were tested on, and approved for, adult populations first, and only then considered for children. Clinical trials are the first point of access to new and effective treatments; in addition, HIV+ children in clinical trials receive the best available medical care.

Children perinatally infected with HIV develop symptoms much more rapidly than adults: almost all HIV+ infants are ill by the time they are three, while adults are commonly symptom-free for a decade or more after infection. Children also do not live long without treatment. Before the advent of antiretroviral medications used in combination therapy, HIV infected newborns had a median survival rate of six months after diagnosis. In the 1980s, HIV+ children lucky enough to live with their birthparents could be enrolled in clinical trials and get both the newest drugs and the best available care. But a 1992 study reported that over 50 percent of the HIV-infected children in New York City lived with relatives or in foster care, and these children could not participate in the trials. That is, more than half of the kids with HIV�and they were overwhelmingly Black and Latino�were denied access to life-saving drugs simply because they were in foster care. That is the story of racial discrimination in health care and the foster care system that needs to be told.

ICC and other advocates for children with HIV successfully fought to have the policy that discriminated against foster kids changed. Almost all of the children from the ICC clinical trials period, children who would otherwise have died, are alive and well today because of what they accomplished. Not a single child at ICC died as a result of clinical trials they participated in there. Those kids were not “guinea pigs.” They were children with a deadly infection receiving state-of-the-art medical care and drugs already proven effective in adults.

ICC’s participation in clinical trials ended in 2002 because, as a result of the successful treatment of children in the clinical trials, those drugs were approved as safe and effective for pediatric populations. But the denialists spin even this as sinister: now, Scheff has charged, foster kids with HIV are being given anti-viral medications not just experimentally but as�gasp�routine treatment. That’s true. And that’s good.

The denialists emphasize the limitations and the side effects of antiretroviral medications; some, ignorant of the history of the epidemic, assert that these treatments are themselves the cause of AIDS. There is, of course, no cure yet for HIV, and the antiretroviral drugs are at best nasty to take and difficult to tolerate. (In his NY Press article last year, Scheff boldly revealed that ICC’s Medical Director admitted, “The drugs have a ‘significant, lingering, bitter taste.’ So they mix the pills or powders in chocolate or strawberry syrup.” Perhaps Scheff’s next expos� will tell the truth about cherry-flavored NyQuil.)

No one familiar with HIV and AIDS treatment has ever suggested that being on combination therapy is pleasant for anyone, and both immediate allergic reactions and long term side effects can be very serious, and even, in rare cases, fatal. HIV disease sucks, and the drugs so far available for it suck, too. Generally, however, the side effects are greatly outweighed by the benefits of treatment. The children at ICC had the advantage of living in a structured, supportive setting that ensured that they could adhere to complex regimens with stringent dietary requirements, and on-site health care that enabled rapid identification of, and response to, any side effects.

The HIV denialists say that the young children at ICC could not refuse the drugs or fight off the “researchers” who gave them their medications. Should children of two or even 12 years get to decide if they will or will not take their medicine? Of course not, particularly when irregular dosing may result in drug-resistant HIV. All responsible parents and caregivers understand that children can’t make crucial life-and-death decisions for themselves, and the law recognizes this fact too: that’s why legally children can neither give nor withhold medical consent. ICC, with its loving, expert and compassionate staff, cared for the children; parents or other guardians signed informed consent forms. The clinical trials�the only way the kids could get the drugs that kept them alive�were closely monitored by the National Institutes of Health, collaborating hospitals, and the Administration of Children’s Services. The HIV denialists see a conspiracy where there were in fact multiple levels of oversight.

Were the children at ICC stolen from their parents to be used for experiments? Absolutely not. The parents of many children at ICC had died from AIDS; others were incapacitated by HIV-related illness, drugs, or homelessness and unable to care for very sick children: that’s why the kids were in the foster care system. Until ICC was founded, orphaned and unparented HIV+ kids at Harlem Hospital were stuck there as “boarder babies”�too sick for regular foster care, they had nowhere to live but the hospital. The denialists assert that the Administration of Children’s Services as not merely neglectful, but complicit in a “full blown criminal conspiracy” when it placed HIV+ kids in ICC. ACS is always (and often justifiably) an easy target: the agency often abuses its power over parents while failing to protect children. But what ACS did in this instance was, for once, really wonderful: it put kids with HIV/AIDS who had no other home into a cozy, first-rate specialized care facility where they had access to state-of-the-art combination anti-viral therapy under the expert supervision of a brilliant and compassionate staff. That’s not a crime to be prosecuted, but an incredible accomplishment to be celebrated.

Thanks to other clinical trials proving the efficacy of AZT and Nevirapine in preventing perinatal transmission, and in particular to the amazing community education and care provided to pregnant women by Harlem Hospital, the incidence of perinatal HIV transmission in Washington Heights and Harlem has fallen dramatically. Almost no new HIV-infected babies are born in northern Manhattan now, and the AIDS babies of ICC are nearing adulthood.

It’s not hard to understand why some people don’t believe in the reality of HIV and AIDS. They may be in genuine psychological denial: they don’t want to be infected, and they don’t want this terrifying pandemic to decimate their families, their world. Others resist changing the behaviors that put themselves and others at risk of HIV infection, so they persuade themselves it doesn’t matter. More broadly, the history of racism in American medicine, the pharmaceutical giants’ single-minded pursuit of profit, and the frustration that more than 20 years into the AIDS epidemic there is no cure, have prepared fertile ground for denial and disinformation.

It’s more difficult to discern the motives of people who urge others to reject the overwhelming scientific evidence and medical consensus that HIV causes AIDS by destroying the immune system, allowing the opportunistic infections that would otherwise be easily fought off to turn deadly.

A closer look at the denialist who evidently instigated the hoax about ICC explains a lot. Christine Maggiore, one of the most visible HIV denialists, introduced Liam Scheff to the guardian of two children who lived at ICC. Maggiore has built a profitable career by combining a gift for self-promotion with a couple of false-positive HIV test results. The story she tells begins in 1992, when, despite the complete absence of risk factors, a routine HIV antibody test came back inconclusive. The retest was positive, and Maggiore threw herself into the whirlwind life of an AIDS poster girl, “booked for a year’s worth of engagements before I’d even finished [a speaker’s] training course. I made the audiences, laugh, cry, and scared.” When a year or so later her doctor suspected she wasn’t really infected with HIV, she “finally found the courage to retest,” and in a series of tests received results that were inconclusive, she reports, then positive, negative and positive again.

False-negative HIV tests are extremely rare, while false positives are much more common, though infrequent. This fact and all the other available evidence strongly indicate that Maggiore was never infected with HIV, and she herself emphasizes the term “positive” and avoids saying she is infected or has the virus, allowing others to draw that erroneous conclusion. Most people would be thrilled to learn they were uninfected, but Maggiore was unwilling to give up the spotlight. This HIV pretender twisted her good health and the marginal incidence of false positives into a lucrative new racket�selling HIV denialism and bragging about her good life “without pharmaceutical treatments or fear of AIDS.” But of course Maggiore has no “fear of AIDS”�she doesn’t have HIV. She has since had two children, now three and seven years old, whom she boasted to Scheff “have never been tested. � They don’t take AIDS drugs. And they’re not in the least bit sick.” But of course Maggiore didn’t want them to be tested: she knows that they are not at risk and that their being uninfected would lead people to question her own status. And of course they don’t take “AIDS drugs”�they don’t have HIV or AIDS.

Christine Maggiore isn’t living proof that HIV doesn’t cause AIDS; she’s just another lying AIDS profiteer, exploiting the real fears of those who actually are infected with HIV and the real suffering of those living with AIDS to get public attention, sell books and pick up well-paid speaking gigs. This might matter less if she wasn’t telling parents and caregivers of children who really are HIV-infected to take the kids off difficult but life-saving antivirals. Maggiore has never had to make agonizing treatment decisions for herself or for her children.

This month, the Centers for Disease Control reported that about 1.1 million people in the United States are living with HIV. (Of these, fully half are African-American.) This is the largest number of infected Americans since the start of the epidemic, reflects the good news that people with HIV are living longer because of antiretroviral therapy and the sad fact that HIV prevention messages are not effective enough, so the virus is continuing to spread. Because HIV denialists actively discourage people with the virus from taking antiretroviral drugs, and because disinformation about HIV allows people to ignore advice about safer sex and clean needles, the rates of both deaths and new infections will rise if their campaign is successful. The communities most at risk�African-Americans, Latinos, and gay men of all ethnicities�will suffer the greatest losses. Not believing in the virus offers no protection from it.

The small clutches of protesters who gather occasionally outside Incarnation Children’s Center vow “No More Tuskegee Experiments.” But remember: The essence of the Tuskegee atrocity was that poor African-Americans who were known by doctors to have a devastating, usually fatal infection were lied to about their condition and intentionally denied lifesaving medication that was available to others. That is exactly what the denialists are perpetrating right now. Denialism is the new Tuskegee. In Washington Heights, the heroes who fought the government to get treatment to the powerless children of color who were infected, sick and dying were the brave little group at Incarnation Children’s Center.

Volume 18, Issue 25

� 2005 New York Press

As usual, the lay debate rapidly deteriorates into an ad hominem discussion of motives, but Bergman’s is particularly egregious. For a human rights activist to invest in such calumny as suggesting the notorious HIV questioner Christine Maggiore is in it for “self-promotion” seems unconscionable. With the social pressure all on the side of orthodoxy�and there is probably no current social issue where greater pressure is at work�the penalties for being an AIDS dissident are great. No self-promotion would be worth the price which the Maggiores of the world pay for their dissent, which always includes widespread vilification of this kind.

Surely it is the wave of social pressure that buoys her that leads Bergman to triumphantly conclude that “In Washington Heights, the heroes who fought the government to get treatment to the powerless children of color who were infected, sick and dying were the brave little group at Incarnation Children’s Center.” Even the HHS has agreed that their behavior was against the code. And the lack of sense in this statement is stunning, if the studies were designed to test the effects of the drugs.

On the other side of the “debate”, we have the exemplary attitude of political humility and modestly inexpert enquiry assumed by Celia Farber, one of the longest running reporter-enquirers in AIDS, of which there are barely a handful in the media, few of them in the top mainstream yet. (Insiders expect a change in this shortly, for a stunningly well written piece is in the works at a major magazine which seems destined to gain the dissident view new respect and attention.)

Farber’s slightly mournful earnestness is charming and effective, quickly winning over readers by enlisting them as fellow travelers in her enquiry, by persuading them gently to join her in her incessant wondering at the inconsistencies of “AIDS”. That is to say, her incredulity at the disconnect between the theoretical fantasy of AIDS and the plain facts of experience, and wonder at the unscientific, often irrational, self-serving and socially irresponsible behavior of the people who are influential in the field, are both more persuasive in the public arena than direct attack.

Here (below) is Farber’s “denialism”, which is nothing more than “denying” that HIV-AIDS ideology makes sense. It denies any sense in accepting the current story of HIV-AIDS when it is rife with inconsistencies, irresponsible behavior, questionable claims, corrupt studies and statistics, concealment and dismissal of problems, and all the other earmarks of a boondoogle which has nothing to do with good science and everything to do with superstition, slow wittedness and self-interest.

In other words, she prefers to ask for answers, rather than accept unlikely claims.

WWW.NYPRESS.COM | JUNE 22, 2005

CELIA FARBER

NEWS & COLUMNS

The hysteria-laden question of whether anti-HIV drugs are �life-saving,� as the AIDS orthodoxy holds, or �deadly,� as the HIV dissidents claim, is unanswerable in the currently available language, which was blunted and rendered incoherent by political forces as early as 1981. Language is the only interface between phenomena and our comprehension of them, and I have grown weary of being forced to use AIDS language that is itself inaccurate and loaded. First of all, lives can�t really be �saved��they can only be extended. To prove that a life has indeed been extended one must first know, with absolute certainty, that without intervention, the life would have ended. In order to know that, one must know the natural history of the disease, and then one must examine the fate of the untreated population.

The unified voice of the AIDS establishment has claimed thunderous victory for the post-1996 drug regimens that came to be known as �cocktails,� which came into vogue about three years after death rates began declining, but nonetheless got full-trumpet credit for turning the tide.

Let me say, first, that I have been told and have reported and have imprinted upon my soul that for some people, at some stages of immune collapse, these drugs have helped, and maybe even prevented a slide into death. Roberto Giraldo, a doctor and expert in infectious and tropical diseases who crosses the world treating AIDS, tells me this is probably due to their anti-oxidant, anti-viral and anti-microbial properties. He also tells me that in his experience, severe immune deficiency�which may be a more useful term than �AIDS��occurs only where severe depletion of vital nutrients has occurred; reversing the illness starts with restoring those nutrients.

“Biochemically speaking, people who are malnourished, whether because they are poor, or because they are drug addicts, suffer from oxidization, and lack vitamins A, B, E, zinc and selenium. This is true of all AIDS patients I have ever seen,” he said via telephone. “We cannot say that protease inhibitors are useless. In 1996 when they started to use protease inhibitors, there is no doubt that there was a change. Before 1996, all the people who used AZT, they were killed. There was no benefit there. Protease inhibitors, they are also very toxic but they have benefits, they are antioxidants. No doubt they are poison and in the long run they kill the person, but you need proteases in the process of oxidation. Besides that, these drugs are also antibiotics.” Giraldo believes that AIDS is a disease �of poverty,� primarily, meaning of extreme depletion of the cells, and that those who have been middle- or upper-class, who have gotten sick, depleted their bodies through drug use and prolonged exposure to toxins. “HIV by itself causes nothing,” he says.

Giraldo has written and published voluminously on how to reverse the condition of severe immune suppression through intensive nutritional supplementation and orthomolecular medicine, combined with modified antibiotic and other targeted drug regimens. I am well aware of how scorned these ideas are among those who feel that they and they alone know what AIDS is, and how to �fight� it, i.e., the orthodoxy and the pro-drug activists. Since 1986, when I began reporting on AIDS, I have compensated for this scorn, ridicule and censure by quoting the Roberto Giraldos of this world, not because I know these voices are ‘right,’ but because I feel they must be represented against the relentless chorus of the new-and-better-drugs-into-all-bodies-in-all-nations crowd. I am not a doctor and have never treated an AIDS patient. I’ve known dozens if not hundreds of people though, in my 20 years studying this and listening to people, who have been HIV-antibody positive and stayed healthy for up to 20 years and probably more. I wish somebody was counting them, listening to them, logging them in the official history. Nobody is; they are not supposed to exist.

Each of the 26 anti-HIV drugs currently on the market, combined in infinite combinations, or ‘cocktails,’ is, by admission of the manufacturers, potentially lethal. One of the unexpected effects of Protease Inhibitors, or so-called HAART therapy (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) seen in recent years was a disruption of the body�s fat-distribution mechanisms. This in turn (in addition to the fatty deposits on the upper neck and various parts of the body) has caused strokes and heart attacks in many patients, at the very moment when the drugs were theoretically �working,� meaning so-called surrogate markers (cd4 cells and viral load) were going the right way. The other significant danger of HAART proved to be liver and kidney failure, which, according to a study done at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, �surpassed deaths due to advanced HIV,� in 2002. In 2005 the Wall Street Journal reported that, according to a Danish study, AIDS drug cocktails �may double the risk of heart attacks.� In 2004, the journal AIDS reported, with characteristic lack of alarm, �All 4 classes of antiretrovirals (ARVs) and all 19 FDA approved ARVs have been directly or indirectly associated with life-threatening events and death.� The paper was titled �Grade 4 Events Are as Important as AIDS Events in the Era of HAART,� and �grade 4 events� referred to �serious or life-threatening events.�

The conclusion: More than twice as many people (675) had a drug-related (grade 4) life-threatening event as an �AIDS event� (332). The most common causes of grade 4 events (drug toxicities) were �liver related.� The greatest risk of death was not an AIDS �event� but a drug event�heart attacks (�cardiovascular events�). The authors wrote: �Our finding is that the rate of grade 4 events is greater than the rate of AIDS events, and that the risk of death associated with these grade 4 events was very high for many events. Thus the incidence of AIDS fails to capture most of the morbidity experienced by patients with HIV infection prescribed HAART.� (Italics mine) In plain English, AIDS drugs cause AIDS and death far more effectively than �AIDS� itself.

Any triumph or victory claimed by the AIDS lobby for these drugs must be measured against a phenomenon they continue to deny exists, namely the untold number of people who are, to use their language, �living with HIV.� This includes those invisible, uncounted, unloved people who are HIV-antibody positive, taking no drugs, not getting sick, not dying at a faster rate than HIV negatives. This begs the question of whether HIV causes AIDS. Currently, we have one camp�which I will call the �orthodoxy��that argues that although current HIV drugs have frightful side effects and are difficult to take, they have nonetheless reversed a tide of death, which was seen throughout the 1980s and into the mid 1990s in people who were diagnosed with severe immune dysfunction. This camp, since it views AIDS as �HIV disease,� meaning caused singularly by HIV, concentrates its efforts to �fight AIDS,� on high tech drugs that in various ways are meant to disable HIV in the blood. They are extremely mechanistic in their view of the human body and the immune system. It�s all numbers.

The much-maligned contraries camp, which I will call the �dissidents,� have argued since the early 1980s that AIDS has multiple causes, and that its resolution should be rooted in a direct address to all these root causes. These include a cessation of recreational drug use, avoidance (when possible) of the most toxic anti-HIV drugs, a strong focus on reversing malnutrition, (particularly in Africa) and a treatment approach that treats the specific opportunistic infection a person manifests, with the state of the art treatment for that infection.

PCP pneumonia, for example, is utterly treatable, yet thousands of people died in the 1980s of it. Why? Because fighting AIDS meant �attacking� HIV, period. Never the specific diseases; never the underlying causes�only the virus. David Ho, Time�s Person of the Year, sported a button at a conference that summed up this ideology. The button said, �It�s the virus, stupid.�

How that came to be the dominant scientific religion is a subject of infinite complexity and tragedy. The virus (which is actually a retrovirus, of a class that was never thought to be pathogenic prior to 1984, and which we all harbor shards of in our germline) provided an absolute measure, a clear delineation, a battleground, and above all, a focus for a gigantic industry, as well as an international corporation called AIDS Inc. The natural and true history of AIDS is only beginning to be told, or rather, retold. When AIDS Began: San Francisco and The Making of An Epidemic (Routledge) by Michelle Cochrane traces the earliest intersection between what was being observed, those who were doing the observing, and how the �truth� fared in the process. Cochrane weaves a rigorously detailed semantic, medical, and sociological examination of the first cases as they were charted and described by the San Francisco Department of Public Health in 1981. She explodes the myth of the first cases of AIDS having appeared, as the New York Times famously phrased it, in �previously healthy,� and even upwardly mobile, gay men, and shows that quite the contrary, the first nine cases were in men who had a range of immune assaults. All were recreational drug users, many were IV drug users, and some were even homeless. They suffered from diseases that had been seen in IV drug users since the 1930s, primarily fungal infections and lung diseases. That they were �gay,� was perhaps the least significant detail. Because the federal research effort ($36 billion so far) has been 100 percent HIV-centric, and because AIDS was presumed to be sexually transmitted as opposed to �acquired,� we are essentially 20 years behind in our intelligence gathering on AIDS. One of the most astonishing things about the politics of AIDS is the way in which the left repudiated any explanations of disease causation that could be predicted by poverty and social marginalization.

One of the hallmarks of the AIDS orthodoxy�s language is that coiled within each word and phrase is the answer, as well as the shaming of the question itself. George Orwell (in 1984) described the orthodox style as, ��at once military and pedantic,� characterized by a trick of ��asking questions and then promptly answering them.� Anti-HIV drugs, for example, are always called �life-saving drugs.� Why not just call them �drugs� and allow their merits to be debated? Because at the root of the AIDS orthodoxy is a relentless urge to control all thought on AIDS.

All people who question any facet of orthodox AIDS theory are �murderously irresponsible,� and dripping with the psychic blood of millions. In this gladiatorial atmosphere, it is a wonder anybody speaks out at all. If only we could agree that most people are not, by nature, homicidal, and that dissenting views are productive to a search for truth, we might get somewhere. But I know, as surely as I know anything, that my opponent in these pages will have characterized my position as �denialist.� I am not denying anything. People have died of AIDS and the matter at hand is what they died from. A retroviral infection? A host of immuno-compromising factors? An absence of AIDS drugs�or indeed, the AIDS drugs themselves?

In 1984, when the US government announced at a press conference that one of its scientists�Robert Gallo�had found the �probable cause of AIDS,� the official theory held that HIV caused AIDS by eating CD4 cells at a rapid clip. HIV was said to cause AIDS in a year or two, at best. Today, this theory has morphed into a range of possibilities; HIV causes AIDS in 10 to 15 years, in most people, but a small minority, so-called �long-term non-progressors,� might be spared due to a genetic fluke.

To my mind, if we are to stick to the orthodoxy�s own measure, one cannot begin to speak of �saving� life until one has surpassed these ten or fifteen years. In the 1980s, AZT was claimed, with the same high dudgeon by the same orthodoxy, to �save� lives, yet few survived for more than a year on the earliest AZT regimens. The word �denial� comes to mind.

When people make dramatic claims for current drug regimens, the death rates they are actually comparing are not drugs vs. no drugs, but rather extremely toxic drugs of the early years compared to less toxic drugs of today. The earliest AIDS cases, marked by Kaposi�s Sarcoma, were treated with chemotherapy (1981 to 1986) followed by AZT monotherapy in doses ranging from 1800 milligrams to 500 milligrams (1986 to 1989) followed by combinations of AZT, ddi, ddc and d4t (1989 to 1996) followed by protease inhibitors in various combinations, from 1996 to the present day. The one era I have no question resulted in deaths from the treatment itself, is the early AZT era, (circa 1986 to 1989) particularly when the common dosage was 1200 to 1800 milligrams. A German AIDS physician named Klaus Koehnlein told me in 2000, �We killed a whole generation of AIDS patients with AZT.�

My friend Richard Berkowitz, author of Stayin Alive: The Invention of Safe Sex, A Personal History (Westview), said: �Every friend I had that went on AZT in those early years is dead.� He says that they lasted on average nine months on the drug. HIV positive since the early 1980s, Berkowitz credits his survival to two things: 1) having avoided AZT, and 2) safe sex.

What he means by �safe sex,� a concept and term he himself developed and coined, together with the late activist Michael Callen, is far more complex than mere condom use. Drawing on the pioneering observations and warnings of Dr. Joseph Sonnabend, it involves an avoidance of many STDs and parasitic infections, coupled with a belief in life rather than a belief in the death sentence of HIV. Berkowitz has also mitigated my repudiation of cocktail therapy by stressing that a moderate regimen pulled him back from the brink of death a few years ago.

Paul King, a Brit who runs a dissident website called Dissident Action Group in the U.S., counters the establishment�s claim that dissenting views on AIDS, HIV and drug regimens are still �fringe.�

�From the very beginning in the 1980s, the AIDS dissident movement faced a level of censorship unrivaled since the anti birth control information Comstock Law of the early 20th century,� he said in an email. �Every day,� King claims, �almost without exception, we attract another PhD or doctor and now have well over 4,000 doctors and scientists endorsing our views.�

�The public has had enough of exaggerated stories of epidemics that never materialize and [that diminish] personal freedom.�

Volume 18, Issue 25

� 2005 New York Press

Here then we see that a seasoned HIV doubter answers a virulent, hysterical, verbal lynching with world weary logic and citing of evidence of harm, the harm, for example, that the HAART drug regimen does to the livers of patients, often culminating in a transplant. As a staff member of Mt Sinai’s group handling liver transplants told us the other day, “Oh yes we see lots of AIDS patients!”

Why are the AIDS drugs initially beneficial?

The central issue in many people’s minds on the question of HIV and AIDS, as we have pointed out before, is that if the drugs result in what is widely reported to be immediate improvment, surely this strongly indicates that the mainstream theory is essentially correct, and that HIV causes AIDS.

Farber takes the opportunity to anwer this question, which (as far as we can check) has been left unanswered by the HIV reviewers in the peer-reviewed literature, by quoting Roberto Giraldo, an impassioned foe of HIV=AIDS ideology who works in the Laboratories of Clinical Immunology and Molecular diagnosis at the New York Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical Center, in New York City, and who travels widely researching tropical diseases (see his web site Roberto Giraldo).

“Biochemically speaking, people who are malnourished, whether because they are poor, or because they are drug addicts, suffer from oxidization, and lack vitamins A, B, E, zinc and selenium. This is true of all AIDS patients I have ever seen,” he said via telephone. “We cannot say that protease inhibitors are useless. In 1996 when they started to use protease inhibitors, there is no doubt that there was a change. Before 1996, all the people who used AZT, they were killed. There was no benefit there. Protease inhibitors, they are also very toxic but they have benefits, they are antioxidants. No doubt they are poison and in the long run they kill the person, but you need proteases in the process of oxidation. Besides that, these drugs are also antibiotics.” Giraldo believes that AIDS is a disease “of poverty,” primarily, meaning of extreme depletion of the cells, and that those who have been middle- or upper-class, who have gotten sick, depleted their bodies through drug use and prolonged exposure to toxins. “HIV by itself causes nothing,” he says.

Short of a peer reviewed paper on the topic, which is what the world needs, this will have to do.

One briefly wonders if Farber’s civil, encompassing tone is wasted and if she should be as decisive and belligerent as Bergman to catch the eye of casual readers. But the imbalance of politesse seems to us to indicate that all the social pressure is on the side of the current wisdom most readers share with Bergman, and against any doubters, who simply cannot afford to be adamant as the believers.

This fiercely one-sided social pressure twists the lay AIDS debate into a pretzel of bad logic and bad behavior, where rationalization of nonsense and rejection of sense is the order of the day for HIV defenders. It also places a burden on challengers which is hard for them to survive. All the platforms are occupied by the mainstream, and they must be on their best behavior even to gain a hearing.

Meanwhile, HIV defenders can behave as badly as they wish.

For exposing this distortion so clearly by running these pieces, and for bringing the dicussion back into the mainstream arena, the New York Press deserves credit.

New York researchers did abuse children—HHS

June 17th, 2005

The abuse of foster children at the Incarnation Children’s Center in Harlem (see earlier post The Council will fight NIH over AIDS trial children) is apparently not the only case where the city’s Administration for Children’s Services served up foster children in its care to researchers to act as guinea pigs for potentially lethal doses of anti-AIDS medicines.

According to the New York Sun’s Daniel Hemel (p3 today Fri June 17 issue)), Federal investigators from the Department of Health and Human Services have confirmed that Columbia University Medical Center and New-York-Presbyterian Hospital violated protocol in the same way between 1998 and 2001, when doctors tried out experimental AIDS drugs on foster children at the center.

In a letter dated May 23 the HHS gave them till June 30 to say how they were going to clean up their act with a “corrective action plan”.

The ACS acknowledged in April that “465 HIV-positive and AIDS-infected (sic) foster children” received treatments not yet approved by the FDA. It was all part of the NIH project where pediatric AIDS drug tests were conducted on 13,000 children in at least seven states.

Quite what “HIV-positive and AIDS-infected” means exactly in the minds of Hemel and his editors at the Sun is interesting to contemplate, but given the lack of interest shown by the Times in this scandal we are not going to quibble when the Sun takes up the cudgels on behalf of children caught up in the AIDS machine. (The Times’ tentative article today trying to catch up with this story is reproduced at the end of this post).

And guess what the arguments used in their defense by the officials of these respected institutions were? Right, you got it the first time. They didn’t feel they had to appoint special advocates to represent the childrens’ interests because the treatments carried “the prospect of direct benefit” for patients with HIV and AIDS.

“These studies were instrumental in extending life saving HIV treatments to children,” a Columbia medical center spokeswoman, Marilyn Castaldi, assured Hemel.

In other words, the drugs would be good for the children�somehow the scientists knew this in advance of the experiments designed to establish the fact�so they didn’t need any guardians to clog up the works.

Bioethicists are appalled at this high handed approach even though they have no idea of the flimsy foundation to the science of these drugs, damned in the best AIDS peer-reviewed scientific review literature, which indicates that the trials of such drugs are needless and endanger the lives of the children without any justification at all.

There is “an obvious conflict of interest”, the director of the Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethic, David Magnus, told the reporter Daniel Hemel.

Under fire already from members of the City Council such as Harlem’s William Perkins, who calls it “shocking disregard for the rights and well-being of foster care children by the ACS,” the ACS has contracted with the non profit, Manhattan-based Vera Institute for Justice to review city practices in this regard. In other words, they will pay someone to review their performance. Such sensitivity to conflict of interest!

The ACS officials also told the Sun that none of the city’s foster children are currently enrolled in drug experiments. But th NIH spokesman, John Burklow, said it is “likely” to be happening somewhere in the US.

The HHS letter demands that troves of documents be turned over by officials at the hospitals so that the hospitals’ review boards can themselves be scrutinized.

In other words, the officials and scientists involved in this underhanded experimentation on children without leave are going to get their come-uppance, unless they succeed in their strenuous efforts to whitewash their mistake by appealing to the global assumption that HIV drugs are good for patients of alll kinds, even pregnant mothers-to-be and children.

This will go over well with the AIDS mainstream but to AIDS skeptics this is one more horrific result of a modern superstition which irresponsible scientists have sold to the world and which now with its mismedication of patients ailments endangers even the lives of children in the care of the state.

To anyone not in either camp it suggests powerfully how very urgent it is to make sure that AIDS science makes sense before continuing with the policies and treatments based on this deeply suspect paradigm.

As the mainstream itself is always so happy to say, “lives are at stake.”

Here is the actual article (click “show).

June 17, 2005 Edition > Section: New York > Printer-Friendly Version

Health Officials: Hospital Broke AIDS Drug Rules

BY DANIEL HEMEL – Special to the Sun

June 17, 2005

URL: http://www.nysun.com/article/15595

Federal investigators have concluded that Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital violated protocol on the use of human research subjects between 1988 and 2001, when doctors at the center administered experimental AIDS drugs to foster-care children.

In a letter dated May 23, the Department of Health and Human Services gave Columbia and New York Presbyterian until June 30 to develop a “corrective action plan” to bolster safeguards protecting children in clinical trials.

According to the HHS investigators, the medical center’s institutional review board – which vets experiments involving human subjects – failed to determine whether it had proper consent to administer cutting-edge treatments to foster-care children.

The city’s Administration for Children’s Services acknowledged in April that approximately 465 HIV positive and AIDS-infected foster children received treatments that had not yet been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The experiments at the Manhattan hospitals were funded by the National Institutes of Health, which has conducted pediatric AIDS drug tests on more than 13,000 children in at least seven states. An estimated 5-10% of patients in these trials were wards of the foster-care system.

“These studies … were instrumental in extending lifesaving HIV treatments to children,” a Columbia medical center spokeswoman, Marilyn Castaldi, said in a statement yesterday. She said that since the center is currently formulating a response to the HHS letter, “it would not be appropriate to comment further at this point.”

In previous correspondence with the HHS, Columbia and New York-Presbyterian officials argued that researchers did not have to appoint special advocates to represent the foster children’s interests because the treatments carried “the prospect of direct benefit” for patients with HIV and AIDS.

But federal investigators said that the review board didn’t gather enough information to make such an assessment.

Bioethics experts told The New York Sun yesterday that institutions conducting medical trials should never be the only judges of questions regarding young patients in clinical trials.

“The researchers obviously have a conflict of interest that would prevent them from being the sole protector of the child,” said the director of the Stanford University Center for Biomedical Ethics, David Magnus.

The fact that many of the patients in the Manhattan hospitals’ trials were foster children should have prompted the institutional review board to consider “extra precautions,” the editor of the journal IRB: Ethics & Human Research, Karen Maschke, said.

“These are by definition vulnerable subjects,” Ms. Maschke said.

According to Ms. Maschke, the HHS investigators “dodged” a central issue in the inquiry: whether the research would have been permissible even with advocacy oversight. “If the answer is no, then the ‘advocate’ question is moot,” Ms. Maschke said.

Several of the drugs administered in the NIH-funded studies were in the first phase of development. Mr. Magnus said that Phase 1 research seeks to determine a drug’s “maximum tolerable dosage,” and he said it is “dubious” that such trials are ever in the best interests of child patients.

Meanwhile, local politicians are demanding to know how the ACS allowed infants and youngsters under its watch to be enrolled in drug trials.

The ACS has also weathered criticism for failing to stem alleged abuses at the Incarnation Children’s Center in Harlem. According to a BBC documentary that aired last November, HIV-infected children at the center allegedly received potentially lethal doses of anti-AIDS medicines, sometimes being force-fed the drugs through stomach tubes.

Council Member William Perkins, a Democrat who represents Harlem, said the HHS letter “confirms a shocking disregard for the rights and well-being of foster care children by the ACS.”

Mr. Perkins called on the ACS to conduct a “vigorous investigation” into the use of foster children in medical experiments. But according to ACS officials, the agency has already contracted the Vera Institute for Justice, a Manhattan-based nonprofit group, to review city’s practices regarding medical experiments that use foster children as subjects.

The ACS said it “intends to make all of Vera’s findings fully available to the public.”

Officials at the ACS told the Sun yesterday that none of the city’s foster children are currently enrolled in drug experiments. But NIH officials yesterday could not confirm or deny that foster children are still being used in ongoing federally funded medical experiments.

“It is likely” that foster care children currently being treated in federally funded AIDS drug trials, NIH spokesman John Burklow told the Sun, but he added, “the decisions about who can enroll into a clinical trial are made at the local IRB level.”

Officials at Columbia and New York-Presbyterian told the HHS last August that they were taking several steps to protect young patients in clinical trials – including a mandatory training program for staff on the use of children in research.

Last month’s letter requires officials at the hospitals to turn over troves of documents to the HHS so that investigators can scrutinize the hospitals’ institutional review boards.

June 17, 2005 Edition > Section: New York > Printer-Friendly Version

Here is the Times article today, with Janny Scott trying to catch up with the situation but not doing much reporting on it. For those who like the incisive reporting and arts pages of the intellectually vigorous New York Sun, it seems another good example of how the Sun is covering the city better. It may also be another example of how conservative papers tend to treat scientists with a little less collegial deference than the liberal ones do. at least in AIDS.

The New York Times

June 17, 2005

Drug Trials on Children Broke Rules, Officials Say

By JANNY SCOTT

Federal officials have found that a Columbia University Medical Center committee that oversees the use of patients as subjects in medical research violated federal regulations in the 1990’s in the case of four research projects. In the projects, experimental drugs were tested in children, including foster children, with AIDS or who were H.I.V.-positive.

The Office for Human Research Protections informed Columbia in a letter last month that the medical center’s institutional review board had “failed to obtain sufficient information” concerning the selection of foster children as subjects, the process for getting their parents’ or guardians’ permission and certain additional safeguards.

The exact nature and significance of the violations were unclear yesterday. A spokeswoman for the agency, Pat El-Hinnawy, declined to say what information the review board had failed to obtain, whether the information would have affected the board’s decision to approve the projects and whether any children were harmed.

The findings come at a time when questions have been raised nationally about the participation of foster children in drug trials during the 1980’s and 1990’s, when hundreds of babies in New York City alone were born H.I.V.-positive and when there were at first no treatments approved for children.

The city’s Administration for Children’s Services has hired the Vera Institute of Justice to investigate charges that the city inappropriately allowed foster children to take part.

The agency has said that it has found no evidence that it acted wrongly. Some 465 foster children took part between 1988 and 2001, the agency says.

Under federal regulations, foster children may participate in clinical trials as long as a parent or guardian has given permission, and if the risk is minimal or there is some prospect of direct benefit for the child. All clinical trials, even with adults, must have the approval of the institutional review board in the center where the trial is taking place.

The four trials cited in the letter were supported by the National Institutes of Health and involved dozens of medical centers nationwide. They occurred between 1993 and 2002. In a statement, a Columbia spokeswoman said the studies “were instrumental in extending lifesaving H.I.V. treatments to children.”

“We stand behind the clinical aspects of these trials,” Marilyn Castaldi, the spokeswoman, said in an interview. “It’s not an issue of safety or harm.”

New York researchers did abuse children—HHS

June 17th, 2005

The abuse of foster children at the Incarnation Children’s Center in Harlem (see earlier post The Council will fight NIH over AIDS trial children) is apparently not the only case where the city’s Administration for Children’s Services served up foster children in its care to researchers to act as guinea pigs for potentially lethal doses of anti-AIDS medicines.

According to the New York Sun’s Daniel Hemel (p3 today Fri June 17 issue)), Federal investigators from the Department of Health and Human Services have confirmed that Columbia University Medical Center and New-York-Presbyterian Hospital violated protocol in the same way between 1998 and 2001, when doctors tried out experimental AIDS drugs on foster children at the center.

In a letter dated May 23 the HHS gave them till June 30 to say how they were going to clean up their act with a “corrective action plan”.

The ACS acknowledged in April that “465 HIV-positive and AIDS-infected (sic) foster children” received treatments not yet approved by the FDA. It was all part of the NIH project where pediatric AIDS drug tests were conducted on 13,000 children in at least seven states.

Quite what “HIV-positive and AIDS-infected” means exactly in the minds of Hemel and his editors at the Sun is interesting to contemplate, but given the lack of interest shown by the Times in this scandal we are not going to quibble when the Sun takes up the cudgels on behalf of children caught up in the AIDS machine. (The Times’ tentative article today trying to catch up with this story is reproduced at the end of this post).

And guess what the arguments used in their defense by the officials of these respected institutions were? Right, you got it the first time. They didn’t feel they had to appoint special advocates to represent the childrens’ interests because the treatments carried “the prospect of direct benefit” for patients with HIV and AIDS.

“These studies were instrumental in extending life saving HIV treatments to children,” a Columbia medical center spokeswoman, Marilyn Castaldi, assured Hemel.

In other words, the drugs would be good for the children�somehow the scientists knew this in advance of the experiments designed to establish the fact�so they didn’t need any guardians to clog up the works.

Bioethicists are appalled at this high handed approach even though they have no idea of the flimsy foundation to the science of these drugs, damned in the best AIDS peer-reviewed scientific review literature, which indicates that the trials of such drugs are needless and endanger the lives of the children without any justification at all.

There is “an obvious conflict of interest”, the director of the Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethic, David Magnus, told the reporter Daniel Hemel.

Under fire already from members of the City Council such as Harlem’s William Perkins, who calls it “shocking disregard for the rights and well-being of foster care children by the ACS,” the ACS has contracted with the non profit, Manhattan-based Vera Institute for Justice to review city practices in this regard. In other words, they will pay someone to review their performance. Such sensitivity to conflict of interest!

The ACS officials also told the Sun that none of the city’s foster children are currently enrolled in drug experiments. But th NIH spokesman, John Burklow, said it is “likely” to be happening somewhere in the US.

The HHS letter demands that troves of documents be turned over by officials at the hospitals so that the hospitals’ review boards can themselves be scrutinized.

In other words, the officials and scientists involved in this underhanded experimentation on children without leave are going to get their come-uppance, unless they succeed in their strenuous efforts to whitewash their mistake by appealing to the global assumption that HIV drugs are good for patients of alll kinds, even pregnant mothers-to-be and children.

This will go over well with the AIDS mainstream but to AIDS skeptics this is one more horrific result of a modern superstition which irresponsible scientists have sold to the world and which now with its mismedication of patients ailments endangers even the lives of children in the care of the state.

To anyone not in either camp it suggests powerfully how very urgent it is to make sure that AIDS science makes sense before continuing with the policies and treatments based on this deeply suspect paradigm.

As the mainstream itself is always so happy to say, “lives are at stake.”

Here is the actual article (click “show).

June 17, 2005 Edition > Section: New York > Printer-Friendly Version

Health Officials: Hospital Broke AIDS Drug Rules

BY DANIEL HEMEL – Special to the Sun

June 17, 2005

URL: http://www.nysun.com/article/15595

Federal investigators have concluded that Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital violated protocol on the use of human research subjects between 1988 and 2001, when doctors at the center administered experimental AIDS drugs to foster-care children.

In a letter dated May 23, the Department of Health and Human Services gave Columbia and New York Presbyterian until June 30 to develop a “corrective action plan” to bolster safeguards protecting children in clinical trials.

According to the HHS investigators, the medical center’s institutional review board – which vets experiments involving human subjects – failed to determine whether it had proper consent to administer cutting-edge treatments to foster-care children.

The city’s Administration for Children’s Services acknowledged in April that approximately 465 HIV positive and AIDS-infected foster children received treatments that had not yet been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The experiments at the Manhattan hospitals were funded by the National Institutes of Health, which has conducted pediatric AIDS drug tests on more than 13,000 children in at least seven states. An estimated 5-10% of patients in these trials were wards of the foster-care system.

“These studies … were instrumental in extending lifesaving HIV treatments to children,” a Columbia medical center spokeswoman, Marilyn Castaldi, said in a statement yesterday. She said that since the center is currently formulating a response to the HHS letter, “it would not be appropriate to comment further at this point.”

In previous correspondence with the HHS, Columbia and New York-Presbyterian officials argued that researchers did not have to appoint special advocates to represent the foster children’s interests because the treatments carried “the prospect of direct benefit” for patients with HIV and AIDS.

But federal investigators said that the review board didn’t gather enough information to make such an assessment.

Bioethics experts told The New York Sun yesterday that institutions conducting medical trials should never be the only judges of questions regarding young patients in clinical trials.

“The researchers obviously have a conflict of interest that would prevent them from being the sole protector of the child,” said the director of the Stanford University Center for Biomedical Ethics, David Magnus.

The fact that many of the patients in the Manhattan hospitals’ trials were foster children should have prompted the institutional review board to consider “extra precautions,” the editor of the journal IRB: Ethics & Human Research, Karen Maschke, said.

“These are by definition vulnerable subjects,” Ms. Maschke said.

According to Ms. Maschke, the HHS investigators “dodged” a central issue in the inquiry: whether the research would have been permissible even with advocacy oversight. “If the answer is no, then the ‘advocate’ question is moot,” Ms. Maschke said.

Several of the drugs administered in the NIH-funded studies were in the first phase of development. Mr. Magnus said that Phase 1 research seeks to determine a drug’s “maximum tolerable dosage,” and he said it is “dubious” that such trials are ever in the best interests of child patients.

Meanwhile, local politicians are demanding to know how the ACS allowed infants and youngsters under its watch to be enrolled in drug trials.

The ACS has also weathered criticism for failing to stem alleged abuses at the Incarnation Children’s Center in Harlem. According to a BBC documentary that aired last November, HIV-infected children at the center allegedly received potentially lethal doses of anti-AIDS medicines, sometimes being force-fed the drugs through stomach tubes.

Council Member William Perkins, a Democrat who represents Harlem, said the HHS letter “confirms a shocking disregard for the rights and well-being of foster care children by the ACS.”

Mr. Perkins called on the ACS to conduct a “vigorous investigation” into the use of foster children in medical experiments. But according to ACS officials, the agency has already contracted the Vera Institute for Justice, a Manhattan-based nonprofit group, to review city’s practices regarding medical experiments that use foster children as subjects.

The ACS said it “intends to make all of Vera’s findings fully available to the public.”

Officials at the ACS told the Sun yesterday that none of the city’s foster children are currently enrolled in drug experiments. But NIH officials yesterday could not confirm or deny that foster children are still being used in ongoing federally funded medical experiments.

“It is likely” that foster care children currently being treated in federally funded AIDS drug trials, NIH spokesman John Burklow told the Sun, but he added, “the decisions about who can enroll into a clinical trial are made at the local IRB level.”

Officials at Columbia and New York-Presbyterian told the HHS last August that they were taking several steps to protect young patients in clinical trials – including a mandatory training program for staff on the use of children in research.

Last month’s letter requires officials at the hospitals to turn over troves of documents to the HHS so that investigators can scrutinize the hospitals’ institutional review boards.

June 17, 2005 Edition > Section: New York > Printer-Friendly Version

Here is the Times article today, with Janny Scott trying to catch up with the situation but not doing much reporting on it. For those who like the incisive reporting and arts pages of the intellectually vigorous New York Sun, it seems another good example of how the Sun is covering the city better. It may also be another example of how conservative papers tend to treat scientists with a little less collegial deference than the liberal ones do. at least in AIDS.

The New York Times

June 17, 2005

Drug Trials on Children Broke Rules, Officials Say

By JANNY SCOTT

Federal officials have found that a Columbia University Medical Center committee that oversees the use of patients as subjects in medical research violated federal regulations in the 1990’s in the case of four research projects. In the projects, experimental drugs were tested in children, including foster children, with AIDS or who were H.I.V.-positive.

The Office for Human Research Protections informed Columbia in a letter last month that the medical center’s institutional review board had “failed to obtain sufficient information” concerning the selection of foster children as subjects, the process for getting their parents’ or guardians’ permission and certain additional safeguards.

The exact nature and significance of the violations were unclear yesterday. A spokeswoman for the agency, Pat El-Hinnawy, declined to say what information the review board had failed to obtain, whether the information would have affected the board’s decision to approve the projects and whether any children were harmed.

The findings come at a time when questions have been raised nationally about the participation of foster children in drug trials during the 1980’s and 1990’s, when hundreds of babies in New York City alone were born H.I.V.-positive and when there were at first no treatments approved for children.

The city’s Administration for Children’s Services has hired the Vera Institute of Justice to investigate charges that the city inappropriately allowed foster children to take part.

The agency has said that it has found no evidence that it acted wrongly. Some 465 foster children took part between 1988 and 2001, the agency says.

Under federal regulations, foster children may participate in clinical trials as long as a parent or guardian has given permission, and if the risk is minimal or there is some prospect of direct benefit for the child. All clinical trials, even with adults, must have the approval of the institutional review board in the center where the trial is taking place.

The four trials cited in the letter were supported by the National Institutes of Health and involved dozens of medical centers nationwide. They occurred between 1993 and 2002. In a statement, a Columbia spokeswoman said the studies “were instrumental in extending lifesaving H.I.V. treatments to children.”

“We stand behind the clinical aspects of these trials,” Marilyn Castaldi, the spokeswoman, said in an interview. “It’s not an issue of safety or harm.”

Mark Twain chips in

June 16th, 2005

A quote for the day from the master, who always recognized the same absurdities of human nature in himself as he detected in others:

“We are discreet sheep; we wait to see how the drove is going, and then go with the drove. We have two opinions, one private, which we are afraid to express, and another one—the one we use—which we force ourselves to wear to please Mrs. Grundy, until habit makes us comfortable in it, and the custom of defending it presently makes us love it, adore it, and forget how pitifully we came by it.”

The Character of Man, Twain’s autobiography, Vol. II, January 23, 1906.

AIDS of course is a field of politics and of supposed science where Mrs Grundys abound, self appointed Mullahs who whip the exposed calves of those who step out of line, whatever their standing.

For example, those who attended the first San Francisco world AIDS conference a while back included many eager to hear Luc Montagnier talk on the new HIV co-factor he had discovered in his (or more probably his underlings’) assiduous lab work at the Pasteur Institute, a mycoplasma.

Apparently worried that if indeed this bacterial blob could be responsible for the alleged immune system depredations claimed for the utterly simple yet unfathomable HIV, it might displace and shelve HIV completely as the agent of “AIDS”, the AIDS generals running the conference absolutely refused to let Montagnier in.

He was forced to deliver his account to a packed, low ceilinged room in a nearby hotel. Afterwards, he found the atmosphere so chilly that he hightailed it back to Paris on the next plane.

Mandela’s tragedy as AIDS propagandist

June 15th, 2005

On Saturday at a rock concert in Norway Nelson Mandela spoke out once again for redoubled aid for AIDS in Africa, as the G8 agreed to forgive $40 billion in debt owed by poor nations.

Mandela asks the “haves” to open the door to hope.

Nelson Mandela joined some of the world’s top musicians Saturday in pressing the rich world to act against Aids in sub-Saharan Africa. “We live in a world where the Aids pandemic threatens the very fabric of our lives,” the Nobel Peace prize winner said at a star-studded pop concert in Tromsoe, northern Norway. “Yet we spend more money on weapons than on ensuring treatment and support for the millions infected by HIV.”

More than 15,000 people watched stars including Annie Lennox, former Led Zeppelin front man Robert Plant and Peter Gabriel perform inside the Arctic Circle under a clear sky and midnight sun. The 86-year-old former South African president hosted the concert, which was sponsored by the Norwegian parliament, as part of his “46664” anti-Aids campaign – named after his prison number during his 27 years in jail under apartheid. Mandela, who has appeared frail in recent public engagements, smiled broadly and waved to thunderous applause on a giant stage flanked by the sea and snow-capped mountains.

Here is the full text of a news report:

allAfrica.com

Mandela urges developed nations to act against Aids

L’Express (Port Louis)

NEWS

June 14, 2005

Posted to the web June 14, 2005

By Gordon Bell

Port Louis

Mandela asks the “haves” to open the door to hope.

Nelson Mandela joined some of the world’s top musicians Saturday in pressing the rich world to act against Aids in sub-Saharan Africa. “We live in a world where the Aids pandemic threatens the very fabric of our lives,” the Nobel Peace prize winner said at a star-studded pop concert in Tromsoe, northern Norway. “Yet we spend more money on weapons than on ensuring treatment and support for the millions infected by HIV.”

More than 15,000 people watched stars including Annie Lennox, former Led Zeppelin front man Robert Plant and Peter Gabriel perform inside the Arctic Circle under a clear sky and midnight sun. The 86-year-old former South African president hosted the concert, which was sponsored by the Norwegian parliament, as part of his “46664” anti-Aids campaign – named after his prison number during his 27 years in jail under apartheid. Mandela, who has appeared frail in recent public engagements, smiled broadly and waved to thunderous applause on a giant stage flanked by the sea and snow-capped mountains.

He appealed to the G8 group of industrialized nations to take the lead in helping to end disease and poverty in Africa at their summit in July. “They have an historical opportunity to open the door to hope and the possibility of a better life for all,” he said. He made no direct reference to an agreement reached earlier in the day by the G8 finance ministers to write off $40 billion in debt owed by the poorest nations.

Mandela retired from public life last year but remains one of the leading international voices on Aids. This year he has also addressed the stigma surrounding the disease in his homeland by disclosing that his only surviving son, Makgatho, had died of an AIDS-related illness. Aid has devastated communities in sub-Saharan Africa. About 25 million people are infected with the HIV virus, and millions more contract it each year.

In South Africa, some 12 percent of the population are infected. In Botswana and Swaziland, it is up to 40 percent. The disease is spreading fast elsewhere. More than a million people are infected in Russia and other former Soviet states, and an estimated 5 million people in India are HIV-positive. “There is a genocide happening … and we need to get very upset about it,” former Eurythmics lead singer Lennox said.

Copyright © 2005 L’Express. All rights reserved. Distributed by AllAfrica Global Media (allAfrica.com).

Certainly one of the bravest political activists in Africa, Nelson Mandela spent a long time in prison before winning a revolutionary rebirth for a black South Africa.

But if the scientific evisceration of the conventional view of the AIDS pandemic is valid (and as we repeatedly note, the cautious peer reviewers who act as gatekeepers to publication in the top scientific literature have effectively endorsed the critical review by failing to find any fault with it) then a great tragedy of current AIDS politics is that Mandela is unwittingly entrained as a propagandist for the iatrogenic genocide of his people.

That is, trusting in the medicine of the white man (to put it in satirically lurid terms) Mandela is endorsing a process that ends with the administering of damaging if not lethal drugs to an ever widening target section of his nation, according to the imagined or real results of tests which are extremely questionable, since the specificity and crossreactivity of the tests (and the flexibility of their interpretation) render them almost meaningless.

That is, if they are done at all. Most African statistics are based on extrapolation from very limited testing, for tests are expensive and the WHO defines AIDS in Africa by symptom without testing.

Poor Mandela is ending his life as the spokesman for what looks increasingly like the Worldcom of science.

For an alternative view of AIDS testing, here is one rundown from the Web pages of the African Rainbow Circle, which says it aims to jettison standard AIDS theory and treatment for more natural apppoaches.

Note, for example that malaria, common in Africa, often causes a cross reaction.

A review by Christine Johnson from LA HEAL of HIV tests and a very long list of potential cross reactions, with references.

If you want the immediate text, rather than open the url, click here:

AIDS TESTS

Why HIV tests & mandatory vaccination should be banned

AFRICAN Rainbow CIRCLE

Mission statement

Constitution

Donations

Clinic

Volunteers

Health statistics

Know-how, where, when & why

PAK Addy. PhD, head of clinical microbiology at the University of Science and Technology in Kumasi, Ghana [Says Aids in Africa is exaggerated and the Hiv tests kill people due to the mental turmoil a positive result causes, which leads to physiological immune depression and suicide]

By Christine Johnson

The AIDS establishment has managed to convince many people that the HIV antibody tests (ELISA, IFA and Western blot) are “99.5% accurate”. In this article Christine Johnson from HEAL Los Angeles, lists conditions documented in the scientific literature known to cause positives on these tests, and gives her references.

It is expected that this list will generate much discussion and dissension. For the time being, a few clarifications should be made at the outset.

Just because something is on the list doesn’t mean that it will definitely, or even probably, cause a false-positive. It depends on what antibodies the individual carries; as well as the characteristics of each particular test kit.

For instance, some, but not all, people who have had blood transfusions, prior pregnancies or an organ transplant will make HLA antibodies. And some, but not all, test kits (both ELISA and Western blot) will be contaminated with HLA antigens to which these antibodies can react. Only if these two conditions coincide might you get a false-positive due to HLA cross-reactivity.

Some things are more likely than others to cause false-positives. And some things that we aren’t aware of yet, but which may be documented in the future, may cause false-positives.

Some of the factors on the list have been documented only for ELISA, some for both ELISA and Western blot (WB).

Some people may be eager to argue that if a factor is only known to cause false-positives on ELISA, this problem won’t be carried over to the WB, so everything should be OK. But remember, a WB is positive by virtue of accumulating enough individual positive bands to add up to the total required by whatever criteria you use to interpret it (39) So the more exposures a person has had to foreign antigens, proteins and infectious agents, the more various antibodies he or she will have in their system, and the more likely it is that there will be several cross-reacting antibodies, enough to make the WB positive.

It is to be noted that all AIDS risk groups (and Africans as well), but not the general US or Western European population, have this problem in common: they have been exposed to a plethora of foreign antigens and proteins. This is why people in the AIDS “risk groups” tend to have positive WBs (i.e., to be considered “HIV-infected”) and people in the general population don’t. However, even people in the low-risk populations may have false-positive Western blots for poorly understood reasons.(47)

Since false-positives to every single HIV protein have been documented (36), how do you know the positive WB bands represent the various proteins to HIV, or just a collection of false-positive bands reacting to several different non-HIV antibodies?

Factors Known to Cause False-Positive HIV Antibody Test Results

* Anti-carbohydrate antibodies (52, 19, 13)

* Naturally-occurring antibodies (5, 19)

* Passive immunization: receipt of gamma globulin or immune globulin (as prophylaxis against infection which contains antibodies)(18, 26, 60, 4, 22, 42, 43, 13)

* Leprosy (2, 25)

* Tuberculosis (25)

* Mycobacterium avium (25)

* Systemic lupus erythematosus (15, 23)

* Renal (kidney) failure (48, 23, 13)

* Hemodialysis/renal failure (56, 16, 41, 10, 49)

* Alpha interferon therapy in hemodialysis patients (54)

* Flu (36)

* Flu vaccination (30, 11, 3, 20, 13, 43)

* Herpes simplex I (27)

* Herpes simplex II (11)

* Upper respiratory tract infection (cold or flu)(11)

* Recent viral infection or exposure to viral vaccines (11)

* Pregnancy in multiparous women (58, 53, 13, 43, 36)

* Malaria (6, 12)

* High levels of circulating immune complexes (6, 33)

* Hypergammaglobulinemia (high levels of antibodies) (40, 33)

* False positives on other tests, including RPR (rapid plasma reagent) test for syphilis (17, 48, 33, 10, 49)

* Rheumatoid arthritis (36)

* Hepatitis B vaccination (28, 21, 40, 43)

* Tetanus vaccination (40)

* Organ transplantation (1, 36)

* Renal transplantation (35, 9, 48, 13, 56)

* Anti-lymphocyte antibodies (56, 31)

* Anti-collagen antibodies (found in gay men, haemophiliacs, Africans of both sexes and people with leprosy)(31)

* Serum-positive for rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody (both found in rheumatoid arthritis and other autoantibodies)(14, 62, 53)

* Autoimmune diseases (44, 29, 10, 40, 49, 43): Systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, connective tissue disease, dermatomyositis

* Acute viral infections, DNA viral infections (59, 48, 43, 53, 40, 13)

* Malignant neoplasms (cancers)(40)

* Alcoholic hepatitis/alcoholic liver disease (32, 48, 40,10,13, 49, 43, 53)

* Primary sclerosing cholangitis (48, 53)

* Hepatitis (54)

* “Sticky” blood (in Africans) (38, 34, 40)

* Antibodies with a high affinity for polystyrene (used in the test kits)(62, 40, 3)

* Blood transfusions, multiple blood transfusions (63, 36,13, 49, 43, 41)

* Multiple myeloma (10, 43, 53)

* HLA antibodies (to Class I and II leukocyte antigens)(7, 46, 63, 48, 10, 13, 49, 43, 53)

* Anti-smooth muscle antibody (48)

* Anti-parietal cell antibody (48)

* Anti-hepatitis A IgM (antibody)(48)

* Anti-Hbc IgM (48)

* Administration of human immunoglobulin preparations pooled before 1985 (10)

* Haemophilia (10, 49)

* Haematologic malignant disorders/lymphoma (43, 53, 9, 48, 13)

* Primary biliary cirrhosis (43, 53, 13, 48)

* Stevens-Johnson syndrome9, (48, 13)

* Q-fever with associated hepatitis (61)

* Heat-treated specimens (51, 57, 24, 49, 48)

* Lipemic serum (blood with high levels of fat or lipids)(49)

* Haemolyzed serum (blood where haemoglobin is separated from the red cells)(49)

* Hyperbilirubinemia (10, 13)

* Globulins produced during polyclonal gammopathies (which are seen in AIDS risk groups)(10, 13, 48)

* Healthy individuals as a result of poorly-understood cross-reactions (10)

* Normal human ribonucleoproteins (48,13)

* Other retroviruses (8, 55, 14, 48, 13)

* Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (48, 13)

* Anti-nuclear antibodies (48, 13, 53)

* Anti-microsomal antibodies (34)

* T-cell leukocyte antigen antibodies (48, 13)

* Proteins on the filter paper (13)

* Epstein-Barr virus (37)

* Visceral leishmaniasis (45)

* Receptive anal sex (39, 64)

MISSING VIRUS!

£ 1000 Reward

Blind romantics still believe HIV causes AIDS. But if ‘HIV’ has never been isolated, what is AIDS?

Never isolated? You bet! A cash prize of £ 1000 is offered to the first person finding one scien-tific paper establishing actual isolation of HIV.

If you or a friendly ‘AIDS expert’ can prove isolation, £ 1000 is yours. In cash. In public.

Interested? Pledge the money to your favourite AIDS charity, why not?

We bet you’ll be surprised to discover the truth.

c o n t i n u u m

CHANGING THE WAY WE THINK ABOUT AIDS

Propaganda victims Zackie & Nelson do more harm than good unbeknown to them

References

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2. Andrade V, Avelleira JC, Marques A, et al. 1991. Leprosy as a cause of false-positive results in serological assays for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1. Intl. J. Leprosy. 59:125.

3. Arnold NL, Slade RA, Jones MM, et al. 1994. Donor follow up of influenza vaccine-related multiple viral enzyme immunoassay reactivity. Vox Sanguinis. 67:191.

4. Ascher D, Roberts C. 1993. Determination of the etiology of seroreversals in HIV testing by antibody fingerprinting. AIDS. 6:241.

5. Barbacid M, Bolgnesi D, Aaronson S. 1980. Humans have antibodies capable of recognizing oncoviral glycoproteins: Demonstration that these antibodies are formed in response to cellular modification of glycoproteins rather than as consequence of exposure to virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 77:1617-1621.

6. Biggar R, Melbye M, Sarin P, et al. 1985. ELISA HTLV retrovirus antibody reactivity associated with malaria and immune complexes in healthy Africans. Lancet. ii:520-543.

7. Blanton M, Balakrishnan K, Dumaswala U, et al. 1987. HLA antibodies in blood donors with reactive screening tests for antibody to the immunodeficiency virus. Transfusion. 27(1):118.

8. Blomberg J, Vincic E, Jonsson C, et al. 1990. Identification of regions of HIV-1 p24 reactive with sera which give “indeterminate” results in electrophoretic immunoblots with the help of long synthetic peptides. AIDS Res. Hum. Retro. 6:1363.

9. Burkhardt U, Mertens T, Eggers H. 1987. Comparison of two commercially available anti-HIV ELISA’s: Abbott HTLV-III ELA and DuPont HTLV-III ELISA. J. Med. Vir. 23:217.

10. Bylund D, Ziegner U, Hooper D. 1992 Review of testing for human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Lab. Med. 12:305-333.

11. Challakere K, Rapaport M. 1993. False-positive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ELISA results in low-risk subjects. West. J. Med. 159(2):214-215.

12. Charmot G, Simon F. 1990. HIV infection and malaria. Revue du practicien. 40:2141.

13. Cordes R, Ryan M. 1995. Pitfalls in HIV testing. Postgraduate Medicine. 98:177.

14. Dock N, Lamberson H, O’Brien T, et al. 1988. Evaluation of atypical human immunodeficiency virus immunoblot reactivity in blood donors. Transfusion. 28:142.

15. Esteva M, Blasini A, Ogly D, et al. 1992. False positive results for antibody to HIV in two men with systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 51:1071-1073.

16. Fassbinder W, Kuhni P, Neumayer H. et al. 1986. Prevalence of antibodies against LAV/HTLV-III [HIV] in patients with terminal renal insufficiency treated with hemodialysis and following renal transplantation. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. 111:1087.

17. Fleming D, Cochi S, Steece R. et al. 1987. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in low-incidence areas. JAMA. 258(6):785.

18. Gill MJ, Rachlis A, Anand C. 1991. Five cases of erroneously diagnosed HIV infection. Can. Med. Asso. J. 145(12):1593.

19. Healey D, Bolton W. 1993. Apparent HIV-1 glycoprotein reactivity on Western blot in uninfected blood donors. AIDS. 7:655-658.

20. Hisa J. 1993. False-positive ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus after influenza vaccination. JID. 167:989.

21. Isaacman S. 1989. Positive HIV antibody test results after treatment with hepatitis B immune globulin. JAMA. 262:209.

22. Jackson G, Rubenis M, Knigge M, et al. 1988. Passive immunoneutralisation of human immunodeficiency virus in patients with advanced AIDS. Lancet, Sept. 17:647.

23. Jindal R, Solomon M, Burrows L. 1993. False positive tests for HIV in a woman with lupus and renal failure. NEJM. 328:1281-1282.

24. Jungkind D, DiRenzo S, Young S. 1986. Effect of using heat-inactivated serum with the Abbott human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III [HIV] antibody test. J. Clin. Micro. 23:381.

25. Kashala O, Marlink R, Ilunga M. et al. 1994. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-cell lymphotropic viruses among leprosy patients and contacts: correlation between HIV-1 cross-reactivity and antibodies to lipoarabionomanna. J. Infect. Dis. 169:296-304.

26. Lai-Goldman M, McBride J, Howanitz P, et al. 1987. Presence of HTLV-III [HIV] antibodies in immune serum globulin preparations. Am. J. Clin. Path. 87:635.

27. Langedijk J, Vos W, Doornum G, et al. 1992. Identification of cross-reactive epitopes recognized by HIV-1 false-positive sera. AIDS. 6:1547-1548.

28. Lee D, Eby W, Molinaro G. 1992. HIV false positivity after hepatitis B vaccination. Lancet. 339:1060.

29. Leo-Amador G, Ramirez-Rodriguez J, Galvan-Villegas F, et al. 1990. Antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus in generalized lupus erythematosus. Salud Publica de Mexico. 32:15.

30. Mackenzie W, Davis J, Peterson D. et al. 1992. Multiple false-positive serologic tests for HIV, HTLV-1 and hepatitis C following influenza vaccination, 1991. JAMA. 268:1015-1017.

31. Mathe G. 1992. Is the AIDS virus responsible for the disease? Biomed & Pharmacother. 46:1-2.

32. Mendenhall C, Roselle G, Grossman C, et al. 1986. False-positive tests for HTLV-III [HIV] antibodies in alcoholic patients with hepatitis. NEJM. 314:921.

33. Moore J, Cone E, Alexander S. 1986. HTLV-III [HIV] seropositivity in 1971-1972 parenteral drug abusers – a case of false-positives or evidence of viral exposure? NEJM. 314:1387-1388.

34. Mortimer P, Mortimer J, Parry J. 1985. Which anti-HTLV-III/LAV [HIV] assays for screening and comfirmatory testing? Lancet. Oct. 19, p873.

35. Neale T, Dagger J, Fong R, et al. 1985. False-positive anti-HTLV-III [HIV] serology. New Zealand Med. J. October 23.

36. Ng V. 1991. Serological diagnosis with recombinant peptides/proteins. Clin. Chem. 37:1667-1668.

37. Ozanne G, Fauvel M. 1988. Perfomance and reliability of five commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits in screening for anti-human immunodeficiency virus antibody in high-risk subjects. J. Clin. Micro. 26:1496.

38. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E. 1988. Reappraisal of AIDS – Is the oxidation induced by the risk factors the primary cause? Med. Hypo. 25:151.

39. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, Turner V, and Papadimitriou J. 1993. Is a positive Western blot proof of HIV infection? Bio/Technology. June 11:696-707.

40. Pearlman ES, Ballas SK. 1994. False-positive human immunodeficiency virus screening test related to rabies vaccination. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 118-805.

41. Peternan T, Lang G, Mikos N, et al. Hemodialysis/renal failure. 1986. JAMA. 255:2324.

42. Piszkewicz D. 1987. HTLV-III [HIV] antibodies after immune globulin. JAMA. 257:316.

43. Profitt MR, Yen-Lieberman B. 1993. Laboratory diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Inf. Dis. Clin. North Am. 7:203.

44. Ranki A, Kurki P, Reipponen S, et al. 1992. Antibodies to retroviral proteins in autoimmune connective tissue disease. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 35:1483.

45. Ribeiro T, Brites C, Moreira E, et al. 1993. Serologic validation of HIV infection in a tropical area. JAIDS. 6:319.

46. Sayers M, Beatty P, Hansen J. 1986. HLA antibodies as a cause of false-positive reactions in screening enzyme immunoassays for antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus type III [HIV]. Transfusion. 26(1):114.

47. Sayre KR, Dodd RY, Tegtmeier G, et al. 1996. False-positive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Western blot tests in non-infected blood donors. Transfusion. 36:45.

48. Schleupner CJ. Detection of HIV-1 infection. In: (Mandell GI, Douglas RG, Bennett JE, eds.) Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 3rd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1990:1092.

49. Schochetman G, George J. 1992. Serologic tests for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In AIDS Testing Methodology and Management Issues, Springer-Verlag, New York.

50. Simonsen L, Buffington J, Shapiro C, et al. 1995. Multiple false reactions in viral antibody screening assays after influenza vaccination. Am. J. Epidem. 141-1089.

51. Smith D, Dewhurst S, Shepherd S, et al. 1987. False-positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactions for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus in a population of midwestern patients with congenital bleeding disorders. Transfusion. 127:112.

52. Snyder H, Fleissner E. 1980. Specificity of human antibodies to oncovirus glycoproteins; Recognition of antigen by natural antibodies directed against carbohydrate structures. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 77:1622-1626.

53. Steckelberg JM, Cockerill F. 1988. Serologic testing for human immunodeficiency virus antibodies. Mayo Clin. Proc. 63:373.

54. Sungar C, Akpolat T, Ozkuyumcu C, et al. Alpha interferon therapy in hemodialysis patients. Nephron. 67:251.

55. Tribe D, Reed D, Lindell P, et al. 1988. Antibodies reactive with human immunodeficiency virus gag-coated antigens (gag reactive only) are a major cause of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactivity in a bood donor population. J. Clin. Micro. April:641.

56. Ujhelyi E, Fust G, Illei G, et al. 1989. Different types of false positive anti-HIV reactions in patients on hemodialysis. Immun. Let. 22:35-40.

57. Van Beers D, Duys M, Maes M, et al. Heat inactivation of serum may interfere with tests for antibodies to LAV/HTLV-III [HIV]. J. Vir. Meth. 12:329.

58. Voevodin A. 1992. HIV screening in Russia. Lancet. 339:1548.

59. Weber B, Moshtaghi-Borojeni M, Brunner M, et al. 1995. Evaluation of the reliability of six current anti-HIV-1/HIV-2 enzyme immunoassays. J. Vir. Meth. 55:97.

60. Wood C, Williams A, McNamara J, et al. 1986. Antibody against the human immunodeficiency virus in commercial intravenous gammaglobulin preparations. Ann. Int. Med. 105:536.

61. Yale S, Degroen P, Tooson J, et al. 1994. Unusual aspects of acute Q fever-associated hepatitis. Mayo Clin. Proc. 69:769.

62. Yoshida T, Matsui T, Kobayashi M, et al. 1987. Evaluation of passive particle agglutination test for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus. J. Clin. Micro. Aug:1433.

63. Yu S, Fong C, Landry M, et al. 1989. A false positive HIV antibody reaction due to transfusion-induced HLA-DR4 sensitization. NEJM.320:1495.

64. National Institute of Justice, AIDS Bulletin. Oct. 1988.

Ultimate control of humans via GE / GMO’s combined with Vaccines

AFRICAN Rainbow CIRCLE, P.O. Box 832, Waterfall 3652, KZN, South Africa

Email: information@arc.org.za

Science is not a democracy (someone tell the New York Times, Economist, Salon etc)

June 14th, 2005

Shameful imitation of sheep by reporters

A list of courageous dissenters

Science reporters from the New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, BBC, etc huddleThe degree to which the media follow majority rule in AIDS coverage is almost farcical, given their liking for assuming the pose of independence. It is also irrational, given the cut throat level of competition with each other and with corrective blogs nowadays. Why not do some original thinking for a change, folks, to distinguish your publication from the hackish horde?

Apparently, no one has explained to science reporters and their editors that all established science begins as heresy, even if the contrary is not true (that all heresy winds up as established science).

Like everyone else to whom the stock-in-trade of scientists (their research and textbook knowledge) is as baffling as computer code, media reporters, writers and columnists have only one measure with which to asssess the validity of scientific ideas: how many top ranking scientists believe the claims.

In other words, when it comes to underinformed reporters science IS effectively a democracy, with its truths voted in by a majority vote.

Nowhere is this more blatant than in the gratuitous disparaging remarks let loose by almost every major mainstream journal covering AIDS whenever the opponents of the establishment paradigm make an appearance.

Like some kind of cheering squad for the conventional wisdom no reporter from the New York Times on down seems capable of holding back from a gratuitous phrase suggesting that any dissent is crackpot, and that the proof of this is the fact that the numbers of dissenters appears geometrically smaller to them than the angelic host of the congregation.

Those who care to doubt the HIV absurdity

Here is a list compiled by a Web page that has sprung up to defend the dissenters by falling into the same trap, which is to quote as many names as possible on the dissenting side, as if this meant anything at all scientifically.
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SPECIAL NOTICE: ANYONE WHO WANTS THEIR NAME REMOVED FROM THIS LIST HERE (WHICH WAS COPIED FROM ANOTHER SITE) CAN EMAIL “AL (AT) SCIENCEGUARDIAN.COM” (SAME ADDRESS AS AT THE BOTTOM OF THE FRONT PAGE OF THIS BLOG (Click the Title “SCIENCE GUARDIAN” at the top of this page for the blog front page) AND WE WILL REMOVE IT AS SOON AS WE READ THE EMAIL. FOR THIS AND ANY OTHER ENQUIRY REGARDING THIS BLOG, DO THIS OR CALL 212 534 7371 IF YOU HAVE ANY PROBLEM. – ANTHONY L.
——————————————————————————-
The only thing that means anything scientifically of course is the long list of published peer reviewed articles in the best scientific literature that deny in their conclusions the validity of this scientifically unproven paradigm, HIV-causes-AIDS.

On the other hand, politics is influenced by numbers and also by the credentials of dissenters, so some useful political purpose is served by the list, which details credentials as well as names, both of which amount to a total which should bring this sneering arrogance to a sharp halt.

Albeit on the same spurious level as the uncalled for sidewipes of the media, it acts as a corrective.

Here is the list and its introductory collection of media statements which promote the idea that scientific validity is a numbers game:

You can find it at Grand List of AIDS Dissidents at the African Rainbow Circle

Bias in the media

First, media stupidities:

a small band of scientists who claim that HIV does not cause AIDS
-Nature, March 16, 2000
a small band of AIDS gadflies
-San Francisco Chronicle, May 26, 1994
a tiny scientific fringe
a coterie of merry Internet-surfing dissidents
– Mail and Guardian, Johannesburg, April 19, 2002, Dec 20, 2001
dangerous scientific cranks
-Washington Post, April 20, 2000
a small band of scientists with eccentric and discredited opinions
a few maverick American scientists
-The Economist, July 13, 2000, Dec 14, 2001
a small group of scientists
– Daily Californian, July 14, 2000
a tiny group of other so-called dissident researchers
– Chicago Tribune, April 14, 2000
– San Francisco Examiner, April 21, 2000
a small group of people
a fringe group of scientists
– Village Voice, March 15-21, 2000
– thebody.com
a few vocal people
– The Durban Declaration, Nature, July 6, 2000
a small group of mostly white Americans
a handful of white American deniers
– Salon.com, July 28, 2000
American fringe elements
-Newsday, March 29, 2000
No serious medical scientist doubts the causal link between HIV and AIDS.
– Washington Post, April 18, 2000
But Mbeki has for months been courting two dissident U.S. scientists, Peter Duesberg and David Rasnick, who deny that HIV causes AIDS.
– Reuters, April 19, 2000
Mbeki should not give equal weight to the views of two mavericks against the vast mass of research.
– Aegis.com, 2000
a small but vocal group of biomedical scientists.
how exceedingly small the number of professionals is who hold dissident views.
– British Medical Journal, 2004
a hardy group consisting of two or three scientists (whom no one funds)
– Toronto Globe and Mail, May 4, 2000
a handful of dissident scientists
– CNN, Reuters, September 22, 2000
– The Guardian (UK), July 10, 2000
a tiny minority of scientists
– Scientific American, August, 2001
a small group of dissidents
– New York Times, July 9, 2000
a tiny, widely discredited fringe group
– Business Day, South Africa, April 20, 2000
a small clique of scientists
– Inter Press Service, April 5, 2002
– aegis.com, 2002

A list of HIV doubters

The list of AIDS skeptics follows, too long to reproduce here without providing an expansion as below (next “show “link).

If one accepts the numbers game as relevant to the politics of AIDS, however, one can say that this list of dissenting scientists, physicians, attentive journalists and other knowledgeable observers is large enough to demand attention from any serious reporter and editor. Given that many listed on the Durban Declaration evidently (judging from the advisory email quoted in the previous post Galileo said it, Durban proved it: reason is not a democracy) which read as follows

Many of you will say that HIV/AIDS is not your area. However, over the years you have heard enough of the arguments to understand the association. Furthermore, many of you know well infectious diseases and understand Koch’s postulates. If you have colleagues in the laboratory or in the clinic who you feel would like to sign, please ask them. The more the better. However, please note that in order to be authoritative we feel it necessary to restrict the list to those with major university qualifications.

had no special knowledge of the matter, one could take the comparative total authority as more or less equal, if not weightier on the side of dissent.

But on the other hand, of course, one should emphasize that the sizeable group of people involved in science and medicine who oppose current AIDS-think, despite the financial penalty of being cut off from one of the most lucrative streams of funding in science and medicine today, is impressive, but also not relevant to whether they are right or wrong.

Except for the single point that those who oppose the mainstream in this fashion are likely to have thought long and hard before adopting the unpopular position, and have researched the issue far more deeply and thoroughly than the fellow scientists who oppose them, let alone the journalists who make casually disparaging remarks.

What one can say is that anyone who has read all the publications on this topic by Peter Duesberg of Berkeley (see initial blog posts here) can recognise a scientist who has few peers even among Nobel prize winners in biology in sheer excellence of mind, judged by his clarity, subtlety of logic, and command of both detail and general views in science and language.

Harvey Bialy, author of “Oncogenes, Aneuploidy and AIDS: A Scientifc Life and Times of Peter Duesberg” (see review in earlier post) and founding scientific editor of Nature Biotechnology, is a leading member of the list whose precise scientific intelligence is another example of how dissidents include several thinkers who outshine any of their opponents. This is undoubtedly why in AIDS personal confrontation in debate on panels or any other stage has been studiously avoided by the promulgators of the paradigm from the beginning.

Fortunately Bialy’s book in making no concessions whatsoever to the ignorant in terms of “popularizing” his text allows him to demonstrate this brilliance conclusively by unleashing all his scientific expertise and political experience on delivering the precise scientific facts of the matter both in AIDS and in cancer, and illuminating exactly how things went wrong in both fields.

The account is as much a classic as Duesberg’s seminal papers and books on both topics, and while it may be a struggle in parts for the untutored is satisfyingly elegant because of this lack of compromise, and doubly useful as a weapon in the hands of any doubter faced with the usual claptrap from a scientific defender of the paradigm in AIDS, since all one has to do is hand them a copy of the book, which cannot be dismissed as merely popular misunderstanding of good science, and is evidently equally unanswerable on the level of good science.

(In fact, a copy of the book was forwarded to a leading figure responsible for oncogene theory by a family member, and a future post here will detail the response. Update: There was no response at all.)

The quality of minds involved is very relevant in this dispute where it often seems that the only reason that HIV-AIDS remains standing as a paradigm is the abysmal lack of intellectual awareness on the part of the crowd that supports it.

It is becoming hard to open a copy of the New York Times without finding an article on AIDS both internally and externally inconsistent.
(show)
HANDFUL OF SCIENTISTS WHO DOUBT THE HIV-AIDS THEORY: A set of assumptions held by the worldwide Hiv-Aids establishment in the absence of any scientific proof:
That Hiv causes Aids
That Hiv tests accurately diagnose Hiv
That Aids medicines extend life
That Aids is heterosexually transmitted
That Hiv and Aids are decimating Africa and Asia
Much evidence contradicts all of these assumptions. But powerful, drug industry-funded Aids scientists have staked their reputations and credibility (and bank accounts) on these beliefs, so they defend them like religious zealots-with the help of a propagandistic media, awash in drug company advertising revenues, and an equally dishonest NGO sector, made rich by huge drug industry contributions.
Fortunately, more responsible scientists are now speaking out.
HIV-AIDS THEORY.
HERE’S THE REALITY.
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SPECIAL NOTICE: ANYONE WHO WANTS THEIR NAME REMOVED FROM THIS LIST CAN EMAIL AL AT SG AT THE ADDRESS AT THE BOTTOM OF THE SG FRONT PAGE, AND WE WILL REMOVE IT AS SOON AS WE READ THE EMAIL. CALL 212 534 7371 IF YOU HAVE ANY PROBLEM. – AL.
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The doubters:

New additions are shown in red, those who signed a petition questioning the hypothesis that Hiv causes Aids in blue and new additions who are also petition signers in purple. A few of the people listed below question only key parts of the Hiv theory, not all of it. Limitations on their beliefs are shown in brackets

Goats clearing weeds, underbrush and ignorant claims from the Mount Olympus of science to creat a 300 foot nonsense free zone to prevent the flames of political prejudice and funding necessity from leaping the barrier and reducing the strong trees and pretty flower gardens of productive research to ashes and idiocy.Earl Aagaard. PhD, Professor of Biology, Pacific Union College, Angwin, California
Jeanette S. Abel. MD, Portland, Oregon
Folarin Abimbola. Medical student, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria
Richard Ablin. PhD, State University of New York
Laila Abubakar. Researcher, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Dept., International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), Nairobi, Kenya
Jotham Achineku. Engineer, Ikeja, Nigeria
Leonardo Acosta. Journalist, Author of more than a dozen books, Havana, Cuba
Dr. Kofi Ada-re. London, United Kingdom
Jad Adams. M.A., Author, The HIV Myth
Marie Adams. ND, Bastyr University, Seattle, Washington
PAK Addy. PhD, head of clinical microbiology at the University of Science and Technology in Kumasi, Ghana [Says Aids in Africa is exaggerated and the Hiv tests kill people due to the mental turmoil a positive result causes, which leads to physiological immune depression and suicide]
Ayo Adeboye. Physician, Nigeria
Gabriela Adelstein. Translator, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Tamiru Adisu. Pharmacist, Alexandria, Virginia
Martin Adjuik. M.Sc., Biostatistician, WHO Fellow, Navrongo Health Research Centre, Ghana
Karin Wiedmer Aebersold. Homeopathic doctor, Hefenhofen, Switzerland
Dr. Madhu Agarwal. Homeopathic physician, Nagpur, India
Vahagn Agbabian. D.O., Pontiac, Michigan
Paolo Agliano. PhD, Dept. of Mathematics, University of Siena, Italy
J. Antonio Aguilar B.. Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, Mexico City, Mexico
Humberto Aguirre. Aids Educator, Psychologist, Atlanta, Georgia
Dr. Kofi Agyapong. Sons and Daughters of Africa, Washington DC
Festus Agyei. PhD Student, Institute of Environmental Sciences, Miami University, Ohio
Naseer Ahmad. M.D., M.A., D.Sc., Toronto, Canada
Sina Ahmadi. Medical Student, Tehran, Iran
Syed Masud Ahmed. Physician, MBBS, MPH, Senior Medical Officer, Research and Evaluation Division, BRAC Centre, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Dr. Hyung Jun Ahn. Seoul, South Korea
Mabili Ajani. Broadcast Journalist, Tampa, Florida
Vladimir S. Ajdacic. PhD, Nuclear Physicist, Belgrade, Yugoslavia
Patricia Akeman. R.N., Goleta, California
Charles Akemann. PhD, Professor of Mathematics, University of California, Santa Barbara
Crystal Aker. M.Ed., Mathematics instructor, Wright State University, Ohio
Titilola Akindele. Medical Student, Howard University, Washington DC
Shreepad Akolkar. MD, DPH (Dipl Public Health), FRIPHH, Pune, Maharashtra, India
Mohammad Ali Al-Bayati. PhD, Toxicologist and Pathologist, California. Author, Get all the facts: HIV does not cause AIDS
Joyce Y. Al-Mateen. Medical Records Director, Cottondale, Florida
Alejandro Alagon Cano. MD, PhD, Researcher, Departamento de Medicina Molecular y Bioprocesos, El Instituto de Biotecnologa UNAM, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico
Fernando Alameda. Engineer, Bogot, Colombia
Kleber Alanis. Engineer, St. Petersburg, Florida
Claudio Alatorre Frenk. PhD. Institute of Engineering, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Co-ordinator, the Large-scale Renewable Energy Development Project of Mexico’s Ministry of Energy.
Carlos Escudero Albarrn. Morelia, Mxico. President, Mexican Association for the Scientific Reappraisal of AIDS. Author, VIH La puerta a la iluminacin (Hiv, the door to illumination)
Mirco Alberti. Naturopathic Physician, Bologna, Italy
Hansueli Albonico. MD, Langnau, Switzerland
Kathryn Albritton. M.Sc., Brooklyn, New York
Gloria Margarita Alcaraz Lpez. PhD, Professor of Public Health and Nutrition, Universidad de Antioquia, Medelln, Colombia
Morris Alexander. Senior Public Prosecutor, Pietermaritzburg Magistrate’s Court, South Africa
Barry R. Alexavich. Cell Biologist, Bristol, Connecticut
Helman Alfonso. MD, Director of Research, Universidad Metropolitana Barranquilla, Colombia; Author, in Spanish, The Great Fiasco: AIDS Is Not Caused by HIV
Jamila Ali. RNC, NP, Registered Nurse, Nurse Practitioner, New York
Kassahun Ali. Engineer, Alexandria, Virginia
Anita Allen. Journalist, former Science Writer, The Star, Johannesburg, South Africa
Steve Allen. Journalist for ABC and CBS; Filmmaker who has made two documentaries on AIDS: The Surrogate Marker and HIV Equals AIDS: Fact or Fiction?
Max Allen. Journalist, Canadian Broadcasting Company (CBC)
Ricardo Almeida. Visiting Professor, Ecological issues, Southern New Hampshire University, Manchester, New Hampshire
Manuel Almendro. PhD in Psychology, Spain
Nicholas Altenbernd. Academic Administrator, Writing and Humanistic Studies Dept., MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Miguel Alvarez. Professor of Literature, Shanghai, China
Sanyakhu-Sheps Amare’. M.A., Executive Director, National Electronic Clearinghouse Center (NECC); Adjunct instructor, New Hampshire College, Graduate School of Business
Kebedech Ambaye. Anthropologist, Technical Officer, United Nations Population Fund, New York
Jody Amberg. LPC, NCC, ACSAC, Rockwood Counseling Center, Eureka, Missouri
Roger Ambiel. Nurse teacher, Zurich, Switzerland
Serafino Amoroso. N.D., PhD, DAHom, New Jersey Center for the Healing Arts, Red Bank, New Jersey
Emmanuel Anastasopoulos. MD, PhD, Athens, Greece
John B. Andelin. MD, Mercy Hospital, Williston, North Dakota
Ken Anderlini. MFA, PhD student, former lecturer at Simon Fraser University, film maker. Aldergrove, BC, Canada
Serena Anderlini-DOnofrio. PhD, Professor of Humanities, Interdisciplinary Scholar, and Author, University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez
Mark Anderson. D.C., Orlando, Florida
Mark K. Anderson. M.S. Physics, Science Journalist, Northampton, Massachusetts
Vctor Andrade Sotomayor. MD, Past President of the Peruvian Society of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Dr. S.E. Andrejickas. Toronto, Canada
Michel Andrillon. Editor of Votre Sante (Your Health) magazine, Paris, France
Pierre Andrillon . Editor in Chief, Votre Sant, Paris, France
Nthobi Angel. M.Sc., Director of Communications, Office of The Presidency of South Africa
Flavia Angelico. Documentary Film Maker, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Rich Angell. Writer; Editor, Circumcision Information Network. Missoula, Montana
Douglas Angulo. Mathematician, Biostatistician, Caracas Venezuela
Heather Anthony. M.A., Yonkers, New York
Philipp Anwer. Graduate Student in Biochemistry, Boston University
Antonio Eduardo Araujo Miranda. MD, Madrid, Spain
K.C. Aravind. M.Sc. Student Microbiology, Chennai, India
Jose Pedro Arce. Biologist, Ensenada, Mexico
Delia Arellano. Journalist, El Bravo newspaper, Matamoros, Mexico. President, COFRES (Brotherhood Counsel of Health and Hope)
Lore Aresti. Psychoanalyst, Mexico City, author VIH=SIDA=MUERTE? (Hiv=Aids=Death?)
Montse Arias. Journalist, Director of the Spanish version of the journal The Ecologist and of the newsletter Vida Sana, press reporter of Biocultura, Spain
M.A. Armenteros. N.D., Naturopathic Physician, Downey, California
Janet S. Arnold. MD, Family Physician, Richland, Washington
Halton Arp. B.S. Harvard University, PhD, California Institute of Technology. Astrophysicist, Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Munich, Germany; awarded the Helen B. Warner Prize of the American Astronomical Society, the Newcomb Cleveland Award of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Alexander von Humboldt Senior Scientist Award; President of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1980 to 1983. Author of The Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies, Quasars, Redshifts and Controversies and Seeing Red: Redshifts, Cosmology and Academic Science
Angel Lopez Arteaga. Electrical and Electronic Engineer, Madrid, Spain
Christopher Asaro. PhD, Post-Doctoral Research Associate, Entomology, University of Georgia
Dr. Raymond Kimika Assumani. President, Centre D’education Et De Formation Integree, Genve, Switzerland and Uvira, Zaire
Elizabeth Attig. Registered Nurse, Wynnewood, Pennsylvania
Claude Aubry. Physician, Florida
Trina Augello. Student of Oriental Medicine, Kissimmee, Florida
Niels Auhagen. MD, Berlin, Germany
Andrew Ausman. Software Engineer, Los Angeles, Calif
E. Austin. M.Sc., Victoria, British Columbia
K.C. Avarind. Student M.Sc, Microbiology, Chennai, India
Dr. Bernardo Avila. Sabadell, Spain
Keidi Obi Awadu. (aka The Conscious Rasta), Writer, Documentary film maker, Los Angeles. Author of over 20 books including Aids Exposed
Steve Ayorinde. Editor, The Comet Newspaper, Lagos Nigeria
Jose Manuel N. Azevedo . Departamento de Biologia, Universidade dos Acores, Portugal
Aka Babatunde. Constitutional Lawyer, Lagos, Nigeria
Emmanuel Babissagana. M.A., Legal Theorist, Yaounde, Cameroon
Laurence Bacchus. Diploma in Naturopathy, Auckland, New Zealand
Eric Bach. Nurse, Director, School of Holistic Health, Brussels, Belgium
Anthony Bacic. PhD, Perth, Australia
Lawrence Badgley. MD, San Francisco. Author, Healing Aids Naturally
Salah Badjou. PhD, Physics, Research engineer, Lancaster
Ankomah Baffour. Journalist, New African Magazine
Graziano Baiesi. MD, Bologna, Italy
Anuka Baijoo. Research Chemist, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
James C. Baker. PhD, Santa Rosa, California
Jeff Baker. M.A., former Immunology grad student, Northwestern University Medical School; Advanced Placement Biology Teacher, Auburn Hills, Michigan
Robert D. Baker. DVM, Veterinarian, Lagunitas, California
Richard B. Baker. CGS, MRP, Rochester, New York
Begoa Balaguer. PhD, Valencia, Spain
Lord Baldwin. Joint Chairman of Britains Parliamentary Group for Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Wilfried Bales. Heilpraktiker, Cologne, Germany
Sharadendu Bali. MD, MBBS, Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery, Santosh Medical College Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
Michele A. Ball. MSW, EAV cert, Psychotherapist, Kingston, Canada
Gustavo Ballejo Olivera. MD, PhD, Professor Associado, Farmacologia, Ginecologia e Obstetrcia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeiro Preto, Universidade de So Paulo, Brazil
Rudolph Ballentine. MD, former Professor of Psychiatry at Louisiana State University; President of the Himalayan Institute for 12 years and Director of its Combined Therapy Department for 18 years. Author of the book, Radical Healing
Ralph Ballerstadt. PhD, Biotechnologist, Palatine, Illinois
Dr. Nguyen-phuoc Bao-quy. Medical Practitioner, MBBS FRACGP MACNEM, Sydney, Australia
Peter Baratosy. PhD, MBBS, Dipl. Acupuncture, Dipl. Clinical Hypnotherapy; Physician, Fellow of the Australian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine; Author, Can you really believe what your doctor tells you? and There is Always an Alternative
Claudio Barbaranelli. Associate Professor of Methodology, Department of Psychology, University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy
Sandi Levy Barbero. MSW, Las Vegas, Nevada
Claudio Bardella. London School of Economics, UK; Author, Pilgrimages of the Plagued: Aids, Body and Society
Andries Sechaba Bareetseng. PhD, Bolemfontein, South Africa
Maria Pia Barile. PhD, Professor of Biochemistry, University of Bari, Italy
Diego Barone. Engineer, Bergamo, Italy
Raymond A. Barrell. LL.B., Johannesburg, South Africa
Jose Barrera. Technical Engineer, Seville, Spain
David Bartell. Science Fiction writer, BA, Astrophysics
Mark Bartlett. Microbiology Technologist, Communicable Disease Investigator, Toronto, Canada
Larry Barton. M.A., Technology Liaison, University of North Dakota
Eugen Bartuska. Specialist Anaesthetist, DEAA, Berlin, Germany
Robert W. Bass. Ph.D, Johns Hopkins, Rhodes Scholar, Professor of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young Univ., Provo, Utah: Senior Editor, Kronos, A Journal of Interdisciplinary Synthesis
Farouk Bassa. Asst. Professor, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Durban-Westville, South Africa
Shamita Basu. PhD, Lecturer, The Institute of Development Studies, Calcutta, India. Former Professor of Political Science, Calcutta University. Author, Religious Revivalism as Nationalist Discourse (Oxford, 2002)
Giovanni Battista Baratta. Professor of Astronomy, Osservatorio Astronomica di Roma, Italy
Angelo Battiston. D.C., Cape Town, South Africa
Henry Bauer. PhD, Professor Emeritus of Chemistry & Science Studies and Dean Emeritus of Arts & Sciences at Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University; Author, Fatal Attractions: The Troubles with Science .
Eleen Baumann. PhD, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Director of Undergraduate Studies, University of Oregon
Michael Baumgartner. Secretary General, International Forum for Accessible Science (IFAS)
Amando Bautista. PhD student in Biology, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico
Jaime Bayona-Prieto. PHT, NRH, Universidad de Pamplona, Colombia
Greg Beattie. Author, Vaccination – A Parents Dilemma. Forest Hill, Australia
W.H. Beauman. Environmental chemist, Chicago, Illinois
Alejandro Becerra. M.A., Mesa, Arizona
Luc Blisle. Journalist, Montreal, Canada
Alain Guy Bellhomo. Dipl.-Ing., Engineer, Wilhelmshaven, Germany
Eros Belliveau. Research Study Asst., Univ. of Washington Dept. of Medicine, Div. of Allergy & Infectious Diseases
Carsten Bellon. PhD, Engineer, Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin, Germany. Author, Computersimulation radiographischer Prfverfahren
Richard Beltz. PhD, inventor of AZT, Professor of Biochemistry, Loma Linda University, California [Says leading Aids drug AZT is too toxic and should not be used]
Caio Benevolo. M.A., Rio De Janeiro, Brazil
Andre-Pierre Benguerel. PhD, Professor Emeritus, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
German Benitez. MD, Director, Asociacion Medica Homeopatica de Colombia, Bogot
Luis Bentez-Bribiesca. MD, Unidad de Investigaciones Oncolgicas, Hospital de Oncologa, Mexico City
Pietro Mariano Benni. Attorney, Documentary Film Maker. Journalist for ANSA (Italian News Agency) and many Italian magazines; formerly editor-in-chief of Reader’s Digest (Italian edition). Managing Consultant for Missionary Service News Agency. Rome, Italy
Andrew A. Benson. PhD, La Jolla, California
Gregory Benvenuti. Engineer, Johannesburg, South Africa
Christopher Berg. Dartmouth-educated astronomer and author of AMAZEing Art: Wonders of the Ancient World. Berkeley, California
Richard M.A. Berger. DDS, Berkeley, California
Arthur Berken. MD Is the human immunodeficiency virus really the initiator of human immunodeficiency? (letter) New York State Journal of Medicine (February 1988)
David Berner. MD, Condon, Montana
B Bernhard. Master of Public Health, Germany
Herbert Bernstein. DDS, Clinical Associate Professor, Oral Surgery, University of Miami, Florida
Rachel Bernu. Journalist – Eye on Africa, Washington, DC
Tom Bethell. Author, researcher, Hoover Institution, Palo Alto, California
India Bharti. M.Sc Biochemistry, Melbourne, Australia
Tathagata Bhattacharya. M.A., Journalist, The Pioneer, New Delhi, India
Uday Bhawalkar. PhD, Biochemical engineering, Maharashtra, India
Harvey Bialy. PhD, Founding scientific editor, Nature Biotechnology. Resident Scholar, Institute of Biotechnology/Autonomous National University of Mexico, Member, South Africa Presidential Aids Advisory Panel
Enrica Bianchi. Biologist, Bologna, Italy
Luca Biasco. Researcher in Pediatric Leukemia, S.Orsola/Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy
Hans Bicker. Biologist, Willemstad, Curacao, Netherlands Antilles
Robert Bielik. Engineer, Uppsala, Sweden
Anatole Bihina. Journalist and Novelist; Author, Secret d’enfance, Yaounde, Cameroon
Laura Elena Billiet. Psychologist, Buenos Aires, Argentina; author, HIV-Sida. La poca de Inmunodeficiencia (HIV-AIDS. The era of immunodeficiency)
Lloyd Billingsley. Editorial Director, Pacific Research Institute, San Francisco; Author of many books and articles on public policy, education, and other issues
Irwin H. Binder. MS HRD, Fort Wayne, Indiana
Antonio Bindi. DDS, MSD, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Robert W. Birge. PhD, Berkeley, California
Paul Bishop. Architect, San Diego, California
Bill Bissell. M.A., Seattle, Washington
Mala Bissoon. MNIMH, Co-ordinator of Anatomy, The London College of Traditional Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine, UK
Christopher Black. Attorney, Toronto, Canada
Inez Blackburn. Faculty, University of Toronto at Mississauga
Fernandez Blackshear. RN, Silver Spring, Maryland. Board Member, Doctors for United Medical Missions, Inc.
Shelly B. Blam. PhD, Alameda, California
Raymond Blanchette. Engineer, Brossard, Canada
John S. Blankfort. DDS, San Francisco, California
Wolf Blazejczak. Engineer, Berlin, Germany
Robert Bleakney. PhD, Religion and Social Ethics, Worcester, Massachusetts
Uwe Blesching. PhD Student, Western Institute for Social Research, Berkeley, California
Peter Blum. Hypnotherapist, Woodstock, New York
Seth Blumencranz. Mechanical Engineer, Huntington, New York
Julie Blyth. Medical Librarian, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia
Helmut Walter Boehnke. Heilpraktiker, Alternative Medicine, Berlin, Germany
Connie Boles. MSW, RSW, Dept. of Psychiatry, University of Western Ontario, Canada
Steven Boman. M.Div., C.H, Certified Hypnotherapist, Minneapolis, Minnesota
Erik Boni. Editor, Firenze University Press, Italy
Giuseppe Borz. PhD, Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering, University of Messina, Italy
Drs Lodewijk Bos. M.A., Utrecht, Netherlands. Founder of the International Council on Medical and Care Compunetics, ICMCC
Henk Boshoff. PhD Candidate, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Dorothy L. Bosworth. PhD, Carlsbad, California
Llus Botinas. PhD, Barcelona, Spain
Alexandru Botu. Engineer, Bucharest, Romania
Rhoda-Mary Bowell. Journalist, Dublin, Ireland
Claude Bowen. Director of Human Resources, Minority Aids Project, Los Angeles, California
Maja Boxhorn. Instructor in Veterinary Homeopathy, Asthanga Research Institute for Homoeopathy, Hagen bei Murnau, Germany
Colin Brace. Writer/Editor, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Len Bracken. Author and novelist: Shadow Government, The East is Black, Freeplay and other books
Nanette Bracken. Attorney, Ridgefield, Connecticut
Lawrence Bradford. PhD, Associate Professor of Biology, Benedictine College, Kansas
Bruno Braeckman. Traditional Chinese Medicine & Acupuncture practitioner, former Chairman of the Belgian Acupunctors Federation (1983-1997), Gent, Belgium
Mack M. Braly. M.A., J.D., Adjunct Professor of Evidence, University of Tulsa Law School, Oklahoma
Mary Brand. Former US Dept. of Agriculture Consumer Safety Inspector. Red Springs, North Carolina
Gerrit Brand. PhD, University of Utrecht, Netherlands
Martien Brands. MD, PhD, Senior lecturer, Dept. of Primary Care, University of Liverpool; Free University, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Barbro Bransome. MD, Family Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden
Michael Bransome. MD, Karolinska Institute, Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm, Sweden
Christopher Branstetter. M.A., Brooklyn, New York
Maurizio Braucci. Novelist, Naples, Italy. Author, Il mare guasto, which won the Premio Arezzo, the Premio Ultima Frontiera Volterra and the French Prix du livre Arte Mare Bastia awards
Tucker Brawner. DPM, Savannah, Georgia
Dan Bredemann. Playwright, director, TV writer, journalist, lecturer at Fordham University
William Briden. PhD, Instructor in Mathematics, University of Rhode Island
Brian E. Briggs. MD, Minot, North Dakota
Ian Brighthope. MBBS, DipAgrSc, MATA, FACNEM, Australia, President of the Complementary Healthcare Council of Australia and the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine; author, The AIDS Fighters [Says Aids can be cured by Nutritional Supplements]
Anthony Brink. Attorney, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. Author, Debating AZT and The Trouble with Nevirapine.
Pierre Brisson. Editor, Lusage des drogues et la toxicomanie, Montreal, Canada
Sandi Brockway. Founder Macrocosm USA, Writer/Editor, Cambria, California
Stuart Brody. PhD, Adjunct Research Associate Professor of Medical Psychology, University of Tubingen, Germany. Author, Sex at Risk [Says Hiv is not transmitted by penile-vaginal sex]
Christina Bromme. Instructor, University of British Columbia
Andy Brook. Engineer, Gloucestershire, UK
Christopher Brooks. Ph.D, Geophysics, ANU, Vankleek Hill, Ontario, Canada
Dean M. Brooks. Engineering Physicist, founder of Ekaros Analytical, Vancouver, Canada
Natashya Brooks. Student of Oriental Medicine, Berkeley, California
Jordi Brotons. Retired Professor of Mathematics, Alcoi, Spain
Darin C. Brown. Graduate Student, Mathematics, University of California, Santa Barbara
Douglas W. Brown. MD, Portland, Maine
Janet Brown. PhD, UCLA, Los Angeles
Paul Brown. J.D., MPP, Houston Texas
Raymond K. Brown. MD, author, AIDS, Cancer & the Medical Establishment
Ronald Brown. Biology Teacher, Table Grove, Illinois
Tony Brown. MSW, Journalist, Founding Dean of the School of Communications at Howard University; Coordinator of the historic Walk To Freedom March with Martin Luther King, Jr.; Producer and host of Tony Browns Journal on PBS; Advisor to the Harvard Foundation for Intercultural and Race Relations; Author, Black Lies, White Lies
Wayne E. Brown. Registered Pharmacist, Houston, Texas
Dr. Paolo Brunetti. Societ Editrice Andromeda, Bologna, Italy
Deanna Buck. Neuroscience Researcher, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, Blanchette Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Rockville, Maryland
Patrick Buck. Lecturer in Chemistry, University of Nebraska
Otto Buerckner. Heilpraktiker, Warstein, Germany
Anne Buffardi. MPH, International Program Manager, University of Washington Center for Aids Research, Seattle
Frank Buianouckas. PhD, Professor of Mathematics, City University of New York
Svetoslav Bulatov. MD, D.Hom, Johannesburg, South Africa
Derwin Michael Bullard. MS Ed in counseling; Doctoral candidate in Clinical Psychology, Far Rockaway, New York
William Burchette. JD, Elkin, North Carolina
Roberto Burciaga. M.A., Guadalajara, Mexico
David Burd. US Patent Examiner in Medical Technology, Chevy Chase, Maryland
Lydia Burdick. M.Sc., Clinical Psychology, New York. Author, The Sunshine on My Face – A Read-Aloud Book for Memory-Challenged Adults
Rudolf Burg. MD, Kirchstetten, Austria
John B. Burgin. DDS, Crowley, Louisiana
Ernesto Burgio. MD, Pediatrician, Palermo, Italy
Andrew Burgoyne. Hypnotherapist, Launceston, UK
Jennie Burke. MD, Sydney, Australia
Elinor Burkett. Journalist, Miami Herald
Robert A. Burns. Graduate Student in Molecular Biology, University of New Brunswick, Canada
Randall Burns. M.Sc, Washougal, Washington
Kayla Burrows. Drug Action Service, a drugs/AIDS hotline, Nassau, Bahamas
Scott Bussom. Medical Student, University of Bridgeport College Of Naturopathic Medicine, Connecticut
Jabulani Buthelezi. Engineer, Johannesburg, South Africa
Jacqueline Butler. PhD, Psychologist, Nashville, Tennessee
Peter J. Buxtun. San Francisco, Public Health Service venereal disease interviewer who blew the whistle on the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment
Michael Buyinza. MD, Psychiatrist, Buffalo, New York. Former NIMH fellow. Also MPH, completing a PhD in Public Health at New York University
Stephen C. Byrnes. PhD, Natural Therapist and Nutritionist, Honolulu, author, Overcoming AIDS with Natural Medicine
Liz Byrski. Author, Facing Cancer-Searching for Solutions and other books. Adjunct Teaching Fellow, Curtin University of Technology. Winner, CSIRO Award for Excellence in Science Journalism (1996), Fremantle, Western Australia
Guillermo Caba. Journalist, Spain
Ermenegildo Caccese. PhD, Mathematician, University of Basilicata, Italy
Marco Caceres. Co-founder, Project Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras
Stephen Caiazza. MD, New York internist
Marina Caldas. Medical Journalist, Lisbon, Portugal
Susan E. Caliri. DDS, Berkeley, California
Melinda Calleira. President, American Association of Science & Public Policy, Los Angeles, California
Dennis Cambly. Managing Editor, Times 10 Magazine, Edmonton, Canada
Dan Cameron Rodill. Journalist, former correspondent for CBS News, New York City
Robert Campbell. Hiv-Aids Social Worker, Brooklyn, New York
Joseph Campbell. PhD, Nutritionist, Victoria, BC, Canada
Andrea Campisano. Graduate Student, Biotechnology, Universit degli Studi di Catania, Italy
Dr. Nicolas Campos. Naturopathic physician, Chiropractor, Los Angeles, Degree in Molecular Biology from UC Berkeley
Alvaro E. Campos. Attorney, Bogot, Colombia
Jose Canas. Licensed Practical Nurse, Brentwood, New York
Alton L. Cannon. Attorney, Leitchfield, Kentucky
Mikhail Cannon. Nurse, Research Manager, Oncology Unit, Huddersfield Royal Infirmary, West Yorkshire, UK
Frank Cannonito. PhD, Professor Emeritus of Mathematics, University of California, Irvine
Nghia Cao. MD, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Dominique Caouette . PhD, Cornell University; Asst. Professor, University of Montral. Former Lecturer, University of Ottawa. Former Program Officer, Inter Pares
Peter Capainolo . M.Phil, Adjunct Faculty, Dept. of Biology, City College of The City University of New York; Scientific Assistant, Division of Vertebrate Zoology – Ornithology, American Museum of Natural History, New York City; Research Associate, Long Island Natural History Museum
Roberto Cappelletti. MD, Specialist in Orthopaedics and Senior Surgeon, Hospital of Mezzolombardo, Italy. Former Director of Orthopaedic Department, Dodoma Regional Hospital
Russel Capra. Physicist, Porto Alegre, Brazil
Joseph Capriotti. MD, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Jose Carboneras. Naturopathic medical practitioner, Valencia, Spain
Felipe Crdenas Tmara. M.Sc., H.D., Di Hom, Assoc. Professor of Ecology, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogot, Colombia. Former Instructor, British Institute of Homeopathy. Author, Manual de Gestin Ambiental, Paisajes culturales: enfoques antropolgicos para la comprensin de la relacin-ecosistema cultura and other books
Anne Carl. Law Student, Tuscon, Arizona. Recipient of the Andrew Silverman Community Service Award
Kent Carlander. Instructor, Santa Barbara College of Oriental Medicine, California
Alejandro J. Carmona. DDS, Mexico City
Casey Carter. MBA, Pinehurst, North Carolina
Rhys B. Cartwright-Jones. Attorney, Cleveland, Ohio
John Carville. Language Editor, International Peace Research Institute, Oslo, Norway
Jos Vicente Casas Daz. MD, Secretary General of the Ministry of Social Protection, Colombia
Raffaele Cascone. PhD, Research Director, Henri Laborit Institute of Systemic Therapy, Rome, Italy
Doug Casey. Editor, The International Speculator, Author of the #1 NY Times bestseller, Crisis Investing [Says he has seen no evidence of an Aids plague anywhere in Africa]
Leo Cashman. Health and Environmental Journalist; President, DAMS Intl. (Dental Amalgam Mercury Syndrome); Co-founder, National Health Freedom Coalition. Minneapolis, Minnesota
Fabio Casiroli. Founder, Systematica Italy; Teaches Urban Planning at Politecnico di Milano, Italy
Chiara Castellani. M.Sc., Physics, Rome, Italy
Beatriz Castiglioni. Psychoanalyst, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Dr. Robert Cathcart. San Francisco, California
Hiram Caton. PhD, Ethicist, Head of the School of Applied Ethics at Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia
Ivor Catt. M.A., St. Albans, UK
Sergio Cattani. Pharmacist, Trento, Italy
David Causer. PhD, Department of Medical Physics, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia
Federica Ceccarini. PhD, Psychology, Universit degli Studi di Padova, Italy
Paolo Celli. Physicist, Parma, Italy
Jorge Chacon. Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico. Co-author, Estrategias de lectura: tecnicas para mejorar la velocidad y la comprension
Dr. Leon Chaitow. D.O., N.D., M.R.O., Osteopathic Physician, Naturopath, Acupuncturist, UK. Senior Lecturer, University of Westminster, London. Director of Research and Senior Therapeutic Advisor for the THERA (Therapy, Health Education and Research Association) Trust. Author of over 50 books including The Acupuncture Treatment of Pain, Amino Acids in Therapy and Probiotics
Asit K. Chakraborty. PhD, Omaha, Nebraska
Dipankar Chakrovorty. Journalist, New Delhi, India
Camille Chalmers. Professor of Economics, Universit dEtt, Port au Prince, Haiti. Executive Secretary, PAPDA – the Platform for the Advocacy of Alternative Development in Haiti. Director of former President Jean Bertrand Aristides staff
Jack G. Chamberlain. PhD, Berkeley, California
Dr. Jimmy Chamorro. Honorable Senator, Colombian Republic (AIDS without HIV: A new path for researching in the next century)
Ching-Chee Chan. PhD in physical chemistry, University of Manchester, UK, 1967; AIDS researcher and writer, Canada
Dennis Chaney. PhD, Chaney Scientific Inc. Burlingame, California
Mark Chanley. PhD, Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas
Simon Chapman. PhD, Professor of Public Health, University of Sydney, Australia [Says there is little or no risk to heterosexuals]
Christine Charlton. Nurse, Norton, UK
Ronald M. Chase. MD, Physician, Hauppauge, New York
Robert B. Chatelle. B.A., Harvard University; Writer, Boston, Massachusetts. Chair of the Political Issues Committee of the National Writers Union
Garga Chatterjee. MBBS, Physician, Calcutta, India
Siafa Chauke. Senior Law Student, University of South Africa
Arturo Chavez. Biologist, State Secretary of Urbanism and Environment, Michoacan, Mexico
David Che. DDS, Chicago, Illinois
William Chegwidden. Medical Journalist/Translator, Le Mans, France
Mark Chen. Teaching Assistant, Psychology, University of Hull, UK
Paul Cheney. MD, PhD, internist, North Carolina
Nicholas Chester. PhD, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
Vishal Chhabra. Psychiatrist, Bangalore, India
Donna Chiarelli. Womens Health Interaction, Ottawa, Canada. Co-author, Uncommon Questions: A Feminist Exploration of AIDS
Shih-Chang Chien. M. Sc. Chemist, National Taiwan University, Taipei
Wallace Chigona. PhD, Lecturer, University of Cape Town, South Africa
John Child. M.A., Cape Town, South Africa
Mukai Chimutengwende-Gordon. Fifth-year medical student at Bristol University, England
Rupa Chinai. Journalist, The Times of India
Richard Chirimuuta. Co-author AIDS, Africa and Racism
Vivian Chong. News Editor, Ming Pao newspaper, Toronto, Canada
Frederick Chosson. PhD, Physics and Engineering Science, Toulouse, France
Ramesh S. Chouhan. PhD, MBBS, FICMCH, Himabindu Foundation, Bangalore, India
William Choulos. Attorney, San Francisco, California
Peter Chowka. Journalist, Writer, alternative medicine expert who has appeared on NBC, PBS, ABC and CBC. Advisor to U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Alternative Medicine
Lorna Christensen. M.A., M.S.W., LCSW, Psychotherapist, La Jolla, California
Claudia Christian. MA, LPC, CACIII, Licensed professional counselor; addiction specialist, Denver, Colorado
Lynge Carlshollt Christiansen. PhD, Molecular Biologist, Copenhagen, Denmark
Mattheos Christoforidis. MD, Dept. of Neuropathology, University of Leipzig, Germany
Christo Christov. Dipl.-Eng. Engineer, Brno, Czech Republic
Christina Cianci. Molecular Biologist, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Prof. Guido Ciccarone. MD, Rome, Italy
D. Rachael Cicone. Laboratory Manager, Boston, Massachusetts
Felix Cifire. PhD, Scientist, Molecular Tumor Genetics Group, Max-Delbruck-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany; formerly with Institute of Medical Virology, Charit School of Medicine, Humboldt University, Berlin
Gary Cifra. President, Alliance for Research Accountability, Los Angeles, California
Randy Cima. PhD, Psychologist, Riverside, California
Roger Clague. Private Tutor of Math and Science, Birmingham, UK
Frank Clare. Film Maker, San Francisco, California
Hulda R. Clark. PhD Physiology, ND, author, The Cure for HIV and AIDS and other books
Timothy J. Clark. RN, Lexington, North Carolina
Marlene Clarke. Western North Carolina Aids Project, Asheville
Mara Jess Clavera Ortiz. MD, Pediatrician, Dipl. in Epidemiology and Environmental Health; Research Director, Niima Clinic, Barcelona, Spain; Associate, Medical Autism Center of Barcelona; Member, National Epidemiological Commission of the Toxico Syndrome
Sandra Clay. M.A., Palos Verdes, California
John Claydon. D.Hom, Tunbridge Wells, UK
Vittorio Clementi. Meteorologist, Rome, Italy
Vernita Clinton. Grad. Student, Student teacher, Chemistry Dept., Western Illinois University
Matteo Codecasa. Engineer, Milano, Italy
Jennigay Coetzer. Journalist, Johannesburg, South Africa
Joo Quadros Coimbra. Professor of Data Processing, Fundao de Apoio Escola Tcnica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Luigi Colaianni. PhD, RomaTre University, Milano, Italy
Jos Colastra. Naturopathic Doctor, Madrid, Spain
Luciana Colavecchia. M.Sc., Campobasso, Italy
Annemarie Colbin. PhD, Nutritionist, New York. Author, Food and Healing, Food and Our Bones: How to Prevent Osteoporosis Naturally and other books
Lawrence Cole. Electrical Engineer, Pasadena, California
Leslie Cole. M.Sc., Former Adjunct Professor, New Jersey City University. Union, New Jersey
Toby Cole. Engineer, Durham, North Carolina
Bob Coleman. PhD, Independent Researcher, Dallas, Texas
Deane Collie. Executive Director, International Coalition for Medical Justice, Arlington, Virginia
Justin Collum. Engineer, Portland, Oregon
Tamara L. Colton. PhD, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Steele Memorial Children’s Research Center, University of Arizona
Christopher Combs. RN, Physician Assistant, Howell, Michigan
Jill Combs. M.S., CRNA (Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist), Howell, Michigan
William Conklin. M.A., Denver, Colorado
Mark Gabrish Conlan. Editor, Zengers Magazine, San Diego, California
Don Conrad. PhD Student, University of Chicago. B.S. Biochemistry, Dartmouth College. M.Sc. in Epidemiology, Stanford University
Anthony Cook. PhD, PGCE, Manchester, United Kingdom
Colleen Cook. R.N., Wilmington, Delaware
Patrick A. Cooke. Dept. Biology, Univ. North Texas, Denton, Texas
Delaine Cools. Social Worker, Durban, South Africa
Lesley Cooper. Ph.D., Medical Sociology, University of Essex, UK
Kevin Corbett. PhD, Senior Lecturer in Primary Care, St. Georges Hospital Medical School and Kingston University, London UK
Kevin D. Cordi. M.A., Hanford, California
Thomas J. Cornell. Associate Professor of Biology, Mott College, Flint, Michigan
Gervasio Coronel. M.Sc., Facultad Departamento de Fsica, Informtica y Matemticas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
Agustino Correa. Engineer and architect, Zimapan, Mexico
Daniel J. Corson. MFA, Seattle, Washington
Alejandro Corvo. MD, PhD, Miami, Florida
Curtis Cost. Black activist and author of What Is Safe Sex In The Age of AIDS?
Dr. Enric Costa. MD, Valencia, Spain; Author, SIDA: Juicio a un virus inocente (AIDS: An innocent virus on trial)
Neus Costabella. MD, Barcelona, Spain
Saverio Costanzo. Film Director, Rome, Italy
H. Cottier. Prof., MD
Marcello Cotugno. Film Director, Roma, Italy
Harris L. Coulter. PhD, Author, Homeopathic Physician
Andrea Coulter. HD, RHom DHHP, Doctor of Medical Heilkunst and Homeopathy, Thorndale, Canada
Jeanne Couture. Registered Nurse, M.S. Nurse educator, Clinical Nurse specialist, Troy, New York
Roger Covin. M.Sc., PhD Candidate, Psychology Faculty, University of Western Ontario, Canada
Luke Cowie. M.Sc., Medical Anthropology, PhD candidate, Science and Technology Studies Unit, University of York, UK
J. Mark Cox. DDS, Midland, Texas
James P. Coyne. Author, Weston, Florida
Mark Craddock. PhD, Senior Research Associate, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia
Barrie M Craven. PhD, Reader in Public Accountability, Newcastle Business School, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
Jean-jacques Crevecoeur. Therapeutic trainer and medical lecturer, Belgium. Author, Le Langage de la gurison, Prenez soin de vous, n’attendez pas que les autres le fassent, Evoluer pour gurir and many other books about health.
David Crowe. HBSc Biology/Mathematics. Writer on health issues for Alive magazine, RedFlagsDaily.com and others. President of the Alberta Reappraising AIDS Society. Member of the technical advisory board of AnotherLook. Co-founder, CFO and former President of the Green Party of Alberta
Jason Cruz. Biology M.S. Student, West Chester, Pennsylvania
Michael Culbert. D.Sc., Vice President, American Biologics/Robert W. Bradford Research Institute; Author, AIDS: Hope, Hoax and Hoopla
Chase Culeman-beckman. Graduate Student, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
Rebecca Veronica Culshaw. M.Sc. Mathematics, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Joseph Cummings. MA Dept. of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
Roger Cunningham. PhD, Microbiologist, Director, Centre for Immunology, School of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo
Santiago Currea. MD, Director, Departamento de Pediatra, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogot
Timothy Cuthbertson. PhD, Biochemistry, University of Arizona
Julianne Cutler. Registered Kinesiology Practitioner and Instructor, Melbourne, Australia
Milivoje Cvetkovic. PhD, Immunology, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
Timothy Cwiek. Writer, Philadelphia
Robert D’Amours. Author; Creator of Rapanese the musical method of learning languages. San Francisco, California
Ciro DAniello. Documentary Film Maker, Bologna, Italy
Wilfred D’Costa. National Secretary, Indian Social Action Forum. Co-author, State and Repressive Culture – A Case Study of Gujarat. Ahmedabad, India
Christiana Pires da Costa. Clinical Psychologist, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Don Dagenais. Attorney, Kansas City, Missouri
Kees Dam. MD, Physician, Editor, Journal for Classical Homeopathy. Amsterdam, Netherlands
Alicia Damiano. PhD, Molecular Biology, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina
Jean-luc Damians. Managing Director, Connect Africa, Johannesburg, SA
Pelle Danabo. M.A., Instructor, University of Kansas at Lawrence
M.A. Daniel. Television Writer and Research Director, Gladstone, Oregon
Frank Daniels. PhD, Professor of Mathematics, Great Basin College, Nevada
Cynthia Daniels. M.Sc., PhD candidate, Microbiology, Chicago, Illinois
Guy Danjoint. Wicomico County Health Department, Salisbury, Maryland
Simon Erling Nitter Dankel. Graduate student, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Norway
Simon Erling Nitter Dankel. M.Sc. student, Human Nutrition, Institute of Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway
Maurice G. Dantec. Science fiction novelist, Montreal. Author of Villa Vortex and other books
Bikul Das. MD, Research Fellow at the University of Torontos Hospital for Sick Children; Author, The Science Behind Squalene
Hywel Davies. MD, Cardiologist, Pueblo West, Colorado
Paul Davis. Electrical Engineer, Arcadia, California
Patrick Davis. PhD, Asst. Professor, Dept. of Counseling and Educational Development, University of North Carolina at Greensboro
M. Henri Day. MD, PhD, Senior Consultant in Psychiatry, Oslo, Norway
Philip Day. Co-author, World Without Aids
Maria Dayton. PhD, Harvard University, Molecular Biologist, San Diego, California
Nelson Daza. MD, UIS-Santander University School of Medicine, Bucaramanga, Colombia
Richard De Andrea. MD, ND, Medical Advisor, Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine
Elieth Gomez De Avellaneda. N.D., Bucaramanga, Colombia
Graham N. De Bever. Medical Student, Cape Town, South Africa
Francesco De Capitani. Journalist, Rome, Italy
Mauricio De Castro-Costa. MD, PhD, Professor of Neurology and Physiology, University Hospital and Department of Physiology, Universidad Federal do Ceara, Ceara, Brazil
Etienne De Harven. MD, Emeritus Professor of Pathology, University of Toronto
Marta Carpintero De Jimeno. MSc, Laboratorio Qumico de Monitoreo Ambiental (LAQMA). Bogot, Colombia
Charles De Jongh. D.Litt, lecturer in Biblical and Pastoral Studies at Baptist Theological College, Cape Town, South Africa
Yancy De Lathouder. M.S., Chemistry, Palo Alto, California
Richard De Lisle. DC, Chiropractor, Leominster, Massachusetts
Chiara De Luca. PhD, Cell Aging Center of the IDI Research Institute, Rome
Luigi De Marchi. Clinical and Social Psychologist, President of the Italian Society of Political Psychology. Co-author of Aids, la grande truffa (AIDS, the great swindle)
Laura Helena De Sanchez. Homeopathic Doctor, Guadalajara, Mexico
Myriam Alvarez De Sotomayor. MD, Gynaecologist, Hospital of Lanzarote, Lanzarote, Canary Islands
Goats up an Afran tree looking for fruit and avoiding the fierce sharp toothed raging defenders of the HIV faith looking to take a bite out of their hide Nhora Merino De Villegas. MD, Head of the Laboratory of Pathology and Clinical Laboratory of the Fundacian Santa Fe de Bogota, Colombia
Prem Deben. PhD, Herbalist and Hypnotherapist, Washington, D.C.
Dan Debrunner. MA Physics, University of Oxford, UK. Oakland, California
Raymond Decanio. Graduate Student, University of Cincinnati, Ohio
Rex Decker. RN, Lakeland, Florida
Thomas Deflo. M.A., Journalist, Brussels, Belgium
Alfonso Del Alamo. Managing Director for Emergency Service, City Council of Madrid, Spain
Luis Del Castillo. MD, Anesthesiologist, Calexico California
Ray Delaforce. Engineer, Lake Jackson, Texas
Julie Delahanty. Researcher and Programme Manager, Rural Advancement Foundation International (RAFI). Co-author, Gender and Jobs in Chinas New Economy. Quebec, Canada
Kenneth Delaughder. M.A., Instructor in Communications, Emporia State University, Kansas
Leonel Isidro Delgado. MD, Surgeon, Mexico City
Leopoldo Della Ciana. PhD, Chemist, President and Scientific Director, Cyanagen srl, Bologna, Italy; former Postdoctoral Fellow, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, former Senior Research Scientist at IGEN, Rockville, Maryland and Research Group Leader, SORIN Biomedica, Saluggia, Italy
Cad Delworth. Engineer, Edinburgh, UK
Marc Delzac. Biomedical engineer, Copenhagen, Denmark
James DeMeo. PhD, Director, Orgone Biophysical Research Lab, Ashland, Oregon
Alois Dengg. MD, Mayrhofen, Austria
Ola Deraker. Journalist, Sdertlje, Sweden
Richard Derosa. Engineer, San Jose, California
Marc Deru. MD, Vis, Belgium
Amy L. Deshane. M.A., M.S., Human Development, Bangor, Maine
Dr. N.T. Deshmukh. Nagpur, India
Nathaniel Devereaux. Psychiatric Technician/Case Manager, Oakland, California
Pietro Speroni Di Fenizio. M.Sc., PhD candidate, Visiting Researcher, School of Cognitive and Computing Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton. Author, A less abstract artificial chemistry in Artificial Life VII, (Bedau, McCaskill, Packard, Rasmussen, eds.), MIT Press, 2000
Paolo Di Virgilio. Engineer, Rome, Italy
Amatta Sangho Diabate. Asst. Professor of Economics, Georgia State University
Juan Mauricio Diaz Rata. Dentist, Bucaramanga, Colombia
Gordon Dickson. J.D., Santa Monica, California
Tom DiFerdinando. HBCS, Specialist in lymphology and body work, Executive Director of HEAL-New York
Jennifer Dillon. DC, Charlotte, North Carolina
Jan Dingemans. Homeopath, Waalwijk, Netherlands
Michelle Dinh-Jones. RN, Oncology nurse, formerly with NHS, UK. Hanoi, Vietnam
Marlowe Dittlebrandt. MD, Portland, Oregon
Pauline Dixon. PhD, Lecturer, University of Northumbria; International Research Co-ordinator, University of Newcastle, UK
Sheri Dixon. Journalist, Nutritional Therapist, Director, The Metabolic Typing Centre. Manchester, UK
Andrey Dmitrevskiy . Science Journalist, Moscow, Russia. Co-author of the Russian book, Aids. Sentence Abolished
Alan David Doane. Broadcast Journalist, Glens Falls, New York
Tee Dobinson-Morris. Journalist, speaker; formerly Mind-Body expert for Health & Fitness Magazine. London, UK
Tracy Dobson. J.D., Professor, Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University
Matthew Dodman. San Francisco Department of Public Health-AIDS Office
Hortense Dodo. PhD, Professor of Food Biotechnology, Alabama A&M University, Huntsville, Alabama
Dirk Doering. MD, Bremen, Germany
Hansin Dogan. M.A., Program Officer, United Nations Development Program, Turkey
Brian Doherty. Journalist, Senior Editor, Reason Magazine
Anthony Dolson-fazio. M.S., Acupuncturist, Herbalist, Ithaca, New York
Warren Domask. Journalist, Houston, Texas
Laureano A. Domnguez. Journalist, Matar, Spain
Brigitte Don. Nurse, Norden, Germany
John R. Donald. MB ChB, Anaesthetist, Institute of Neurological Science, Glasgow, Scotland
Michael Donio. B.Sc, Molecular Biology, MPA. Hiv-Aids researcher, Newark, New Jersey. Formerly Director of Projects, People’s Medical Society
Kathy Donnelly. Clinical Counsellor, Victoria, BC
Leslie Donovan. PhD Student, North Sydney, Canada
Norluck Dorange. Journalist, Port-au-Prince, Haiti
Meryl Dorey. President, The Australian Vaccination Network
Thomas A. Dorman. MD, San Luis Obispo, California
Jennifer Dorn. Journalist, Author, Denver, Colorado
Peter Doshi. Grad. Student, Harvard University
Peter Doube. Melbourne, Australia, Former Social Research Assistant, MacFarlane Burnet Centre for Medical Research
Hank Doughty II. J.D., New York
Allen B. Downey. PhD, Professor of Computer Science, Colby College, Waterville, Maine
Kathryn Downing. M.A., M.F.T., Marriage and Family Therapist, Burbank, California
Marisa Drago. Midwife, Barcelona, Spain
Brenda Dreyer. Doctor of Social Work, advisor to the government of South Africa
Edwin Dreyer. CEO, Biometric Technologies, South Africa
Moira Drosdovech. DVM, Kelowna, BC, Canada
Ernest Drucker. PhD, Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY [Says Hiv is not transmitted by penile-vaginal sex]
Andrea G. Drusini. MD, Medical Anthropologist, University of Padova, Italy
Doug DuBrul. Journalist, San Diego, California
Marianne Duckerts. MD, Pediatrician, Gouvy, Belgium
Bernard Ducret. Mathematician, CERN Laboratories. Leaz, France
Peter Dudek. PhD candidate Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
Tom Dudley. Biology Instructor, Angelina College, Lufkin, Texas; Author of a botany laboratory manual, a statistics textbook, and the novel Black Cottage
Barton Dudlick. Editor, Radiologic Clinics of North America and other books, Elsevier – Saunders/Mosby Medical Publishing
Peter Duesberg. PhD, Professor of Molecular Biology, University of California, member, National Academy of Sciences, first to map the genetic structure of retroviruses. Five-time recipient of the National Institutes of Healths Outstanding Investigator Grant. Author, Inventing the AIDS Virus.
Hilde Duesberg. MD, Berlin, Germany
David Duffett. Engineer, Aculab, Buckingham, UK
Peter Duffie. Writer, author of Subtle Miracles and many other books about magic tricks. Glasgow, UK
Dr. Daniel H. Duffy. Sr., D.C., Geneva, Ohio. Former chiropractic doctor to the Cleveland Indians baseball team
Chris Duffy. Instructor, North Harris Montgomery Community College, Texas
Dr. Eric Dugan. Centerville, Virginia
Mark Dumaine. Engineer, Clackamas, Oregon
Marion Dumont. M.A., PhD Student, California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco
Biodun Durojaiye. Journalist, Lagos, Nigeria
Edward Dvorak. Journalist, Committee on US-Latin American Relations, Ithaca, New York
Stuart W. Dwyer. MD, part time district surgeon (forensic medical officer), Grahamstown, South Africa
Bryan Dyson. Ecological Engineer, New Orleans, Louisiana
Michael East. MBA, Harvard University
Nikolaus Eberl. PhD, Author, The Seven Secrets of IziCwe. Johannesburg, South Africa
Jack Ebner. PhD Biophysiology, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii
Fabien Eboussi Boulaga. Cameroonian Philosopher, author, La crise du Muntu, Christianity without fetishes: an African critique and recapture of Christianity and many other books
Sonja Ebron. PhD, Professor of Engineering, Hampton University, Virginia
Virgilio Ecarma. Herbalist, Director of The Ecarma Wellness Center (an Aids treatment center), Manila, Philippines
Mark Eccles. Natural Health Care practitioner, Edinburgh, UK
Karen Eck. M.T., ASCP, Medical Technologist, Baker City, Oregon. Co-author, The Indigo Children
Chris Edeh. Engineer, HND, MNSE, COREN, Abuja, Nigeria
Johannes Edelhoff. Geographer and Urban Planner, Berlin, Germany
Ezra Edgerton. DC, Tryon, North Carolina, Chiropractic Physician
Steve Edison. PhD, University of Arkansas, Little Rock
Gordon J. Edlin. PhD, Professor of Biochemistry and Physics, University of Hawaii
Nigel Edwards. MA, Journalist, England
Madrid Efrain. Engineer, Toluca, Mexico
Gil Egger. Editor in Chief, GHI newspaper, Geneva Switzerland
Bert Ehgartner . Medical Journalist, Documentary Filmmaker, Asperhofen, Austria. Co-author, Das Medizinkartell. Die sieben Todsnden der Gesundheitsindustrie (The Medicine Cartel. The Seven Deadly Sins of the Health Industry); Author, Die Lebensformel (The Life Formula)
Lois J. Einhorn. PhD, Professor of English, Binghamton University, New York. Author, Abraham Lincoln the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend, Helen Keller, the Speaker, The Native American Oral Tradition and other books. Received the Distinguished Research Fellow and Distinguished Teaching Fellow awards of the Eastern Communications Association, the Outstanding Professor Award from the National Speakers Association, the Everett Lee Hunt Book Award and many other honors
Martine Affre Eisenlohr. Geological Engineer, Marseilles, France
Mark W. Eisner. Kinesiotherapist/ Exercise Physiologist, Norwalk, California
Martin Eitel. PhD, Attorney, Potsdam, Germany
Richard Ekpat. MD, Holistic Health Practitioner and Certified Specialized Kinesiologist, Pasadena, California
Karim El Bakkouri. PhD, Molecular Biologist, Universit Libre de Bruxelles, Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Biologie humaine et molculaire (IRIBHM), Brussels, Belgium
Jos Elkink. PhD, Political Science, Trinity College, Dublin; Leiden, Netherlands
Bryan J. Ellison. Author, Molecular Biology grad student, Berkeley, California
Michael Ellner. PhD, medical hypnotherapist and educator, President, HEAL, New York. Named Educator of the Year by the National Guild of Hypnotists (1995) and the National Federation of NeuroLinguistic Psychologists (1997)
Tarek Elsherif. PhD, Molecular Biologist, Technische Universitt Mnchen, Munich, Germany
Alfredo Embid. Acupuncturist, Coordinator of the Spanish Association of Complementary Medicines and Editor of their Holistic Medicine magazine, Madrid
Ron Endley. M.Sc., M.Phil, Oxford University. Instructor, Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand. Chairman, South African-Thai Chamber of Commerce
Dr. Edwin Engel. Austrian Academy of Sciences. Salzburg
Edwin Engel. M.Sc., Freilassing, Germany
Torsten Engelbrecht. Hamburg-based Journalist for The Ecologist and other magazines and newspapers; former financial editor, Financial Times, Germany.
Mohammad Entezampour. PhD, Dept. Biology Univ. North Texas, Denton, Texas
David Epstein. D.O., Osteopathic Physician, Atlanta, Georgia
Lori Errico-seaman. PhD Student, Grad. Student Instructor, University of Michigan
Rafael Escribano. PhD, Dept. Spanish & Portuguese, University of California. Riverside, Texas
Antonio Garcia-Monsalve Escria. Attorney, Public Prosecutor, Madrid, Spain
Nria Escud. M.Psc., MTR, Psychotherapist, Barcelona, Spain
Noemi Escuder. Holistic Therapist, Kinesiologist, Barcelona, Spain
Rafael Espericueta. Professor, former Chair, Dept. of Mathematics, Bakersfield College, Bakersfield, California, Instructor, University of Phoenix, formerly senior programmer in the Brain Imaging Lab at the University of California, Irvine Medical School
Javier Espinosa. Engineer, Windhoek, Namibia
Gladys Espinosa. M.Sc., Epidemiologist, Bogota Department of Health, Colombia
Luis Espinoza. Traditional Bolivian healer, Director, Janajpacha Spiritual Center, Author, Chamalu. The Shamanic Way of the Heart. Traditional Teachings from the Andes
Robert Essertier. Former Mayor, City of Hermosa Beach, California
Rudy Estrada. JD, Attorney, Chicago, Illinois
Daniel Ettedgui. D.O., Osteopathic physician, Board Certified Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Boca Raton, Florida
Valerio Evangelisti. Novelist, essayist, Bologna, Italy. Author of the Science Fiction novels Nicolas Eymerich, inquisitore, Cherudek, Picatrix, la scala per linferno, Magus – Il romanzo di Nostradamus and others. Awarded the Urania, Prix Italia, French Grand Prix de lImaginaire, Prix Tour Eiffel and Prix Europe prizes for literature
Bruce D Evans. PhD, Assoc. Prof. Biology, Huntington College, Indiana
Lance Evoy. Director, Institute in Management and Community Development, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada
Chidi Ezeihu. MD, Atlanta, Georgia
Paul N. Ezeji. PhD., Asst. Professor, Dept of Health Science Education, Morris College, Sumter, South Carolina
Trish Fahey. Health and science writer, co-author, The Metabolic Typing Diet
Lawrence A. Falk. Jr., PhD, Virologist, Abbott Labs, Consultant NCI, Chicago, Illinois
Lynn Fall (ne Gannett). Former Data Manager, phase III clinical trials of AZT (1987-1990)
Monique Fanfan. Journalist, Queens Village, New York
Heather Faraone. Candidate, MS Public Health, New York, NY
Celia Farber. Journalist, New York
Barry Farber. Journalist, Talk Show Host, New York. Author of the bestseller, How to Not Make the Same Mistake Once and other books
Misti Farler. Director of adult education, Sexual Assault Counseling and Information Service, Illinois
Tish Farrell. Author, Rochester, UK
Heather Farris. Attorney, Irving, Texas
Sami E. Fathalla. MD, PhD, Damman, Saudi Arabia
James Feast. PhD, New York University, former Assistant Editor of the Journal of the History of Philosophy
Jeffrey Fedorko. DC, Canton, Ohio
Brendan Feeley. M.A., N.D., Naturopathic, Homeopathic physician, Washington, DC
Martin Feldman. MD, Assistant Clinical Professor of Neurology at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, graduate of Columbia Universitys College of Physicians and Surgeons, author of more than 50 articles published in peer-reviewed medical journals
Luis Antonio Feliciano-Hernndez. MD, Psychiatrist, San Juan, Puerto Rico
David Fellows. Surgical Physicians Assistant, Copley, Ohio
Dan Fendel. B.A. (summa cum laude) Harvard University, PhD, Yale; Professor of Mathematics, San Francisco State University; Primary author, Foundations of Higher Mathematics: Exploration and Proof.
Di Feng. Doctoral student, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey
Mar Fernndez-Nieto. MD, Granada, Spain
Domenico Ferrari. Playwright and author, Milano, Italy. Co-author of the play and book, Virus: L’invenzione della Realt
Phillip Ferreira. PhD, Dept. of Philosophy, Kutztown University, Pennsylvania
Scott Ferrell. Key West, Florida, M.S., Microbiology & Immunology, University of Rochester
Eduardo Ferreyra. Cordoba, Argentina, President, Fundacion Argentina de Ecologia Cientifica (Argentine Foundation for a Scientific Ecology)
Michael Ferrier. M.A., Denver, Colorado
Gary Ferrini. Professor of Sociology, University of Colorado at Boulder
Dr. Elena Ferro. Water and Atmospheric Resources official, Government of Turin province, Italy
Ntlanganiso Fesi. Attorney, Engineer, Member of Standing Advisory Committee of Intellectual Property for Minister of Trade and Industry, Govt. of South Africa
Jamie Fettig. Chiropractic Physician, ACA, ICA, Chicago
Kenneth Feucht. MD., PhD, Surgeon, Anatomist, Cell Biologist, Puyallup, Washington
Donna Fezler. Inventor, Microbiologist, Jacksonville, Illinois. Holds patent for Rhea extract and discovered the ATP Pathway
Christian Fiala. MD, Gynaecologist, General Public Hospital, Korneuburg, Austria
Christopher J. Fields. PhD Student, Biology, Univ. North Texas, Denton
James A. Fimea. PhD, Laguna Beach, California; Adjunct Faculty, Orange Coast College, Costa Mesa, California
Jennifer Finocchio. Documentary Film Maker, Journalist, Los Angeles, California
Sandra Finucane. Attorney, Cincinnati, Ohio
Jaime Fiol. Dental Surgeon and Professor of Biology and Dentistry, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Independent investigator of Cancer and Aids. Author, Teora Inflamatoria del Cncer
Vincenzo Fiorentini. PhD, Assoc. Professor of Physics, University of Cagliari, Italy; Director, Sardinian Laboratory for Computational Materials Science; Awarded Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellowship (1998)
Monika Fischer. Pediatric Nurse and Homeopath, Mendrisio, Switzerland
Jonathan M. Fishbein. MD. Former Director, Office for Clinical Research Policy at the Division of AIDS (DAIDS) at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID), the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) [Thinks Nevirapine is a very dangerous medicine that was approved based on improperly conducted studies. Also doubts that the Hiv tests are valid]
Jeffrey A. Fisher. MD, Pathologist, Mendham, New Jersey, author, The Plague Makers
Richard A. Fisher. DDS, Naturopath, Annandale, Virginia. Former Clinical Instructor, Georgetown University School of Dentistry, former President, International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology
Daniel Fitzgerald. Biochemist, University of Liverpool, England
Eirik Fjeldal. Graduate Student, Kristiansand, Norway
Scott D. Flamm. MD, San Francisco, California
Anthony Fleg. Medical Student, University of North Carolina
Luis Daniel Flores. MD, Posadas, Argentina
Juan Jose Flores. MD, PhD, Professor of Medicine, La Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico
Beatriz Flores. MFA, Asst. Professor, University of North Texas and Documentary Film Maker
Jean-marcel Fokam. Graduate Student, Mathematics, University of Texas
Boniface Fokwa. M.Sc., Chemistry, Technische Universitt Dresden, Germany
John Foley. MD, New York City
Bernard Forscher. PhD, former Editor of the US Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Melanie Forse. Acupuncturist, Hong Kong
John R. Forsyth. MD, Janesville, Wisconsin
Bruno Fortin. Journalist, Montreal, Canada
Harold D. Foster. PhD, University of Victoria, British Columbia, author, What Really Causes Aids
Michael Foster. DBM, Doctor of Botanic Medicine, Ayurvedic Nutritional Counselor, Medical Hypnotherapist, Lancaster, Pennsylvania
John A. Fowler. M.A., San Diego, California
Elliot Fox. journalist, founder of Association to Re-evaluate AIDS
Michael R. Fox. PhD, Richland, Washington
Dr. Robert Fox. LaConner, Washington
Fabio Franchi. MD, Specialist in Preventive Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Trieste, Italy
Gene Franks. PhD, Denton, Texas, Editor, Pure Water Gazette
AJL Fraser. Meterologist, South Island, New Zealand
Elisa Freccero. M.S., Science Writer, Antibes, France
Iris Freelander. DD, Long Beach, California
Claudio Alatorre Frenk. PhD, Researcher, Institute of Engineering, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico
David Freund. Journalist, Takoma Park, Maryland
Dr. Martin Friedemann. Rheinau, Switzerland
Eleonor Fritsman. Psychologist, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Author, Hacia Una Nueva Humanidad
T.C. Fry. D.Sc., author, The Great AIDS Hoax and The Nature and Purpose of Disease
Donato Fumarola. MD, Inst. Microbiolia Medica, Bari, Italy
Michael Fumento. Author, The Myth of Heterosexual AIDS
Robert Jordan Funk. Attorney, Alturas, California
Pierluigi Furcolo. Assoc. Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, Italy
Claudette Furlonge. Co-author, Ethiopian Revolution and the Struggle against US Imperialism
Dr. George L. Gabor Miklos. PhD, Chief Scientific Officer, Human Genetic Signatures, Sydney, Australia; Director, Secure Genetics, Sydney; Consultant in Functional Genomics to Novartis Pharmaceuticals and to the CELERA Human, Mouse and Drosophila Genome Projects. Formerly with University of California, University of Washington, University of Edinburgh, the Neurosciences Institute, The SCRIPPS Research Institute and the Australian National University.
Luciano Gaddoni. Biotechnology Technician, Genova, Italy
Iginio Gagliardone. Sociologist, University of Bologna, Italy
Joseph Gaglio. B.A., Columbia University, Instructor, Madison Area Technical College, Wisconsin
William D. Gairdner. PhD, author, The Trouble with Democracy and other books
ngel Galeano. Journalist, Author of several books, Editor of the newspaper El Pequeo Peridico and Director of the NGO Fundacin Arte y Ciencia, Colombia
Peter Gallo. MSME/Former Operations Engineer, Stanford DNA Sequencing Center, Los Angeles, California
Irene Galtung. Researcher, University of Padua, Italy, UN World Food Program
Eileen Gambrill. PhD, Hutto Patterson Professor of Social Welfare at the University of California at Berkeley. Author, Critical Thinking in Clinical Practice; Social Work Practice: A Critical Thinkers Guide (Oxford University Press); Controversial Issues in Child Welfare (with T.J. Stein); and other books
Ana Ganho. PhD, Director, Portuguese program, affiliated faculty in Latin American and Caribbean Studies, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia
Thomas R. Garbe. PhD, Senior Researcher, Microbiology Research Group, Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kyoto, Japan
Manuel Garcia Iglesias. PhD, Professor, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Spain
William L. Gardner. PhD, Wellesley, Massachusetts
Manolo Garrido. MD, Spain
Don Garrow. MD Internal Medicine, New Hanover Regional Medical Center, Wilmington, North Carolina
Eric Gaumont. PhD in Optics, Louis Pasteur University of Strasbourg, France
John L. Gedye. MD, formerly Lecturer in Psychopathology, and Director of Unit for Research on Medical Applications of Psychology, University of Cambridge, England; Fellow and Senior Lecturer and Director of Man-Machine Systems Laboratory, University of Essex, England; Associate Professor of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Professor of Neurology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan; Director, Fibromyalgia Research Foundation
Francesco M. Genovesi. Attorney, Milan, Italy
Michael L. Gerber. MD, JD, Cardiac Surgeon, Attorney, La Jolla, California
Susan Gerhard. Editor, San Francisco Bay Guardian
Giuseppe Germano. PhD, Professor of Literature, Federico University II, Naples, Italy
Roberto Germano. PhD, Physicist, Federico University II, Naples, Italy
Jose Germosen. Journalist, The Village Voice, New York
John Gerrard. MFA, SAIC, Chicago, Illinois
Charles L. Geshekter. PhD, three-time Fulbright scholar. Professor of African History, California State University, Chico. Former chair of the History of Science, Pacific Division, of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
Todd Gestaldo. D.C., Sunnyvale, California
Toby Gettins. Theoretical Physicist, Birmingham, UK. Former researcher, High Temperature Superconductivity, University of Exeter
Filippo Geuna. PhD, Faculty of Agrarian Genetics, University of Milan, Italy
Tatevik Gevorgyan. Journalist, Yerevan, Armenia
Geeta Gharge. MD, Satara, India
Vikas Gharge. MD, Pathologist, Satara, India
Laura Ghiro. MD, Pediatrician, Italy
Saswata Ghosh. M.Phil., M.Sc., PhD candidate and Research Scholar, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
Letizia Gianformaggio. Professor of Philosophy of Law, University of Ferrara, Italy
Sky Gilbert. PhD candidate, Instructor, Univ. of Toronto, Playwright, Columnist, Novelist
Walter Gilbert. PhD, Professor of Molecular Biology, Harvard University. Winner, 1980 Nobel Prize for Chemistry
Volker Gildemeister. PhD, Biochemist, England
Peter A. Gilligan. M.Sc., Occupational Psychologist, Belfast, Northern Ireland
Jeffrey Gilson. PhD, New York University, New York
Roberto Giraldo. MD, specialist in internal medicine, infectious and tropical diseases, New York. Former Chairman of the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia. Author, Aids and Stressors
Marcel Girodian. Environmental and science writer, California
Wpiw Giscard. Dipl-Engineer, Berlin, Germany
David Gisselquist. PhD, Hershey, Pennsylvania [Says Hiv is not transmitted by penile-vaginal sex]
Kuria Githiora. PhD candidate, Instructor, Michigan State University
Cecilia Giusti. PhD, Researcher, University of Modena, Italy
Sara Glatt. Registered Holistic Healer, Breukelen, Netherlands
Dr. Wilhelm Godschalk. PhD, Biochemist, The Hague, Netherlands. Formerly Asst. Prof., University of Virginia Medical School, Assoc. Prof., University of Puerto Rico Medical School, Senior Scientist at the Center for Energy and Environmental Research. Did research with Dr. Jesse Beams, one of the lead scientists on The Manhattan Project
Marek Gogolewski. PhD, Chair, Dept. of Biotechnology and Food Microbiology, Agricultural University of Poznan, Poland
Celso Goldaracena. PhD, Professor, Author, La Corua, Spain
Jane Goldberg. PhD. Instructor in Psychology, City University of New York, New School for Social Research Graduate Faculty, Research Associate, Department of Medical Oncology, Kingsbrook Jewish Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, Consultant to Help a Mother, Save a Child, Managing Editor: Modern Psychoanalysis
Burton Goldberg. Publisher, Alternative Medicine Magazine
Melvyn Goldberg. MD, Professor of Surgery, Temple University School of Medicine. Chief, Thoracic Surgical Oncology and Vice Chairman, Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Co-author, Controversies in Lung Cancer: A Multidisciplinary Approach.
Deborah Goldsmith. D.C., D.O.M., La Habra, California
Edward S. Golub. PhD, Pacific Center for Ethics & App. Biol., Solana Beach, California
Elliet Gomez. ND, Colombia
M. Javier Cruz Gomez. PhD, Professor of Chemistry, National Autonomous University of Mexico
Tomi Gomory. Assistant Professor of Social Work. Florida State University, Tallahassee
Oscar Gonzalez. Electronics Engineer, The Hague, Netherlands
Deborah Gonzalez. M.Sc., Castro Valley, California
Ignacio Gonzalez-Gomez. MD, Asst. Professor of Clinical Pathology, University of Southern California Medical School; Pathologist, Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles
Andrew Goodpaster. PhD, Princeton, New Jersey
Luis Gordillo. PhD, Postdoctoral Research Associate in Mathematics and Statistics, Arizona State University
Kathleen Goss. Writer, 14 book credits and dozens of articles in the medical field; co-author of Maximum Immunity
Rahul Goswami. Journalist, Bombay, India
Arthur Gottlieb. MD, Chairperson of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tulane University School of Medicine
Dmitri Gouskov. MS in Biochemistry; PhD Sociology, Kiev, Ukraine
Matthew Grace. author, A Way Out: Disease Deception and the Truth About Health
Paul Grace. L.Ac., Acupuncturist, Mill Valley, California
Angel Gracia. PhD, Nutritionist, Author, Miami, Florida; Vice-president, USAS, Union por Soluciones Alternativas para el SIDA (Organization for Alternative Solutions for AIDS)
Ernst Gradl. Architect, Nurenberg, Germany
R.L. Graf. Psychologist, San Jose, California
Daniel Gramme. Diplm-Herboriste-Naturopathe, author, Un gramme de bon sens au service de votre sant. Seraing, Belgium
Andrew D. Grant. Engineer, Stamford, Connecticut
Teresa Green. PhD, Interim Department Head, Dept. of Afro-American Studies, Eastern Michigan University
Paul Greenhalgh. Polymer Chemist, Bangkok, Thailand
Aiden Gregg. M.Sc, M.Phil, Social Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut
Gudrun Greunke. Journalist (Reuters, Spiegel, Stern, ITV); Author, El montaje del Sndrome Txico and other books on scientific and medical controversies
Beverly E. Griffin. PhD, Director, Department of Virology, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London
Lars Grip. MD, Obstetrician, Zwolle, Netherlands
Hans Groenendijk. MD, homeopath, Cercal, Portugal
William I. Grosky. PhD, Chairman, Computer Science Department, Wayne State University
Kenneth Gross. MD, Miami, Florida
Dorothee Gruss. Heilpraktikerin, Bochum, Germany
Dr. Jos Guadalupe Hernndez. Mexico City
Bob Guccione Jr. Editor and publisher, Gear Magazine
Eric Guerci. Physicist, PhD student, Dept. of Engineering Biophysics and Electronics, University of Genoa, Italy
Daniel Guerra. PhD, Professor of Biochemistry, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs
Christian Guerra. Engineer, Cali, Colombia
Lori Guess. J.D., Government Contracts Attorney, Baltimore, Maryland
Pandraud Guillaume. PhD student, France
Thomas Guillot. Grad. Student, Neuroscience, Emory University, Atlanta
Briony Gulbrandsen. Director and Founder, Trinity Natural Health Clinic, Johannesburg, South Africa
Ken Gullan. Director, Institute for Research Integration, San Diego, California
Wayne A. Gurba. Chemistry Lecturer, St. Petersburg, Florida
Ramirez Gutierrez. Attorney, Oaxaca, Mexico
Gil Gutknecht. Minnesota Congressman, US House of Representatives
Brian Gygi. PhD, Asst. Instructor, Psychology (Statistics), Indiana University. NIH pre-doctoral fellow, 1999-2001
Martin Haas. PhD, Dept. Biology Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego
Martin Hagemeier. Dipl.-Kommunikationswirt, Berlin, Germany
Jo Hagstorm. Writer, Carlsbad, California
Liu Haifang. PhD, Assistant Professor of African Studies, Institute of West Asian and African Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Science, Beijing, China
Adiam Haile-melekot. Pharmacologist, London, UK
Urs Haldimann. Editor, Swiss Association of Science Writers, Arisdorf, Switzerland
Luke M. Hale. NZCE Engineer, Hamilton, New Zealand
Ayman Abdul Haleem. MD, Cardiologist, Cairo, Egypt
Dan Hall. MPA, Columbus, Georgia. Author, You Cant Catch a Cold: A Complete Course on Disease-free Living
Dr. Jerome Hall. Stavanger, Norway
Thomas Halle. D.C., M.A., Los Angeles, California
William Halliburton. Computer Scientist, Atlanta, Georgia
Founaboui Haman. Civil engineer, Hannover, Germany
Ryke Geerd Hamer. MD, Former Chief of Internal Medicine at gynecological cancer clinic, University of Munich
Greg Hampton. PhD, Washington, DC
Timothy H. Hand. PhD, Professor of Behavioral Pharmacology, Oglethorpe University
Elizna Hanekom. MD, Dorking, UK
Klaus Hanke. Dipl.-Ing., Engineer, Falkensee, Germany
Nadolyn Hankins. Attorney, Madison, Wisconsin
Michael Hanko. CTAT, B.A., Princeton University, Holistic Health Practitioner, New York City
David Hanson. M.S., MPHA, Pharmacist, San Juan Capistrano
John Hardie. BDS, Dept. Dentistry Vancouver General Hospital, British Columbia, Canada
John Hardie. DDS, Dental Surgeon, Nepean, Canada
David Harding. Associate Professor, Dept. of English, Aarhus University, Denmark
Rini Hariani. M.Sc., Bogor, Indonesia
Michael Harkovitch. Grad. Student, University of Washington
Leif Harmsen. M.A., Toronto, Canada
Anne-Marie Harnum. Psychologist, President, Danish Society of Hypnosis. Copenhagen
Alfonso Javier Haro Salvatierra. MD, Internal Medicine. President and Founder of the Peruvian Complementary Medicine Society. Lima, Peru
Norris Archer Harrington. Author, Santa Paula, California
James R. Harris. CSW, Brooklyn, New York
Robert S. Harris. Naturopathic doctor, New York
Stanley Harris. O.D., Optometrist, Pembroke Pines, Florida
Randall E. Harris. MD, PhD, Professor, College of Medicine and Public Health, Former Chair, Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Ohio State University. Author, COX-2 Blockade in Cancer Prevention and Therapy
Rosalind Harrison. MBBS, FRCOphth, DTM&H, Ophthalmologist, Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, Consultant ophthalmic surgeon for the National Health Service, UK
William Harrison. PhD, Marriage & Family Therapist, Palm Springs, California
Benjamin Hart. Lab Technician, Cincinnati, Ohio
Werner Hartinger. MD, Surgeon, Director, Vereinigung rzte Gegen Tierversuche, Frankfurt, Germany
Pramodchandra Harvey. M.Sc., Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Graz, Austria
Tim Harwood. M.A., York, United Kingdom
Alfred Hassig. MD, Professor in Immunology, University of Bern, former Director, Swiss Red Cross blood banks
Daniel R. Hatch. J.D., MBA, Newport Beach, California
Nuhu Hatibu. PhD, Assoc. Professor of Agricultural Engineering, Sokoine University, Morogoro, Tanzania
Jon Haupt. M.LIS, M.Mus, Seattle, Washington
Sandra Hawkes. M.Ed, Publisher, Intaglio Resources, Calgary, AB Canada
Chad Hayes. Pharmacist, Gurnee, Illinois
Jill Haynes. Lecturer, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Alan Heaton. Health Counsellor, Dipl. Clinical Nutrition, Langen, Germany
Troy Hebert. Geophysicist, Perth, Australia
Dr. Martin Hecher. Vienna, Austria
Bruce Hedland-Thomas. MSc, Biophysicist, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia, Perth
Anja Heij. Homoeopath, Naturopath, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Antti Heikkil. MD, Orthopaedic Surgeon, Porvoo, Finland
John Heilbron. PhD, Professor of History and History of Science and former Vice Chancellor of the University of California, Berkeley
Jane Heimlich. Health columnist, Cincinatti Enquirer, Best-selling author of What Your Doctor Won’t Tell You
Michelle Hemingway. MD, Lenox, Massachusetts
Raymond Henderson. Research Associate, Division of Oncology, University of Miami
Robert J. Henderson. D.C., Locust Valley, New York
Michel Henrard. MD, Belgium
John P. Heptonstall. MD, D.Ac., Director, Morley Acupuncture Clinic and Complementary Therapy Centre, Leeds, UK
Vicente Herrera Adell. MD, Barcelona, Spain
Tom Herrmann. PhD, Assoc. Professor of Physics, Eastern Oregon University
Andrew Herxheimer. MD, Emeritus Professor of Pharmacology, UK Cochrane Centre, Oxford; edited Drug & Therapeutics Bulletin in the UK for 30 years
Marion Herz. M.A., Film scientist, University of Munich
Ben Heumez. M.Phil., Diplome Universitaire Technologique, Teaching Asst., Faculty of Engineering, University of the West Indies, Trinidad
Monika Heydegger. Heilpraktikerin, Langen, Germany
Dieter Heymann. Heilpraktikerin, Neumnster, Germany
Gavin Hibbs. Studies Supervisor, MPI-Bell Centre, Macao
Yang-chu Higgins. Medical Anthropologist, Washington, DC. Winner of the Fogarty Award for Biomedical Research from the National Institutes of Health (1995)
Sean Higgs. Film Director, TV writer, Cape Town, South Africa
Charles A. Hill. MD, Houston, Texas
Ted Hill. PhD, Clinical Psychologist, Sandpoint, Idaho
E. Wayne Hill. PhD, Assoc. Professor, College of Human Sciences, Florida State University
Christian Hilscher. Diplom-Psychologe, Hamburg, Germany
James P. Hilton. PhD, author, Burden of Proof: Surviving Cancer, AIDS and Most Other Illnesses
Jeffrey Hilton. D.O., Miami Shores, Florida. Optometrist and provider of eyecare to a large HIV+ population
Pamela Hines-Powell. Midwife, Salem, Oregon
Sonia Hirsch. Journalist, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil. Author of 14 books on medicine and health, including A dieta do Dr. Barcellos contra o cncer and O mnimo para v. se sentir o mximo
Mae-Wan Ho. PhD, Geneticist and Biophysicist, Open University, London, UK. Director, Institute of Science in Society; Author and activist. Awarded the Chan Kai Ming Prize for Biological Sciences (HK) 1964; Fellow of the National Genetics Foundation (USA) 1971-1974; Vida Sana Award (Spain) 1998 [Says immune deficiency syndromes can be caused by drugs and anti-Hiv medicines]
Liam Hodder. PhD, Novelist, Journalist, Corcaigh, Ireland
Neville Hodgkinson. former Science Editor, The Times of London; author, AIDS: The Failure of Contemporary Science
Rob Hodson. MD, Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine
Charles Hoff. PhD, University of South Alabama
J. Rockwell Hoff. Curator, Granite Ridge Science Museum, Globe, Arizona
Robert Hoffman. PhD, Prof., Dept. Pediatrics, Univ. Calif. Med. School, San Diego, California
Kent T. Hoffman. PhD, Psychotherapist, Spokane, Washington
Rita Hoffman. President, Anaphylaxis Action, Stirling, Canada
Geoffrey Hoffmann. PhD, Assoc. Professor of Microbiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada [Thinks Aids is an auto-immune disease]
Heiko Hoffmann. Dipl.-Inf., Technische Universitt Dresden, Germany
James P. Hogan. Author of 26 science fiction novels and the science books Kicking the Sacred Cow: Questioning the Unquestionable and Thinking the Impermissible and Mind Matters: Exploring the World of Artificial Intelligence
Robbie Holden. Director, Sisters’ Health Initiative, Newark, New Jersey
Yvon Holdrinet. Conference interpreter, NATO. Brussels, Belgium
Cordt Holland. Film Director, San Francisco
Elaine Hollingsworth. Director, Hippocrates Health Centre of Australia, author, Take Control of Your Health and Escape the Sickness Industry
Alisa Holloway. Nurse, Tifton, Georgia
Olen Holm. M.A., San Francisco, California
John Holmdahl. PhD, Los Angeles, California
Claudia Holub. PhD, Biochemist, Live Sciences Inst., New York, co-author, Aids: Myths, Truths, Solutions , 1988
William R. Holub. PhD, Biochemist, Live Sciences Inst., New York, co-author, Aids: Myths, Truths, Solutions , 1988
Guido Hner. Diplom Biology, Germany
MaryStarr B. Hope. Injury rehab/biomechanical re-education therapist, Santa Monica, California
Dr. Andreas Hoppe. PhD, Department of Protein Structure Theory, Institute for Biochemistry, Charit Berlin, Medical Faculty, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany
Dr. Piombo Horacio. Judge, Court of Appeals in La Plata, Argentina
Ross Horne. Queensland, Austalia, Author , The Health Revolution , Health and Survival in the 21st Century , and Cancerproof Your Body (HarperCollins Australia, 1998)
David Hosbein. MD, Board Certified General Surgeon, Grass Valley, California
Lisa M. Hosbein. MD
Jim Hougan. Investigative Journalist. Author, Secret Agenda: Watergate, Deep Throat, and the CIA, Spooks – The Haunting of America and other books
Kevin Hronek. RN, BSN, President-elect, NE Wisconsin Chapter, American Association of Critical Care Nurses, Green Bay, Wisconsin
Annette Huang. MA (Hons), DipNZLS, DipMgt, TCAE, Auckland, New Zealand
Alice Hudder. PhD, Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Miami School of Medicine
James Hudson. PhD, Professor of Pathology and Medicine, University of British Columbia
Jonathan L. Hume. DDS, Chicago, Illinois
Starling Hunter. PhD, Asst. Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Dr. Daniel Hurne. Bellingham, Washington
Benahili Iboaya. MD, Kansas City, Missouri
Randy Ice. P.T., C.C.S., Physical Therapist, Clinical Director, HeartWise Longevity Center, Whittier, California; Author of over 50 articles published in medical and peer reviewed journals
Marianne Idle. Registered Midwife, IBCLC, ACMI, Cairns, Australia
Dr. Osamwonyi Igori. National President of Edo National Association, Perugia, Italy
Nenad Ilic. Grad. Student, Neuroscience, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio
Larens Imanyuel. Assistant Physics Professor, Berkeley
Alexandre Imbert. Paris, France, Editor, Pratiques de Sante (natural health magazine), Paris, France
Richard Imelek. Dipl.-Ing, Engineer, Gro-Umstadt, Germany
Christopher Imrie. PhD, Senior Lecturer in Organic Chemistry, University of Port Elizabeth, South Africa
Sagar Inamdar. MD, Mumbai, India
Philip Incao. MD, Steiner Holistic Medical, Denver, Colorado
Mira Ingram. Writer, Documentary Film Maker, Fountain Valley, California
Ferran Iniesta. PhD, Professor of African History, University of Barcelona, Spain
Tony Andrs Innocenti. MD, Obstetrician and Gynecologist, Firenze, Italy; President, AIED di Firenze (sex education and public health organization)
Prof. Ferdinando Ippolito. Co-author, AIDS – New Frontier
Hwaa Irfan. Managing Editor and Health and Science Writer, Islam Online. Antigua
Alfred Irsigler. Heilpraktiker, Salzburg, Austria
Matthew Irwin. MD, Washington, DC
Hani Ismail. MD, obstetrician and gynecologist, Elmhurst, New York
Eric Ivanov. Diplme dingnieur, Engineer, Grenoble, France
Elia Izaguirre. MD, Lima, Peru
Ida Therese Jablanovec. RN Executive Director of the Raynauds Foundation, Chicago, Illinois
Carl-heinz Jacob. Chancellor, Universitt Greifswald (ret.), Germany. Formerly Chancellor, Universitt Eichstaett
Varusha Jagnath. MSc, Durban, South Africa
Rich Jamison. PhD, Cliffside Park, New Jersey
Yolanda Jamison. D.Pharm, Medical University of South Carolina
Helen Jandamit. Editor, Bangkok Post Student Weekly; Special Lecturer, Mahachulalongkorn Buddhist University; Co-founder, International Buddhist Meditation Centre. Author of three books on Buddhism. Bangkok, Thailand
Richard Jannaccio. M.A., former biochemist, former science writer at University of Wisconsin, Flushing, New York
Lou Jansen. PhD, El Segundo, California
Jean Pierre Jansen. MD, Groningen, Netherlands
Mark E. Jarmel. D.C., Santa Monica, California
Marie Jaszenovits. Homopathe, Montreal, Canada
Sana Jatta. Country Program Manager, Asia and Pacific Div., International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). Rome, Italy
Thiruveedhula Ravindranath Jayachandar. Secretary, Yanadi Education Society. Guntur, India
Anne Marie Jeay. PhD, Univ. Nancy II, France
Derrick Jensen. B.Sc., Mineral Engineering Physics, M.F.A., California; Author, The Culture of Make Believe, A Language Older than Words and Listening to the Land; Assoc. Editor, Transitions; Writes for The New York Times Magazine, Audubon, and other magazines
Ruth Jensen. MD, Author of Umweltschaden AIDS? Hintergrnde einer biologischen Katastrophe. Freiburg, Germany
Stephen Jenuth. Attorney, Calgary, Canada
Jens Jerndal. MD, D.Sc., Doctor of Holistic Medicine, Spain, former Professor of the Philosophy and Principles of Holistic Medicine at the Open International University for Complementary Medicines in Sri Lanka
Sungchul Ji. PhD, Prof. Pharmacology & Toxicology, Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, New Jersey
Franoise Jot. Prsidente, d’ALIS (Association Libert Information Sant). Author, Ttanos: le mirage de la vaccination; co-author, Hpatites: les vaccins catastrophe. Riom, France
Christine Johnson. Science Journalist, Los Angeles
Donald J. Johnson. DDS, Coeur dAlene, Idaho
Dr. Jennifer Johnson. Psychologist, East Orange, New Jersey
Phillip Johnson. Senior Professor of Law, University of California at Berkeley
Dave Johnson. Journalist, Moncton, Canada
Buddy Johnson. American Red Cross Hiv/Aids Educator, New Iberia, Louisiana
Eric Johnston. M.A., Fresno, California
Tuomas Jokela. Research Engineer, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland
Steven Jonas. MD, Professor of Preventive Medicine, State University of New York at Stony Brook
Colman Jones. Journalist, Toronto, awarded 1999 Science in Society Journalism Award by the Canadian Science Writers Association
Craig M. Jones. Doctor of Chiropractic, Acupuncturist, Nutritionist, Grand Junction, Colorado
David Jones. MSPH, Licensed Acupuncturist, California
Shadonna Jones. RN, St. Louis, Missouri
Lorato Jongman. Asst. Director of Public Service Management, Govt. of Botswana
Nina Jonsson. PhD Student, Lonsboda, Sweden
Terry Jordan. MSW, University of New England, S. Portland
William H. Jordan Jr.. PhD, Culver City, California
Ben Jorgensen. Holistic health care provider, Henniker, New Hampshire
Francis Joseph. Postgrad. Psychology, Alleppey, India
Clare Joslin. EA, MH, DIHom, LAc. Homeopathic Physician, Master of Oriental Medicine, Lic. Acupuncturist, Master Herbalist, Keaau, Hawaii
Christian Joswig. Journalist, Friedersdorf, Germany
Felor Jourdikian. Ms., PhD, Retired Biochemist, Homeopathic Practitioner, Windsor, Ontario
Mark Julian. DDS, Stamford, Connecticut
Hillary Jupp. Journalist, Animal Nutritionist, Uckfield, UK
Kulikoyela Kahigi. PhD, Associate Professor, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Dr. Suresh Kalatoor. St. Paul, Minnesota
Ashok Kale. MD, Pune, Maharashtra, India
Faldie Kamalie. Health Care Manager, Pro Sano Medical Program. Bellville, South Africa
Hawa Kamara. M.Sc., Brooklyn, New York
Nassim Kamdar. MD, Durban, South Africa
Joseph Kamenju. Lecturer, Dept. of Architecture, University of Nairobi, Kenya
Paulin Kamga. M.A., Berlin, Germany
Wanjiru Kamuyu. MFA, New York
Molly Kane. Executive Director, Inter Pares Social Justice NGO; Co-chair of the Africa Canada Forum. Ottawa, Canada
Peter Kanyandago. PhD, Professor, Anthropologist, Deputy Vice-Chancellor, Academic Affairs, Uganda Martyrs University, Nkozi, Uganda
Jeff Kaplan. RN, Fort Myers, Florida
Sandra Kaplan. MSW, CSW, Professor, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York. Author, EMDR Therapeutic Interweave Treatment Manual
Louis Kaptue. MD, Brussels, Belgium
Ioannis Karaliotas. MA, PGDipODE, Educational Technology consultant and Project director, Office of the Counselor for Hellenic Education in Africa, Johannesburg, South Africa
Eva Karlsen. Journalist, Oslo, Norway
Werner Karrer. MD, Nrnberg, Germany
Jean-pierre Kassi. PhD, Biomedical Engineering, Technischen Universitt Berlin, Germany
Peter S. Kasule. Director, Compassionate Trust Services (COTS), Kampala, Uganda
Sam Kauapirura. Former Personal assistant to the Namibian minister for Ecology and Tourism. Frankfurt, Germany
Neeraj Kaul. MD, Gwalior, India
Peter Kavaler. M.Sc, Castro Valley, California
Deola Kayode. 4th year Medical Student, Ile-ife, Nigeria
Steven D. Keller. Journalist, San Francisco, California
Jerome Kelly. MT, Fullerton, California
Robert Hunter Kemmet. RN, Tempe, Arizona, former Science Advisor to Oklahoma Governor
David Kempson. Dipl-Hom, Homeopathic Physician, Brisbane, Australia
Frances Kendall. President of the Federalist Party Of South Africa; City Councilor of Johannesburg; Nobel Peace Prize nominee. Author, The Heart of the Nation, Super Parents, Super Children; Co-author, After Apartheid: the Solution For South Africa, and Let the People Govern
Andrew Kenny. Engineer, Senior Research Officer, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Cape Town, South Africa
George Kent. PhD, Chairman, Political Science Department, University of Hawaii, Honolulu. Coordinator of the Task Force on Childrens Nutrition Rights for the World Alliance on Nutrition and Human Rights and the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action
Dan Keown. MD, Hythe, United Kingdom
Jean-luc Kerboul. Professeur STMS, Brest, France
Phil Kerpen. Research Director, The Free Enterprise Fund, Washington, DC
Jeremy Kerr. M.A., Sociology, University of Kentucky; Lexington, Kentucky
Steven Kessler. Center for Health and Longevity, Donaldsonville, Louisiana
Aisha Kessler. Certified Hypnotherapist, Austin, Texas
Tiro Kganela. TV journalist and documentary film maker, Gaborone, Botswana
Ashok Khatri. MD, Jaipur, India
Mthembeni Khumalo. National Social Research Co-ordinator for the Working for Water Programme, Cape Town, South Africa
Zakir Kibria. Executive Director, BanglaPraxis, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Editor, Praxis Journal
Michael Kiel. PhD, Post-doctoral Fellow, Microbiology, Molecular and Medical Genetics, University of Pennsylvania
Ngenda Kigaraba. Directrice, Agence Tanzanienne de Dveloppement, Geneva Switzerland
Pamela Kikiros. Dipl App Sci (Chem), Perth, Australia
Hae-ryong Kim. MD, Busan, South Korea
Dr. Yong-soo Kim. Seoul, South Korea
Dr. Young Min Kim. Seoul, South Korea
Dr. Ho Gun Kim. Seoul, South Korea
Jong-chul Kim. Publisher/Editor, Noksaek Pyongnon (Green Review). Taegu, South Korea
Tae Kim. MD, Los Angeles, California
Dr. Sumg Eun Kim. Seoul, South Korea
Stephen Karanja Kimiti. Technologist, Department of Chemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya
Tim Kington. M.Sc., Cleveland, Ohio
Dennis G. Kinnane. OMD, LAc, RPH, Torrance, California
Anthony Kiragu. Conservation Programme Officer, Nature Kenya, Nairobi
Lucy K. Kirauni. Journalist, Nairobi, Kenya
Veronica Kirichenko. Assistant Professor in Biology, Dnepropetrovsk State University, Kiev, Ukraine
John Kirkham. M.Res, Science Teacher, Manchester, UK
Johnson Kitheka. PhD, Director, Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute, Mombasa, Kenya
Marvin R. Kitzerow Jr. Nutritionist, Author, The Aids Indictment
Dr. Leo Kivumbi. New York
Edward Kiwanuka. Researcher, Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Padova, Italy
Lodewyk Kock. PhD, Professor of Biotechnology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa. Awarded Joint Runner-Up Prize in Research and Innovation from SA’s National Science and Technology Forum (2002)
Claus Koehnlein. MD, AIDS specialist, Kiel, Germany
Mawuli Kofi-tsekpo. Phd, Nairobi, Kenya, B Pharm, M Pharm, PhD, CChem, ARIC Kenya Medical Research Institute
George Kohl. PhD, President, The Kohl Group, Morristown, New Jersey
Fritz Kohle. M.A., London, England
Ilkka Kokkarinen. PhD, Asst. Professor, Tampere University of Technology, Finland. Author of four computer science textbooks
Vladimir Koliadin. PhD, Senior Research Scientist, State Aerospace University, Kharkov, Ukraine
Heidi Klle. MD, Germany
Sokona Kone. Attorney, Atlanta, Georgia
Felix Konotey-Ahulu. MD, Ghanaian physician at Londons Cromwell Hospital
Niels Koschoreck. Psychotherapist, Cologne, Germany
Manu Kothari. MD, Professor of Anatomy, former Head of Department of Anatomy, Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India
Shantilal Kothari. PhD, Nutritionist and President of Academy of Nutrition Improvement (ANI) in Nagpur, India
Sarah Kotzamani. M.A., Benicia, California
Alain Kouassi. MSCE, MBA, Civil Engineer, Newark, New Jersey
Alev Kowalzik. Dipl.- Psych. Psychotherapist, Bad Kissingen, Germany
Karl Krafeld. President, Wissenschaft, Medizin und Menschenrechte (Science, Medicine and Human Rights). Dortmund, Germany
John F. Kramer. Physician Assistant Student, Oak Brook, Illinois
Gary Krasner. Science writer; Director, Coalition For Informed Choice, New York
Ivo Krausz. PhD, Professor of Chemical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Massachusetts
Cashmere goats are well fed but are reducing vast areas of Mongolia to scrub, just as their human counterparts among the leading scientists of HIV/AIDS and other fraudulent fields are reducing science to money making propaganda for the sake of their own hidesHeinrich Kremer. MD, former Medical Director of the Federal Clinics for Juvenile and Young Adult Drug Offenders for five German counties, including Berlin, Bremen, and Hamburg
Michael Kruschinski. Heilpraktiker, Raubling, Germany
Philippe Krynen. former Director, Partage Tanzania, French Aids charity
Gregg Kuehl. PhD Student, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana
Robert Kuen. Dipl.-Ing., Engineer, Mnchen, Germany
Christina Kugi. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria
Hans J. Kugler. PhD, Editor, Preventive Medicine Update and author of many books on slowing down the aging process
Msizi Kuhlane. Journalist, Documentary Film Maker, Johannesburg, South Africa
Daniel Kulla. Author, Der Phrasenprfer, Eins aufs Auge. Es knnte alles falsch gewesen sein and other books. Dresden, Germany
Harold Kulungian. Nutrition writer, Amherst, Massachusetts
Satish Kumar. MBBS, Physician, Mangalore, India
Arbind Kumar. MD, Patna Medical College, India
Tony Kunin. MA, Queens, New York
Danladi Dada Kuta. PhD, Senior Research Scientist, National Cereals Research Institute, Badeggi, Nigeria; Researcher, Department of Botany and Plant Physiology, People’s Friendship University of Russia
Beth-Ann Kutchma. Fulbright Program Adviser, University Center for International Studies, University of North Carolina
Mi-Jung Kwon. Korean Society for Applied Microbiology, Busan, Korea
Robert Laarhoven. Journalist, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Christian Laemmel. Journalist, Strasbourg, France
Dariusz Lakaszynski. Biochemist, Lund University, Sweden
Rafael Laloma. Acupuncturist, Bronx, New York
Brian Lamb. DO, ND. Osteopathic and Naturopathic Physician, Folkestone, UK
Annick Lambert. PhD, Professor of Statistics, Universit du Qubec en Outaouais, Hull, Canada
Evan Lambrou. Managing Editor, The Hellenic Times, author, Aids. Scare or Scam?
Guylaine Lanctot. MD, author, The Medical Mafia
Lisa Landymore-lim. PhD, Biochemist, Sydney, Australia, author, Poisonous Prescriptions
Shawn Lane. BS Chemistry, Univ. of Notre Dame, MS Environmental Science, Illinois Institute of Technology; Chicago, Illinois
Serge Lang. PhD, Professor of Mathematics, Yale University; awarded the Dylan Hixon 88 Prize for Teaching Excellence in the Natural Sciences; also the Steel and Cole prizes of the American Mathematical Society; Author of 37 books; former Fulbright Scholar; Member, US National Academy of Sciences
Lesiba Langa. Journalist, City Press, Cape Town, South Africa
Michael Lange. MD, Head of AIDS Programme, St. Lukes Hospital, New York
Jean Paul Lange. Heilpraktiker, Lauffen, Germany
Zoe Langley. Medical Writer, Corvallis, Oregon
Stefan Lanka. PhD, Virologist, University of Koblenz, Vice President, Science, Medicine and Human Rights, Germany
Brad Lapin. Writer and Editor, Roma, Italy
Leonora Lartson. MD, MPH, Houston (Texas) Department of Health and Human Services
James Lasalle. Attorney, Kansas City, Missouri
Ilse Lass. Diplom Biology, Zepkow, Germany
Ottmar Lattorf. Sociologist and Author, Cologne, Germany
James Laub. Co-Chair of the PLWA Advisory Group of the Staten Island (New York) Ryan White HIV CARE Network
Helen Lauer. PhD, Senior Lecturer, Philosophy Dept., University of Ghana. Author, Ghana: Changing Values/Changing Technologies
Frank Laureano III. Registered Nurse, Emergency Department, Jacksonville, Alabama
John Lauritsen. Journalist, Harvard-educated survey research analyst. Author of the books The AIDS War; Propaganda, Profiteering and Genocide From the Medical-Industrial Complex and Poison by Prescription; The AZT Story
Peter LaVenia. PhD Student, State University of New York. Chairman of the Green Party of Albany County
Diana Laverde. Psychologist, Universidad Los Libertadores, Bogot, Colombia
Paul Lawrence. Dental Surgeon, Adelaide, Australia
Christopher Lawver. M.A., MFT, Psychotherapist, Beverly Hills, California
John Le Carr. Novelist, The Constant Gardener [Says the Hiv-Aids-AZT controversy needs serious debate and debate is being blocked by the Aids establishment]
Herbert G. Lebherz. PhD, Emeritus Professor of Chemistry, San Diego State University, California
Dr. Lois Lee. founder, Children of the Night, Recipient of the 1984 Presidents Volunteer Action Award
Robert W. Lee. Journalist and Author, Murray, Utah
Sandra Lee. Registered Clinical Counselor, SSI Health Collective, Saltspring Island, BC, Canada
Thomas Lee. ND, Kingman, AZ
Vickie Lee. RPh, Tulsa, Oklahoma
Enid Lee. LL.D, Educational Consultant, Long Beach, California. Visiting Scholar, Teaching For Change, Washington, D.C. and University of California at Santa Cruz. Author, Letters to Marcia: A teachers guide to Anti-racist education and many other books
Maryanne Lee. MD, Toronto, Canada
Ki Sung Lee. MD, Seoul, South Korea
Yong Jae Lee. MD, Seoul, South Korea
Dr. Teshale Lehona. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Nathaniel S. Lehrman. M.D., Psychiatrist, Roslyn, New York
Jeffrey Leiphart. Psychologist, San Diego, California
Marcos S. Leite. Electrical Engineer, Yonkers, New York
Roberto Cesar Leite. MD, Director, Center for Integrative Medicine, Curitiba, Brazil
Michael Leitner. Journalist, Dortmund, Germany. Author Mythos Hiv
Frank Vincent Lekey. MD, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
Danielle Lemann. MD, Langnau, Switzerland
Viviana Lemos. Psychologist, Universidad Adventista del Plata, Argentina
M. Zoe Lenska. ex-medical researcher in pharmacology, now investigative journalist, London, England, author, Health Care or Wealth Care
Fidias E. Len Sarmiento. MD, PhD, Professor, Department of Internal Medicine and Basic Sciences, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia; Senior Research Fellow, National Institutes of Health, Washington DC
Marta E. Leon-Sarmiento. M.Sc., Neuronet-Instituto Colombiano de Neurociencias Aplicadas, Neurobiologa Humana & Neurologia Clinica y Funcional, Bucaramanga, Colombia
Hans-Walter Leonhard. PhD, Frth/Bayern, Germany; runs German Rethinking Aids website
Robert Leppo. MBA, Harvard University
Pete LeRoy. Ph.D, Associate Professor, Western Montana College
Dr. Ricardo Leschot. MD, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Mark Lester. Complementary Health Practitioner, London, UK
Stanley Letsoko. Writer, Program Manager, University of the Witwatersrand Business School
Arthur Letzel. Dipl.- Psychologe, Heringsdorf, Germany
Dennis Levy. Former Executive Director, Black And Latino AIDS Coalition, New York City
Marilyn Jaye Lewis. Novelist, New York. Author of Neptune and Surf and many other books
Ajay Lewis. Medical Transcriptionist, Mumbai, India
Christian Lhotka. MD, Orthopaedic Surgeon, Vienna, Austria
Wen-Xi Liang. MD, Study Group on Nutrition and Immunity, Bern, Switzerland
Oleg Liber. Professor at Bolton Institute of Higher Education (UK) and Director of CETIS (Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards). Former Director of the Centre for Learning Technology, University of Wales, Bangor
Barry A. Liebling. PhD, New York, NY
Paul Lineback. M.S. (Counselling Psychology), former Counselor and Instructor at Southern Oregon Community College, Rogue Community College and Eastern Oregon University
Herman Nyeck Liport. Journalist, Esperanto professor, Douala, Cameroon
Thomas Lipscomb. Journalist, New York. Chairman, Center for the Digital Future; Fellow, Annenberg Center for the Digital Future at University of Southern California; Founder and President of Times Books (The New York Times book division); Holder of 5 patents in digital technology; Member, New York Academy of Sciences
Constanza Lisdero. PhD, Postdoctoral Associate in Physiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Massachusetts
Matelda Lisdero. MD, Ginecologa, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Argentina
David Lishner. PhD Psychology, Seattle, Washington
Yingguang Liu. PhD, Asst. Professor of Science, Maranatha College, Wisconsin
Gary L. Livacari. DDS, Skokie, Illinois
Xavier Livermon. Graduate Student, University of California, Berkeley
Anthony F. Liversidge. Science Writer and contributing editor at Omni Magazine
Carl Llyons. MSW, Toronto, Canada
Shyh-Ching Lo. MD, PhD, Chief, Division of Molecular Pathobiology, U.S. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology [Says AIDS is much more complicated than just Hiv and Hivs causative role is only possible, i.e., not proven]
Helen Lobato. Journalist, Melbourne, Australia
Michel Lobrot. PhD, Univ. Paris VIII, Les Lilas, France
Justin Loew. Meteorologist, Wausau, Wisconsin
Randall H. Lofton. D.O., Pathologist, Port Arthur, Texas
Joan Lohay. Programme Officer for Nutrition Education, Tanzania Food & Nutrition Centre, Dar Es Salaam
Christian Loizeau. Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Science, University of Metz, France
Henk Loman. PhD, Professor of Biophysical Chemistry at the Free University in Amsterdam [Deceased 2002]
Stoffer Loman. PhD, Pharmaceutical Chemist, Utrecht, Netherlands
Robert Lombardi. Medical Writer, Lige, Belgium. Author, L’immensa balla dellAIDS and Medicina inganno totale
Luca Londoo de Madrid. Bacteriologist, iridologist, New York
Warren Longmire. PhD, San Francisco, California
Judith Lopez. San Francisco, Scientific Illustrator, Author, Immune Dysfunction-Winning My Battle Against Toxins, Illness & the Medical Establishment
Rubin Lopez. M.M., Indianapolis, Indiana
Dr. Michele Lopez. Ministry of Public Health, Napoli, Italy
Luz Marina Lpez. MD, Universidad del Rosario de Bogot, Colombia
Professor Jos Ramn Lpez. Director, Pereira Chapter, Colombian Arts and Sciences Foundation and coordinator of the Foundations Committee on Health. Pereira, Colombia
Juan Jess Lpez. M.Sc., Professor of Engineering, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Tijuana, Mexico
Karl Loren. MBA Harvard Univ., Researcher and Author, Burbank, California
Leon Louw. Executive Director, Free Market Foundation and Law Review Project, South Africa; co-author, Beyond Apartheid and other books; nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989, 1991, and 1992
John C. Lowe. M.A., D.C., Chiropractic physician, Boulder, Colorado. Co-author, Your Guide to Metabolic Health
David Lowenfels. Engineer. M.Eng, M.I.T.; M.A., Stanford University. San Francisco
Hector Lozada. reporter for the newspaper El Bravo, Matamoros, Mexico
Maurizio Luca-Moretti. MD, PhD, president, Inter American Medical and Health Association
Manuel Lucena. PhD, Asst. Professor in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, Universidad de Jaen, Spain
Larena Luciano. Linguist, London, UK
Sharon Luddington. RN, Keswick, Canada
David Ludwig. MPH, RS, Manager, Environmental Health, Maricopa County Environmental Services. President, Arizona Environmental Health Association
Luis Alberto Luvano. Chemical Engineer, Mexico City
Friedrich Luft. MD, Franz-Volhard-Klinic, Berlin, Germany
Federico Fernando Lujn. Dentist, Oral Surgeon, Medical Student, Posadas, Argentina
Lilian Lukambuzi. National Environment Council (NEMC), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Norman Lundel. Medical student, New York, NY
Dr. Victoria Lundgreen. Stavanger, Norway
Gustavo Marcelo Lust-Krmer. Student of Biomedical Engineering, Montevideo, Uruguay
James Lyons. DC, Biologist, Medical Researcher, Doctor of Chiropractic, Columbus, Ohio
Laura Machado. M.Sc., Physics, La Victoria, Venezuela
Zorodzai Machekanyanga. Advocacy and Information Officer for Zimbabwe’s National AIDS Council (NAC)
Richard MacIntyre. PhD, former Fulbright Scholar, Professor and Division chair for Nursing and Health Sciences, Mercy College, Dobbs Ferry, New York Author, Mortal Men: Living With Asymptomatic HIV
Jamey Mack. Biochemist, Abbott Laboratories, Waukegan, Illinois
Arthur Mackenzie-Peers. Chemist, Limeuil, France
Shane A. MacLaughlin. PhD, Chemistry, Toronto, Canada
Joe Madanski. M.A., Painesville, Ohio
Rangarirai Claudius Madembo. Economist, Harare, Zimbabwe
Lerato Madimabe. Journalist, Grahamstown, South Africa
R. Eric Madrid. Ohio State Medical Student Class of 2002, Columbus, Ohio
Lucia Madrid. Medical Technologist, Wantagh, North Carolina
Uchenna Madu. Director of Information, Movement for the Actualisation of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB)
Glenn A. Magee. PhD, Assistant Professor, Philosophy, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, Georgia
Christine Maggiore. Director, Alive and Well (aliveandwell.org), author, What if Everything You Thought You Knew About Aids Was Wrong?
Maura Magioncalda. Attorney, Milan, Italy
Jean Mahailet. PhD, Naturopath, Mableton, Georgia
Chetan Mahendra. M.Eng student, Singapore
Peter Mahlangu. Attorney, Johannesburg, South Africa
Robert Mahler. MD, Medical Resident, Yonkers, New York
Darren Main. Yoga and meditation instructor, San Francisco. Author, Yoga and the Path of the Urban Mystic and Spiritual Journeys along the Yellow Brick Road
Ernest John Maina. MD, Nairobi, Kenya
Leonardo Maini. PhD student, High School Science Teacher, Padova, Italy
Meher Majety. PhD Student in Microbiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany
Amon R. Makenya. PhD, Royal University of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
Rian Malan. South African author of My Traitors Heart: A South African Exile Returns to Face His Country, His Tribe and His Conscience. [Thinks that African Aids figures are very exaggerated by the Aids establishment]
Senn Malo Batista. MD, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Columbia; Scientific Director, Center For Alternative Therapies, Cartagena, Colombia
Wubshet Mamo. PhD, Assoc. Professor of Medical Microbiology, University of Uppsala, Sweden
Pasquale Mamone. MD, Heart Surgeon, San Camillo Hospital, Rome, Italy
Mathias Mamsch. PhD Student, University of Magdeburg, Germany
Antonino Mancuso. MD, Bologna, Italy
Jerry S. Maneker. PhD, Professor of Sociology, California State University, Chico
Andrew Maniotis. PhD, Program Director, Cell and Developmental Biology of Cancer, Departments of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, and Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago
Kassi Manlan. MD, Director General for Health and Social Services, Cote dIvoire [Says the virus is only a co-factor]
Cathy Manning. Certified Hypnotherapist, Buena Vista, Colorado
Erik C. Manos. DDS, Denver, Colorado
Roland Mansour. MS Electrical Engineering, Brooklyn, New York
Carla Marcelis. Naturopath, Montreal, Canada. Co-author, Uncommon Questions: A Feminist Exploration of AIDS
Rgine Marchal. Psychothrapeute, Namur, Belgium
Geir Marcussen. MNNH, Homeopath, Hommelstoe, Norway
Zachary Margulis-ohnuma. Attorney, New York City
David Marnaw. MD, Chiang Rai, Thailand
Jennifer Marquis. PhD, San Francisco, California
Pierpaolo Marrone. PhD, Lecturer in Moral Philosophy, University of Trieste, Italy
Wende Elizabeth Marshall. PhD, Princeton University. Assistant Professor, University of Virginia. Previously Postdoctoral Fellow, Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS, Yale University School of Medicine
David Martin. B.A., Physics. Writer/Illustrator/Translator, Osaka, Japan. Author, Dave the Canadian Beaver Goes to Japan
Brian Martinez. Journalist, Houston, Texas
Lorenz Martinez. M.A. Sociology, Mission Viejo, California
Victor Hugo Martinez. Agricultural Engineer, Tepic, Mexico. President of the Foundation for Holistic Medicine
Eduardo Martinez. Editor/Publisher, Tendencias Cientficas, Spanish language science news service. Madrid, Spain
Mirlenis Martnez. Journalist, Barquisimeto, Venezuela
Juan-luis Martinez-ledesma. Instructor in Physics, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico
Gaetano Martino. MD, Olona, Italy
Chiara Martucci. M.A., Milano, Italy
Kadmiel Maseyk. PhD Student, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
Dr. Antonio Masini. Bovolone Vr, Italy
Ilja Maso. PhD, Professor of Theory of Science, Universiteit voor Humanistiek, Utrecht, Netherlands. His fields of interest include qualitative research, empirical phenomenological research and the demarcation between science and pseudo-science
Leo Mastromatteo. Engineer, Ghana
Patrice Matchaba. MD, Cochrane Centre, Cape Town, South Africa
Maribel Mateo. PhD, Professor of Education, University of Barcelona, Spain
Doris Matovelo. M.A., Med. Asst., Ndolage Mission Hospital and Morogoro Govt. Hospital; Nutrition Officer for Morogoro Urban; Librarian, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania
Jayro A. Matovelo. Professor and Assoc. Director, Research & Postgraduate Studies, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
Dumiso G.M. Matshazi. Masters in Public Health, Biostatistician, San Bernardino, California
Dumiso Matshazi. MPH, Riverside County Department of Mental Health, California
A. Matsumoto. Professor of Management, Tokyo, Japan
Ken N. Matsumura. MD, Chairman, Alin Foundation & Research Institute., Berkeley, California
Klazien Matter-Walstra. PhD, former manager, laboratory for immunocytochemical cancer diagnosis for exfoliative cytology, Institute of Pathology in Bern, Switzerland. Presently teaches evidence based medicine at Mediscope
Constance Matthews. Registered Nurse, Orlando, Florida
James Matthews. PhD, Senior Lecturer, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff, UK
Nora Mauermann. Immunologist, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
Robert W. Maver. F.S.A., M.A.A., Director of Research, Mutual Benefit Life, Kansas City, Missouri
Giora Mavligit. Concluded that their results strongly support the hypothesis that allogenic sperm is an etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of acquired immune dysregulation among homosexual males who practice anal sex
Gregory Maxim. Attorney, Sacramento, California
Leonid Maximenkov. PhD, Historian and Essayist, Moscow, Russia
Clemmer Mayhew III. writer, Delray Beach, Florida
Justine Mbabazi. Rwandan Attorney, Visiting Scholar in Gender and the Law, American University, Washington College of Law, Washington, DC
Sama Mbang. DC; RIC/E, Scientist/Researcher, Daimler Chrysler. Ulm, Germany
Carlos Mbuta. M.Sc., National Environmental Management Council, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Sue McCaskie. Journalist, Bellmore, New York
Holley McCoy-Eller. Journalist, Mildenhall, UK
Craig McCracken. Dental Prosthetist, Teacher, Department of Health and Biosciences, RMIT University, Melbourne. Board member, Dental Practice Board of Victoria, Australia
Ross McCulloch. D.C., Chiropractor and Applied Kinesiologist, Tunbridge Wells, UK
Helen McDade. Veterinary Surgeon, UK; Executive Officer of an M.E. (myalgic encephalopathy) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Research charity
Scott McDonald. M.Sc. Chemistry, Leeds, UK
John F. McGowan. PhD, Physics, Mountain View, California
Matthew McIntosh. PhD, Director of HCC Wellness and Cardiac Rehabilitation Center, Hagerstown, Maryland
Andrew McIntyre. Journalist, Melbourne, Australia
Joseph McIntyre. Professor of Linguistics, University of Hamburg, Germany
Kenneth V. McIver. Acupuncturist, Member of New Zealands government health liason committee. Auckland, New Zealand
Michael McKee. Naturopath, Homeopath, Bachelor of Applied Science in Health Science, Brisbane, Australia
Joan McKenna. Dr., Research Physiologist, Institute for Thermobaric Studies, Berkeley, California
John McKinney. MD, St. Louis, Missouri
Matthew McLeod. PhD, Nutrition & Health, London, United Kingdom
Lynne McTaggart. London, UK, Editor of 25 books on health, Author of What Doctors Dont Tell You: the Truth about the Dangers of Modern Medicine and other books
W. Robynne McWayne. MD, anesthesiologist, Olympia, Washington; Author, Radical Reality
Spencer Means. Professor, Baruch College, City University of New York
Nicholas Megan. Computer network engineer, IBM, Los Angeles, California
Rugatiri Mekacha. PhD, Head, Kiswahili Department, University Of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Howard C. Mel. PhD, Berkeley, California
Arthur Melkonian. MD, Epidemiology and Public Health, Yerevan, Armenia
Monica Melton. Faculty of Mass Communications, Program Director, WSNC. Winston-Salem State University, North Carolina
Juan Carlos Mendible. PhD, Associate Professor of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas; Venezuelan rep. to UNESCOs Intergovernmental Bioethics Committee
Dr. Antonio Mendoza. MD, president, Colombian Association for the Scientific Reappraising of the Etiology of AIDS (TOXISIDA)
Jos Mendoza Amador. Dental Surgeon, Hospital General de Mxico, Secretariat of Health and the National Institute of Cancer Studies. Monarcas, Mxico
Nina Menkes. Film Maker, Won Los Angeles Film Critics award, fellowships from the National Endowment for the Arts and the Rockefeller Foundation, an American Film Institute Independent Filmmaker grant, and many other awards
Mike Menkes. President, Health Science Solutions, Hollywood, Florida; Nutrition Advisor for TAEBO nutritional products
Ashok Menon. PhD, Radiology Researcher, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Shabnam Merchant. New York, BA, Physics, Bryn Mawr College; MS, Engineering Sciences, Dartmouth College
Dr. Joseph Mercola. former Chairman of the Family Medicine department at St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, Illinois; served as editor of HIV Monograph by Abbott Laboratories published in 1989 and distributed to physicians nationally. Editor of www.mercola.com, one of the top 10 health websites on the internet
David Merrell. BSc. DMD, FAGD., Oral Med/Aids Medical Staff, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
David Mertz. PhD, Philosopher of Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Debbasu Meselu Amare. M.A., Agricultural University of Norways Centre for International Environment and Development Studies.
Ginger Metcalf. Psychotherapist, Spokane, Washington
Michael Metcalf. MD, Spokane, Washington
Bernd Meyer. Diplom Physiker, Berlin, Germany
Lynet Mhlanga. Human Rights Attorney, London, UK
Sam Mhlongo. MD, Head of the Department of Family Medicine and Primary Health Care at the Medical University of South Africa, Johannesburg
Tony W. Micallef. ATMS-accredited complementary medicine practitioner and iridologist, Sydney, Australia
John F. Michael. PhD student, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Aaron Micheau. Attorney, Public Defender, Legal Aid Society, New York City
Th. H.L. Michiels. MD, Vinkeveen, The Netherlands
Foster Mijiga. Director, National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI). Windhoek, Namibia
Vladimir Mikaelyan. PhD, Assoc. Professor, Psychology, Yerevan State University, Armenia
John Mikowski. MD, Warsaw, Poland
Stefania Milazzo. Research Fellow, Peninsula Medical School, Universities of Exeter & Plymouth Institute of Health & Social Care, Exeter, UK
John Milich. Journalist, Ithaca, New York
Donald W. Miller. Jr., MD, Professor of Surgery, University of Washington School of Medicine
James W. Miller. MD, San Leandro, California
Larry Thomas Miller. CLS, M.A., Los Angeles, California
Todd Miller. PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Florida
James Miller. MD, Oakland, California
Mark L. Milliron. BSc MSc PhD candidate Medical Genetics, Chilliwack, BC, Canada
Jamie Mills. MD, Leicester, UK
George Milowe. MD, Melrose-Wakefield Hospital, Malden, Massachusetts
Michael Mink. PhD candidate, Holistic Nutrition, Atlanta, Georgia
Stephen F. Minkin. Network for Infection Prevention, Brattleboro, Vermont [Says Hiv is not transmitted by penile-vaginal sex]
Gary James Minter. Epidemiologist, North Carolina Dept. of Health and Human Services, Raleigh, North Carolina
Sandy Mintz. M.A., Writer and Publisher, Vaccination News, Anchorage, Alaska
Cristina Mir. PhD Student in Molecular Biology, Barcelona, Spain
Maria Missiroli . PhD, Researcher, Villa Griffone Radio Labs, Universit di Bologna, Italy
Richard Mitchell. PhD, Professor of Sociology, Oregon State University. Recipient of the Charles Horton Cooley Award, the most prestigious in sociology
P. David Mitchell. PhD, Psychologist and Emeritus Professor of Educational Technology (former Director of the Graduate Programme), Concordia University, Montreal, Canada. Recipient of the Prix Phillippe-Marton award for educational technology
Maria Mitzikis. Nutritionist, Sydney, Australia
Shinnichi Miyamoto. Chemist, Hyogo, Japan
John Mkandawire. MSW, MPH, Boston, Massachusetts
Eugene Mniwasa. Researcher, Writer, Attorney, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
Eugene Mniwasa. LL.B, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
Omba Sakatolo Modeste. Prsident, La Communaut Katangaise du Canada
Keoagile Modisakeng. M.Sc., PhD Student in Biochemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa
Shadrack Moephuli. PhD, Toxicology, Senior Lecturer, Department of Biochemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa [Says leading Aids drug AZT should not be used]
Lerato Mofoti. Attorney, Bloemfontein, South Africa
Lamine Ould Sidi Mohamed. Professeur de Gestion, Bamako, Mali
Abdalla Mohammed. PhD, Instructor, University of Wisconsin, Madison
Fathi Najafi Mohsen. Biotechnologist, Mashhad, Iran
Francelot Moise. MD, Haitian physician living in South Florida
Mahesh Mokashi. MD, Mumbai, India
Charles Molele. Journalist, Johannesburg, South Africa
Francis Moloi. Harvard University South Africa Fellow. Author, A Constitutional Debacle: Amnesty to Perpetrators and Denial of the Victims Right of Access to Court
Clark Molstad. PhD, Professor of Mgmt, California State University, San Bernardino
Juan Jos Moncada Ibez. MD, Medical Director, Santa Natura, Peruvian Institute of Integral Medicine
Constantino Mondragon. Psychotherapist, Mexico City
Rosa Cecilia Monsalve. RN, University of Antioquia, Medelln, Colombia
Joseph Montanez. Respiratory Therapist; HIV pre-post counselor, Massachusetts [ ]
Carlos Monteverde. MD, Immunology and Allergy, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Al Montgomery. Chemist, Blythewood, South Carolina
Fernando R. Montserrat. Psychotherapist, Mexico City
Aadela Moolla. Student (Microbiology & Haemotology), Johannesburg, South Africa
Dave Moore. Retired Engineering Director, Broadcast Television, Kamuela, Hawaii
Wayne Moore. CQSW, London, UK
Rusty M. Moore. PhD, Assoc. Professor, Hofstra University, New York
Kojo Moore. JD, Berkeley, California
Cherri Moore. RN, Jackson, Mississippi
David Moore. Engineer, Wichita, Kansas
Brendan Moorehead. M.Sc., Stanford University. Oakland, California
Mpho Mophiring. Engineer, Johannesburg, South Africa
David Moraga Amador. PhD, Scientific Director, Education and Training Core, Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research, University of Florida
Gordon Moran. Author, Silencing Scientists and Scholars in Other Fields
Rheeta Moran. Senior Researcher, Salford University, UK [Says the Aids drugs dont work]
Roselyne Morel. MD, Nantes, France
Pau Moreno. MD, Barcelona, Spain
Elizabeth Morgan. Lecturer, University of Queensland, Australia
Peter Morrell. M.Phil, Lecturer, Hon. Research Associate, History of Medicine, Staffordshire University, UK, co-author, Environmental Science textbook
John Anthony Morris. PhD, Biochemist, Bell of Atari College Park, Maryland
Margaret Morris. MT (ASCP) SC, NCA-CLS, Medical Technologist, Specialist Chemistry/ American Society of Clinical Pathologists. Springvale, Maine
Joseph E. Morrow. PhD, Cal. State Univ. Sacramento, California
Philip Mortimer. PhD, Director of the Virus Reference Laboratory of the Public Health Laboratory Service, London, UK [Says Hiv tests not accurate, not reliable, high rates of false positives, and it may be impossible to relate a positive test specifically to Hiv]
Jonas Moses. Project Manager, Research Scientist, Laboratory for Xray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Doctoral student in Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago
Richard Onchaga Moses. M.Sc., PhD Student, International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, Enschede, Netherlands
Keith Moskowitz. Senior Scientist, Gaithersburg, MD
Albert G. Mosley. PhD, Professor of Philosophy, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts [Says Aids is multifactorial]
Victor Mosoti. Attorney, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Heath Motley. Doctor of Applied Kinesiology and Chiropractic, Honolulu, Hawaii
Leila Mouammar. PhD Student, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada
William Mowery. Jr., MSEE, Morristown, New Jersey
John D. Moyer. MD, Surgeon, Yarmouthport, Massachusetts
Matane Mphahlele. Attorney, Pretoria, South Africa
Peter Mtakwa. PhD, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania
Nakato Mubanda. D.C., M.Ac., Chiropractor, Acupuncturist, Kampala, Uganda
Andrew Mueller. B.S. Biology, Florida State University; MPH (Master of Public Health), Florida International University; Jacksonville, Florida
Clement Mufuzi . National Chairman, Network of Zambian People Living Positively with AIDS, Lusaka
Melanie Muise. Grad. Student in Sociology, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada
Simon Mukwana. Medical Researcher, Computer Medicine, London, England
Imanuel Mulder. Former Chief Director, Occupational Health and Safety, Dept. of Labor, Govt. of South Africa. Pretoria
Hermann Mller. PhD, Director, Institute of Virology, Universitt Leipzig, Germany
Dr. Kary Mullis. PhD, Biochemist, Winner, 1993 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for inventing the polymerase chain reaction, the basis for the HIV viral load tests.
R. Munck. MD, Ceret, France
Jethu Mundul. TV Journalist, Documentary Film Maker, Bombay, India
Peggy Munson. Author, Stricken: Voices from the Hidden Epidemic of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Providence, Rhode Island
Eric Muriithi. M.Sc., Environmental Engineer, Nairobi, Kenya
Brian K. Murphy. Senior Policy Analyst with Inter Pares, the Canadian international social justice organization; Author, Transforming the World, An Open Conspiracy for Social Change, ZED Books (London and New York), 1999.
Rose Mary Murphy. Womens Health Interaction, Ottawa, Canada. Co-author, Uncommon Questions: A Feminist Exploration of AIDS
Rich Murray. Registered Pharmacist, Georgetown
Enrico Bressan Muscar. Film Director, Madrid, Spain
Dolors Must. Directora de la Fundaci Trraco Energia Local, Tarragona, Spain
Laurent Mutelet. Geobiologist, Saint Lon, France
Aldin K Mutembei. PhD, Lecturer, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Adrian Muunga. Program Officer, National Democratic Institute, Lilongwe, Malawi
Santina Mwarania . M.A., Counselor, Idaho School for the Deaf and Blind. Twin Falls, Idaho
Dr. Ahmed Makata Mwinyimtwana. Forensic Pathologist, Melbourne, Australia
Rebecca Myles. Journalist, New York
Claude Naar. MD, Radiologist, Plantation, Florida
Martin Nabor. D.Min, Georgia
Sheri Nakken. RN, M.A., Homeopathic Educator, Nevada City, California
Tiwari Krishna Nand. MD, Physician, Berlin, Germany
Abhijit Nandi. Physician, MBBS, Master in Community Health, Kolkata, India
Jerome F. Napoli. D.C., San Francisco, California
Catherine Nasmith. B.Arch, OAA, MRAIC, TSA, CAPHC, Architect, Toronto, Canada
Sabelo Ndabazandile. MBA, Johannesburg, South Africa
Navaya Ole Ndaskoi . Journalist, Coordinator, Indigenous Rights for Survival International, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
Mboneli Ndlangisa. M.Sc., Harding, South Africa
Chris Neaves. Homeopath, Randburg, South Africa
Andrew Neil. M.A., PhD (hon), Publisher of The Business (London) The Scotsman and Evening News (Edinburgh). Formerly editor of the Sunday Times of London, UK editor of The Economist and Executive editor of Fox Television News in the US
J.B. Neilands. PhD, Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry, University of California, Berkeley [Says Duesberg makes an excellent case that Hiv is not the cause of Aids and we need an investigation of corruption in the federal AIDS program]
Cindy Nelson. M.A., San Francisco, California
Jeff Neo. Engineer, Republic Polytechnic Institute, Singapore
Dr. Willi Neuhold. Homeopathic Physician, Graz, Germany
Felix Mosi Ngamlagosi. Economist, Ministry of Water and Livestock Development, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
Emmanuel Ngembo. PhD, Mathematician, University of Alberta, Canada
Richard Ngwenya. MD, Adjunct Clinical Professor of Medicine, Institute for Molecular Medicine, Huntington Beach, California; Executive Medical Director, James Mobb Immune Enhancement Clinics, Harare, Zimbabwe
Lorena Nicardi. PhD, Sesto San Giovanni, Italy
Dian Nicholson. AMA, Metaphysician/Psychotherapist. Author, Lies Your Ego Told You, Toronto, Canada
Cathy Nickels. MS Certified Health Education Specialist Instructor, – IUPUI, Indianapolis, Indiana
Dominica Nieddu. MSW, Social Worker, San Miguel County Health Office, Santa Fe, New Mexico
Serge Niederhoffer. Psychotherapist, Mulhouse, France
Rainer Niederkofler. PhD, Institute for Public Management, Bozen, Italy
Peter Zinck Nielsen. M.Sc., Stvring, Denmark
J. Lawrence Nieters. PhD, Psychotherapist, Kansas City, Kansas
Greg Nigh. N.D., L.Ac, Naturopathic Physician, Licensed Acupuncturist, Portland, Oregon
Bernardo Nigrini. Writer, Pretoria, South Africa
Nelson Nisenbaum. MD, So Paulo, Brasil
Paul Nison. Author, The Raw Life: Becoming Natural in an Unnatural World, Raw Knowledge: Enhance the Powers of Your Mind, Body, & Soul and Healing Inflammatory Bowel Disease. New York
Michael Nitsche. Dipl.-Inform. Technische Universitt Berlin
Carlo Nizzo. PhD, Universit di Torino, Italy
George Noory. Journalist, Former news director, KMSP-TV in Minneapolis; Radio talk show host
Dennis Noren. M.A., Statistics, San Jose, California
Darius Nosreti. Ostrava, Czech Republic, Science Journalist, author of Medicinal Database Archeus
Ajir Nott. PhD, Research Associate, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, San Diego, California
Chicgoua Noubactep . PhD, Geochemist, Geoscientific Center of the University of Goettingen, Germany
Liliane Nouth. Dipl. Inf., Executive Committee member, Association of Cameroonian engineers and computer scientists
Raymond W. Novaco. PhD, Professor of Psychology & Social Behavior, University of California at Irvine
Aline Nsounta. PhD student, Molecular Biology, University of Mannheim and University of Heidelberg, Germany
Stanley Ntagali. M.A., Oxford, UK
Pierre Olivier Ntongmo. Dipl. Elektrotechnik, Berlin, Germany
Khulekani Ntshangase. Spokesperson, African National Congress, Johannesburg, South Africa
Monde Ntwasa. PhD, Lecturer in Molecular Biology, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa
Josephine Nujoma. Biomedical Technical Engineer, Windhoek, Namibia
Gary Null. PhD, syndicated host of Natural Living with Gary Null, author ( AIDS, A Second Opinion ), and a producer of PBS special programs. His Deconstructing the Myth of AIDS won the Audience Award for Best Documentary at both the New York and Los Angeles International Independent Film and Video Festivals.
Chris Nwaokobia. Journalist, Lagos, Nigeria
Marleen Nys. M.Sc., Biostatistics, Gent, Belgium
Michael D. OConnor. MLS, Medical Librarian, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston
John O’Donnell. Laboratory Technician, Dartmouth College, New Hampshire
Paddy OGorman. Journalist and TV/Radio Broadcaster, Dublin, Ireland
Peggy OMara. Editor and Publisher, Mothering Magazine
Dr. John O’Neal. Tucker, Georgia
Tim OShea. D.C., San Jose, California. Author, To Health and Back, The Superfoods, Conventional Medicine Vs. Holistic: A World Of Difference and other books
Robert Obrian. Writer, Editor, Attorney, Long Island City, New York
David S. Oderberg. D.Phil (Oxford) Professor of Philosophy, University of Reading, UK
Ezra Odhiambo. Electrical Engineer, Nairobi, Kenya
William Oei. JD, Redondo Beach, California
Jeff Ofstedahl. Columnist and General Manager, Echo Magazine, Phoenix, Arizona
Gregory Ogle. Attorney, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
Dr. Ahmed E.O. Ogwell. Director, Non Communicable Diseases, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya
Kwabena Awuah Ohene-gyan. PhD, Bacteriologist, London, UK
Dr. Paul Olisa Adaka Ojeih. Medical Director, Iris Medical Foundation, Lagos, Nigeria, author, Man and Diseases, AIDS: The Untold Truth and Cure, and AIDS: The Plague That Never Existed
Chima Oji. MD, DDS, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria
Qevin Oji. Writer/Editor, Playwright, Los Angeles, California
Dr. Chima Oji. Professor of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Author of three textbooks and the book Unter die Deutschen gefallen – Erfahrungen eines Afrikaners (Fallen under Germans – Experiences of an African)
Anthony I. Okoh. PhD, Lecturer, Department Of Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Samuel Okoro. Engineer, Lagos, Nigeria
Martin Okot-Wang. MD, Head of TB wards, Old Mulego Hospital, Kampala, Uganda [Says Aids often misdiagnosed in Africa and the Hiv tests kill people by destroying hope]
Sam Okware. MD, Deputy Director, Medical Services, AIDS and Communicable Diseases, Uganda
John Olander. Health Officer, Lanesborough, New Ashford and Richmond, Massachusetts Boards of Health
John Olex. RN, Louisville, Kentucky
Julio Oliveira. DDS, MSc, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Rick Oliver. L.Ac, Ms.D, Acupuncturist, Los Angeles, Calif
Ofelia Olivero. Phd, Staff Scientist, U.S. National Cancer Institute [Says AZT extremely toxic]
Anna Olson. Journalist, Winnipeg, Canada
Beverly Olson. RN, New York
Fernando Ongay. PhD, Professor of Mathematics, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico
Vitale Onorato. President, La Leva di Archimede Associazione di Consumatori, Roma, Italy
Gianluca Orlandi. PhD Student in Physics. Civitanova Marche, Italy
David J. Orman. M.Sc., San Diego, California
Cindy Orser. PhD, Asst. Prof. Bacteriology, Univ. Idaho, Moscow, Idaho
Alejandro Ortiz-Stern. Medical Student, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomdicas, Mexico City
Charles Ortleb. Author; Publisher, The New York Native
Maria Ortuo. PhD, Granada, Spain
Okoth Osewe. Writer; Secretary, Kenya Socialist Democratic Alliance
Neenyah Ostrom. science journalist, author, free-lance science researcher for ABC News. News and Public Information Director, Chronic Illness Research Foundation
Paul Ostyn. PhD, Professor of Linguistics, University of Namur, Belgium
Rafael Oter. Health writer, Barcelona, Spain
Ronald P. Ouellette. PhD, Psychoanalyst, Florida
Julio Oviedo. MD, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Nduhukhire Owa-Mataze. Senior Lecturer, Political Economist, Uganda Martyrs University, Uganda
Bob L. Owen. PhD, author, Rogers Recovery from AIDS
Chris Owens. M.A. student Counseling Psychology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana
Giancarlo Pace. PhD, Astrophysicist, Universita di Trieste, Italy
John G. Padgett. Former staff member, Aids Healthcare Foundation, Pharmacy Department
Khemfoia Padu. D.C., Englewood, New Jersey
Armando Paez. M.Sc., Anthropology and Sustainable Development; Architect, Universidad de las Amricas, Puebla, Mxico
Barry Page. M.Sc., Department of Medical Physics, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia
Camille Paglia. PhD, Professor of Humanities at University of the Arts in Philadelphia. Author, Sexual Personae, Sex, Art and American Culture
Montserrat Palacin. MD, President of Spanish Kousmine Association, Expert in RPG, Barcelona, Spain
Montse Palau. Professor of Philology, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Spain
Rebel Palm-Aitchison. M.A., PhD candidate, Univ New Mexico, Albuquerque
Annie Palmer. Chiropractor, Washougal, Washington
Geeta Palumbo. Instructor, Columbia University School of Nursing
Thomas Palumbo. RN, New York City
Fritz Pampus. Dipl.-Psych. Psychologist, Munich, Germany
Birenda Kumar Panda. PhD, Physicist, Bhubaneswar, Germany
Geevee Pandala. MD, PhD, Eranakulam, Kerala, India
Massimo Pandiani. MB, BCh. Physician, Urologist, Milano, Italy. Founder, Italian Medical Association of Applied Nutrition; Director, Italian School of Applied Nutrition. Author, Guida al corretto utilizzo di vitamine e minerali nella nutrizione, Trattato di Medicina Funzionale, L’Invecchiamento – Invecchiare in salute con le strategie della medicina funzionale and other books.
Inez Pandit. MD, Assistant Professor, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Sharad Arvind Pandit. MD, Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Pennsylvania, Hahnemann University, Philadelphia
Danny Pansters. PhD Physics, s-hertogenbosch, Netherlands
Vera Pantanizopoulos-broux. M.A., Lecturer, University of Tennessee, Instructor, Maryville College. Fulbright fellow.
John M. Papadimitriou. MD, PhD, Professor of Pathology, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia
Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos. Biophysicist, Department of Medical Physics, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia
Athanasios Papoulias. Dipl. Inform, Universitt Dortmund, Germany
Charles Parcells. MBA, Grosse Pointe, Michigan
Renzo Pareja Valencia. DDS, Dental Surgeon, Lima, Peru
Rita Parikh. M.A., Journalist, Exec. Director, Pacific Peoples Partnership, Victoria, BC, Canada
Anthony R. Parish. PhD, Medical Researcher, Norwich, UK
Ben Parish. M.Sc., London, UK
Ju-Youn Park. PhD, Dept. of Microbiology, Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Adrienne Parks. Writer, Researcher, Summa cum laude grad., Princeton University
Jose E. Parra Pieros. M.Sc., Biologist, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota, Colombia
Mauro Pasqui. Dental Student, Bologna, Italy
Siro Passi. PhD, Biochemist, head of the Cell Aging Center of the IDI Research Institute, Rome, former Scientific Director and Head of the Physiopathology Laboratory, St. Gallicano Research Institute, Rome
George N. Pasto. MD, Portland, Oregon
Janardhan Patil. MD, Satara, India
Sebastian Patino. Literature Professor, Mexico City
Eric Patrick. Grad. Student, Political Science, San Francisco, California
Eric Patrick. Grad. Student, San Francisco State University
Bryan Patterson. Registered Nurse, Physical Therapist Assistant, Midland, Texas
Stefan Pattis. Naturopathic doctor, Meran, Italy
Most Rev. Martin J. Patton. CHt, Diplomat, Intl. Medical and Dental Hypnotherapy Assoc. Exec. Director, Attitudes For Wellness, Cincinnati, Ohio
Stephen Pauker. MD, New England Medical Center, Boston [Says Hiv tests result in far more false positives than true]
M. Dennis Paul. Ph.D., Thought Addiction Specialist, Counselor/Therapist, Windsor, New Hampshire
Jos Paula. PhD, Lisbon, Portugal
Hannes G. Pauli. MD, Former Director Bern Univ. Med. Faculty, Bern, Switzerland
Linus Pauling. PhD, Chemist, two-time winner of the Nobel Prize [Said high dose Vitamin C can control Aids]
Sunny Paulose. Doha, Qatar, Postgraduate Dental Surgeon
Alexander E. Paulsen. Engineer, Jacksonville, Florida
Colin R. Payne. M.A., Norwich, UK
Marianne Payne. Midwife, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Colin Payne. Head, Mathematics Dept., Broadland School, Wroxham, UK
Humberto Payno. Psychotherapist, Mexico City
Leonard Payton. PhD, University of California, San Diego
Joseph Pazillo. Playwright and lyricist, New York City
Lawrence Pease. Chemist, Engineer (Retired), Costa Mesa, California
J. Michael Peat. Arlington, Texas, Director of Technology, Inside Technology USA
Raymond Peat. PhD, Biology. Taught at University of Oregon, Montana State University, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, and Blake College. Author, Progesterone in Orthomolecular Medicine, Nutrition for Women, From PMS to Menopause: Female Hormones in Context and other books
Salvatore Pece. MD, Department of Internal Medicine, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, University of Bari Medical School, Bari, Italy
Mwalu Peeters. Nutritionist, Squamish, BC, Canada
Christopher Peguero. Sociologist, Seattle, Washington
Bernard G Peissel. MD, Researcher, Milan, Italy
Jamila Peiter. Author, Mein Hunger nach Liebe, Frankfurt, Germany
Bratislav Pejovic. Journalist, Beograd, Serbia
Ross Pengilley. PhD, Zoologist, Darwin Australia
Corrado Penna. Math and Physics teacher, Messina, Italy
Luanne Pennesi. RN, MS, President of Metropolitan Wellness Center, New York, NY
Gerie Perez. Registered nurse, McAllen, Texas
Antonio Perez. Attorney, Madrid, Spain
Pilar Peris. MD, Barcelona, Spain
Daniela Perotti. PhD, Researcher, Division of Pediatric Oncology, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy
Jack Perrine. PhD, Pasadena, California
Stephan Petrowitsch. Psychotherapist, Institut fr aktive Lebensgestaltung, Aystetten, Germany
Rolf-Jrgen Petry. Heilpraktiker, Gnarrenburg, Germany. Author, Strophanthin – der mgliche Sieg ber den Herzinfarkt. (Strophanthin – the possible victory over the cardiac infarction)
Maya Petzoldt. Film Maker, Reykjavik, Iceland
Ulrike Pfalzgraf. Editor, PC Mobile, Munich Germany
Markus Pfister. Phd, Zurich, Switzerland
Alain Pfouga. Dipl.-Ing., Engineer, Technische Universitt Darmstadt, Germany
Peter Philips. Publisher, Pacific Maritime Magazine
Daniel Phillips. MBA, Retired Accounting Professor, Clinton, Connecticut
Peter Phillips. PhD, Professor of Sociology at Soma University in California, Director of Project Censored, author of Censored 1998
Alan Phillips. Author, attorney; Co-Director, Citizens for Healthcare Freedom, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Lesley Phillips. Attorney, Cambridge, Massachusetts
John L. Philp. MD, MPH, Stockton, California
Paul Philpott. M.Sc., Editor, Reappraising Aids
Philippe Pien. PhD, Natural Medicine Specialist, Le Change, France
David Pierotti. PhD, Environmental Chemist, Albuquerque, New Mexico
Mark Pierpont. Hiv/Aids Prevention Program Coordinator, Manatee County Health Department, Florida (resigned in protest when he realized that Hiv-Aids was a fraud)
Clare Pierson. MA, Dip Ed Psych., Registered Psychologist, Christchurch, New Zealand
Nick Pietrowicz. Attorney, Washington Crossing, Pennsylvania
Kriben Pillay. PhD, University of Durban-Westville, South Africa
Rachael Pirner. Attorney, Wichita, Kansas
Richard L. Pitter. PhD, Desert Research Inst., Univ. Nevada System, Reno, Nevada
Hctor G. Plascencia-Gonzlez. M.Sc., Taxonomy and Ecology; Assoc. Investigator, Laboratorio de Ictiologa y Biodiversidad, CIAD-Unidad Mazatln, Mexico
Guillem Plasencia. PhD, Biochemistry, University of Barcelona, Spain
Errol Platt. M.Sc., Toronto, Canada
Ana Maria Plaza Garcia. PhD, Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovao, Portugal
Denise C. Plouviez. Registered Nurse, Milton, Florida
Peter W. Plumley. FSA, Chicago, Illinois
Mark Plunkett. MD, Los Angeles, California
Jason Pociask. MCD ITS, Tempe, Arizona
Gilles Pokam. PhD, Institut de Recherche en Informatique et Systmes Alatoires, Rennes, France
Richard Pokorny. Student of Oriental Medicine, Pacific Institute of Oriental Medicine
Dag Viljen Poleszynski. PhD, Professor in Nutrition and Orthomolecular Medicine, Harstad College, Norway
Michael Pollex. Doctoral candidate in sociology, University of British Columbia
Nancy Polonitza. Psychotherapist, Ocean County College, Toms River, New Jersey
Victor Pond. Project Director, MOCHA Coalition (Men Of Color Committed to Healthier Alternatives), Chicago Department of Public Health, Chicago, Illinois
Jose F. Poole. MD, Ophthalmolgist, Member, British Medical Council, San Bartolome De Lanzarote, Spain
Anca Pop. PhD, Biochemistry, University of Bucharest, Romania. Biochemist, British Columbia, Canada.
Nicoliene Potgieter. Dipl. Homopathin, Lecturer, SHI Homeopathy School, Basel, Switzerland
Robert Poth. Journalist, Vienna, Austria
Pierre Ferdinand Poudeu. PhD, Inorganic Chemistry, Technische Universitt Dresden, Germany
David Pouh. PhD, Researcher, Technische Universitt Berlin, Germany
Kenneth Power. MD, Board Certified Family Practice, Frankfort, Indiana
Alessandro Pozzetti. Playwright and author, Milano, Italy. Co-author of the play and book, Virus: L’invenzione della Realt
Dr. Mario Camacho Prada. Governor of the State of Santander, Columbia
Ligia Prado. Biology teacher, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Federico Prat. PhD, Universidad Politcnica de Valencia, Spain
Tyas Pribadi. M.Sc., Biology, Lecturer at State University of Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia
Ronald F. Price. PhD, La Trobe Univ., Bundoora, Victoria, Australia
Andrea Price. Founder and President, Public Access Indiana
Ritu Priya. MD, epidemiologist and professor at the Centre for Social Medicine and Community Health of the Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi, India [Says Hiv tests kill people and Aids patients recover with holistic treatment]
Matthew Probert. Author, Handbook of Natural Language Processing and Conversational Computing and The Probert Encyclopedia
R.B. Prophet. PhD, Head of Dept. of Mathematics and Science Education, University of Botswana
Mary Prunchak. Principal, Advanced Educational Consulting; Holistic Health Care Writer for America Online. Alexandria, Virginia
Bumroong Puangkird. Postgrad. Student, Scientific & High Performance Computation Research Group, University of Wales, UK
Carlos Fils Puig. Chemical Dependency Counselor, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Richard Puntis. M.Sc., Toronto, Canada, Govt Appointee to the Council of Professional Geoscientists of Ontario
Gianna Putzu. Attorney, Milan, Italy
Abdul Qadir. Acting Chief (Environment Unit), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Islamabad, Pakistan
Mzukisi Qobo. PhD Candidate, Pretoria, South Africa
V. Quagliarello. proposed sperm exposure as a possible cause of AIDS in 1982 (rectally-deposited sperm has been found to be immunosuppressive in rabbits)
Yokow Quansah. MTM (Masters In Technology Management), Cape Town, South Africa
George Quasha. Writer/Editor. Author of Somapoetics, Giving the Lily Back Her Hands, Ainu Dreams and other books. Has taught at SUNY Stony Brook, NYU, The New School for Social Research and Bard College
Dr. Pierre Quellere. Berlin, Germany
Mario Luiz Pestana Quilici. MD, Psychoanalyst, So Paulo, Brazil
Heberto Quiones Serna. Attorney, Juarez, Mexico
Norberto Quintanar. Chicago, Illinois, Biochemist, Chemistry Lab Manager
Stephen Quinto. President, Natural Immunogenics Corp., Miami, Florida
Jose A. Quiroz. Research Associate, Cellular and Molecular Biology, Ligand Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, California
Otto Raabe. PhD, Professor and Director, Institute of Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of California, Davis
Alberto Rabelo Correa. Professor, Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Dr. Paul Rabinow. PhD, Professor of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, author most recently of Making PCR: A Story of Biotechnology
Dorota Raciborska. PhD Physiology, University of Toronto, Health Consultant, Inter-American Development Bank
Marc Rackelmann. Dipl.-pol., Heilpraktiker fr Psychotherapie, Berlin, Germany
Regina Radach. Heilpraktikerin, Hamburg, Germany
PP Raghavan. MD, Kannur, India
Francoise Railhet. Manager, LLL France Medical Associates Program, Neuilly Sur Marne, France
Barbara J. Raisbeck. PhD, Holistic Nutrition, Director, Alive&Well, Eugene, Oregon
Herminia Ramirez-Daz. BCL, Metropolitan Blood Bank, Ramon Gonzalez Valencia University Hospital, Bucaramanga, Colombia
Felip Ramis. MD, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Taoufik Ramla. MD, Facult de Mdecine de Marrakech, Morocco
James Randall. M.S. student Biology, Chicago, Illinois
Pavle Randjelovic. Medical Student, Nis, Serbia
Rafael Rangel-Aldao. PhD, Professor and Director, Center for Biotechnology, Institute of Advanced Studies, Simon Bolivar University, Caracas, Venezuela; Director of Research and Innovation, Empresas Polar, Venezuela
Steven Ransom. Co-author, World Without Aids and author of many other books about scientific/medical corruption
Spiros Rantos. Lecturer, University of Queensland, Australia
Jon Rappoport. Investigative reporter, author, AIDS, Inc. The Scandal of the Century
Carolyn Rasche. PhD, Psychotherapist, Atlanta, Georgia
David Rasnick. PhD, Biochemist, Protease Inhibitor Developer, University of California
Molly Ratcliffe. science writer, London, UK
Matthias Rath. MD, Director, Dr. Rath Health Foundation, The Hague, Netherlands [Says Aids can be controlled with Vitamin C and other natural therapies]
Dennis D. Rathman. Research Affiliate, Lincoln Laboratory, MIT
Richard A. Ratner. MD, Bethesda, Maryland
Patrick Rattigan. ND, Chesterfield, England
Frans Rautenbach. Attorney, Director, Labour Liberation Institute, Cape Town, South Africa. Author of Set The Workers Free, Labour Litigation and Liberating South African Labour from the Law
Andres Rhudy B. Ravelo Jr.. MSW, Board Member, Philippines Social Worker Professional Regulation Commission. Quezon City, Philippines
Francis Raymond. MSc, M.I.T., Chairman and CEO, Beyond Health Corp., author of the book, Never Be Sick Again
Bryn Read. Nursing student, Sunbury, Ohio
Dr. Leo Rebello. PhD, D.Sc., N.D., President of AIDS Alternativa International, Bombay, India
Rogers Reddings. PhD, Univ. North Texas, Denton, Texas
Sasidhar M Reddy. Post Graduate in Virology, SV University, Tirupathi, India
Manuel Redon. MD, Psychotherapist, Barcelona, Spain
Karen Reedstrom. Editor, Full Context Magazine
Anthony Rees. Naturopathic Physician, Director, International College of Phytotherapy, Durban Kwazulu – Natal, South Africa
Christopher James Regan. J.D., South Bend, Indiana
Nicholas Regush. Medical Science Reporter, Former Science Producer, ABC News with Peter Jennings, Editor, Red Flags Daily
Leanne Reid. Registered Nurse, Nutritionist, London, UK
Christian Reig. Hospital Nurse, Thuir, France
Robert Reis. M.A., Linguist, Chicago, Illinois
Lon Renard. Psychotherapist, lecturer and writer. Author, Le cancer apprivois (”Tamed Cancer”) and La mdecine de lme du Dr Edward Bach. Noville-les-bois, Belgium
Panighetti Renzo. PhD, Nutrition, Biasca, Switzerland
Carlos Repetto. PhD, Psychologist. President, Centro de Investigaciones de Medios y Semiologa de la Vida Cotidiana. Buenos Aires, Argentina
Stephen J. Repitor. DPM, Oak Park, Michigan
Christoph Resch. University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria
Katalin Reszegi. Microbiologist, Carlsbad, California
Claudia J.G. Rey. RN, Bucaramanga, Colombia
Alvin Reyes. MD, Manila, Philippines
Carmen Ribes. MD, Gastroenterologist, Valencia, Spain
Marinella Ribolzi. Health Consultant, Dept. of Health, Ticino, Switzerland; Editorial Asst., Annals of Oncology
Tarik Ricard. Former LVN-OR-Surg. Tech., ICU Tech. Wellness Promotor/Activist, Santa Monica, California
Louis Ricci. PhD, Adj. Professor of Clinical Psychology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil
Rodney Richards. PhD, Biochemist, Founding scientist for the biotech company Amgen. Collaborated with Abbott Laboratories in developing some of the first HIV tests
Artenio Olivio Richter. MD, Campo Grande, Brazil
Hildegard B. Richter. Director, Associao Brasiliera de Technologia Alternative na Promoo da Sade, So Paulo, Brazil; Author, AIDS: Inveno de uma nova doena?
Artenio Olivio Richter. Naturopathic doctor, Campo Grande, Brazil
The staff of Science Guardian take their ease in a rare break from running away as fast as they can from defenders of the HIV faith who want to render them muteJudith Riesman. PhD, Author, Arlington, Virginia
Louis A. Rigali. Editor, The Vortex, the monthly publication of the California Section of the American Chemical Society
Marco Rigo. MD, Surgeon, Borgo Valsugana, Italy
Michael Ristow. PhD, Bochum, Germany
Henner Ritter. MD, Psychotherapist; Director, PADMA Institut fr Holistisches Heilen und Wachsen, Stuttgart, Germany
Nestor Rivero. Chemist, Environmental Specialist, Santa Clara, Cuba
U Rizwan. PhD, Karachi, Pakistan
Mel T. Roach. Avatar Research, Tuscon, Arizona
John Robbins. Author, Diet for a New America and Reclaiming Our Health
JH Robbins. M.Ed, Austin, Texas
Allen Roberds. Doctor of Chiropractic, Fayetteville Arkansas
Janine Roberts. M.A., Medical Writer and Film Maker, Bristol, UK. Her films on human rights issues have been seen on BBC and other networks worldwide and won various film festival awards
John Roberts. PhD, Research Associate in Physics, University of Utah
Waddell Robey. MS, Health Sciences Administration, Managing Director, LifeNet21, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
Peter Robinson. PhD, Mathematics Air Force Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio
Raj Roche. M.A., Tamilnadu Tribal Think Tank, Tamilnadu, India
Pedro Rdenas. MD, founder of Integral, Natura Medicatrix magazines and the Center for Integrative Medicine of Barcelona
Gisela Rdl-Linder. Naturopathic Doctor, Berlin, Germany
Joe Rodrigue. PhD, Computer Engineer, Yale University, New Haven
Richard D. Rodriguez. M.A., Sociology, Miami, Florida
Diego A. Rodriguez. MD, Urologist, Ciudad Real, Spain
Noe Rodriguez. Chemical Engineer, Lima, Peru
Rafael D. Rodrguez. PhD, Biochemical Engineer & Biophysicist, Mexico City
Dr. Peter Roemer. Augsburg, Germany
Annette Rohde. HP, Psychotherapist, Essen, Germany
Douglas Roise. MD, St. Josephs Hospital, Dickenson, North Dakota
Arcadio Rojo. PhD, Anthropologist, Barcelona, Spain
Steven Roman. PhD, San Diego, California
Robert Root-Bernstein. PhD, Professor of Physiology, Michigan State University
John Rosa. Electrical Engineer, Seattle, Washington
T.O. Rosales. MD, FRCPC, Pediatrician/Geneticist, St. Johns, Newfoundland, Canada
Michelle Rosalia. R.N., Coraopolis, Pennsylvania
Patti R. Rose. MPH, Ed.D; Associate Professor of Public Health, Nova Southeastern University, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida
Gary A. Rose, Sr.. J.D., Clallam Bay, Washington
Philip Rosen. PhD Prof. Physics, Univ. Mass. Amherst, Massachusetts
Elio Rossi. MD, Clinical Pathologist, Director, LAB IGEA, Roma, Italy
Luca Rossi. Journalist, Milano, Italy. Author, Sex Virus
John Rossi III. PhD, Toxicologist, Naval Medical Research Institute; Adjunct Asst. Prof. of Pharmacology/ Toxicology, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio
Frank Rothschild. Project Dir., Berkeley Project on Bioscience & Society, California
Jean-Claude Roussez. Science Journalist, France, Author, SIDA: supercherie scientifique et arnaque humanitaire (AIDS: scientific hoax and humanitarian rip-off) (2004)
Montserrat Rovira. MD, PhD, Barcelona, Spain
J. Spencer Rowe. M.A., Social Worker, Writer, Victoria, BC, Canada
Shubhojit Roy. MD, Santiniketan, India
Samar Roy. Director, Bangladesh Centre for Development, Journalism and Communication, Dhaka
Jeffrey Royal. M.S. Biomedical Engineering, San Francisco, California
Kino S. Ruben. MD, Dept. of Health, Chuuk State, Federated States Of Micronesia
Harry Rubin. DVM, Professor of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley
Anita Rubin-meiller. MSW, Psychotherapist, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Helmar Rudolph. Managing Editor, Marketing Competence Magazine, Cape Town, South Africa
Juan David Rueda Ramrez. M.Sc., Instructor, University of Antioquia, Medelln, Colombia
Violette Ruffley. R.N., C.H., Certified Hypnotherapist, Franklin, North Carolina
Denis Rugege. MSc, Ecological Surveyor, Pitermaritzburg, South Africa
John Ruhland. N.D, Seattle
Alex Russell. MA, Journalist, Assistant Editor, Continuum Magazine
Mugizi Rwebangira. PhD Student, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Mark Ryland. JD, Director, The Discovery Institute, Washington DC; Senior Fellow of its Center for Science and Culture
Dr. Ahmed Saad. Los Angeles, California
Aapo Ssk. M.Sc., M.A., MBA, Developer of water purification technology, Consultant on Third World Development to World Bank, WTO, FAO. Stockholm, Sweden
Brooke Saathoff. MS Psychology, Parsons, Kansas
Marco Saba. Science Investigator, Ethical Environmental Observatory, Milano, Italy
Renato Sabelli. Biochemist, Tor Vergata University, Rome, Italy
Juliane Sacher. MD, Frankfurt, Germany
Kevin Sahr. M.Sc., Asst. Professor, Computer Science, Southern Oregon University, Ashland
Shawque Said. Research Director, BeverAsia, Singapore
Ernest Saila. Chief Community Liaison Officer for Care, Counselling & Support, Hiv-Aids and STD Directorate, Department of Health, South Africa
Balwant Saini. PhD, Emeritus Professor and former head of the Dept. of Architecture, University of Queensland, Australia. Consultant to the UN, Asian Development Bank and Australian Government. Author of several university textbooks
Henri-Claude Saint-Fleur. Clinical Psychologist, D.E.S.S. (University of Lille, France), North Miami Beach, Florida
Chris Sakellariou. PhD, Singapore
Chris N. Sakellariou. Assoc. Professor, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Ivn Salas Vergara. MD, Universidad de Antioquia, Medelln, Colombia
Abdul Salau. Faculty, African-American Studies, Temple University, Philadelphia
Saleban Saleban. MD, MSc, Infectious diseases and tropical medicine. Medical coordinator of HIV/AIDS prevention and care in Rakai District, Uganda
David F. Salehi. PhD, Lake Dallas, Texas
Jose Maria Salinas. Computer Engineer, Dept. of Computer Science and Artificial intelligence, Universidad de Alicante, Spain
Tripen Salopal. MD, Pathology-Director, local blood bank, Delhi, India
Asha A. Samad. Medical Anthropologist, City University of New York, Director, Human Rights Center, Former Director, Womens Studies Program, Professor of Africana Studies, City College, NY
Lin Sampson. Journalist, Sunday Times, Cape Town, South Africa
Via San Giovanni III. Messina, Italy, Mathematics and Physics teacher
Adda Sanchez. MD and homeopathic doctor in Guadalajara, Mxico
Gerardo Sanchez. PhD, Nutritionist, Miami, Florida; Author, VIH/SIDA, Una Gran Mentira (HIV/AIDS, a Great Lie); President, USAS, Union por Soluciones Alternativas para el SIDA (Organization for Alternative Solutions for AIDS) and Director of www.sidainformatica.org
Scott Sandland. C.Ht, Certified Medical Hypnotherapist, Newport Beach, California
Cristobal A.P. Sandoval. MD, Cuba
Heinz Ludwig Snger. PhD, Emeritus Professor of Molecular Biology and Virology and a former director of the Department of Viroid Research, Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Germany; Recipient of the international Robert Koch award for medical research, 1978
Leonida Santamaria. MD, Pathologist, University of Pavia, Italy, co-author, Nutrients in Cancer Prevention and Treatment
Franco Santi Ranieri. Terapeuta, Consulente, Ricercatore, AIDAS-Associazione Informazione Difesa Assistenza Salute, Lucca, Italy
Daniele Santini. MD, Cancer Researcher, Rome, Italy
Alex Santoro. M.A., Kansas City, Missouri
George Sarant. MD, Bronx, New York
Sascha Sarnoff. Co-founder and President, Health Advocacy in the Public Interest, Santa Barbara, California
Vinod Sasidharan. PhD, Assistant Professor, San Diego State University, California
Guido Sassi. Asst. Professor of Chemical Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy
Massimiliano Sassoli de’ Bianchi. PhD, Theoretical Physicist, Institut de Physique Thorique, Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne, Switzerland
Masahiko Satou. Medical Science Journalist, Sapporo, Japan
Stephan Sauer. Researcher, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College School of Medicine, London UK
Irina M. Sazonova. MD, Moscow, Russia. Co-Author, Rezonansnyi test: Vozmozhnosti diagnostiki i terapii, (Resonance test. Possibilities of diagnostics and therapy) and Aids. Sentence abolished, Rossiiskii universitet druzhby narodov
Edward Scanlon. PhD, Assistant Professor, University of Kansas, Lawrence
Kathy Scarborough. President, Vaccination Information South Australia; Author, Investigate Before You Vaccinate. A guide for parents
Beatrice Scarlata. M.A., LPC, Mental Health Counselor, Brentwood, Tennessee
Adam Scavone. Grad. Student in Public Health, Columbia University, New York
Dr. Gero Schfer. Darmstadt, Germany
Christian Tal Schaller. MD, Director, Institut de Sant Globale (Institute of Total Health), Taulignan, France; Author, SIDA Espoir (AIDS Hope)
Liam Scheff. Journalist
Adam Schiavi. PhD Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, MD, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida
Nicola Schiavone. PhD, Researcher, Department of Experimental Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence, Italy
Alke Schlottag. DDS, Berlin, Germany
Casper Schmidt. MD, New York
Dr. Eberhard Schmidt. Bamberg, Germany
Dr. Heinz Dieter Schneider. Moeglingen, Germany
Russell Schoch. Editor, California Monthly, Berkeley, California
Robert Scholl. CEO and President, Childrens Wilderness Fund, Tarpon Springs, Florida
Katinka Schrder. Journalist and author, Dortmund, Germany
David R. Schryer. PhD, Hampton, Virginia
Dr. Ute Schumann. Health consultant to the European Union
Jon Schwabach. PhD, Psychotherapist, Vancouver, Canada
Jody R. Schwartz. PhD, Genome Sciences Department, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California
James Schwenk. Electrical Engineer, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Donald Schwoerer. M.A., School Psychologist, Hyde Park
Frederic I. Scott. Jr., Editor, American Clinical Laboratory, Baltimore, Maryland
Timothy Scott. CSW, New York, NY
David Scott. PhD, San Francisco, CA
David Scott. Attorney, Miami, Florida
David Scott. JD, Miami, Florida
Robin Scovill. Director of La Vergine Degli Angeli, The Other Side of AIDS and other films. Los Angeles
Bibiana Nalwiindi Seaborn. Womens Health Interaction and Inter Pares, Ottawa, Canada. Co-author, Uncommon Questions: A Feminist Exploration of AIDS
Karen Seabrooke. Writer, Inter Pares, the Canadian Social Justice Organization; Member, Canadian National Advisory Council; co-author, Uncommon Questions: A Feminist Exploration of AIDS
Joanne Searle. Psychotherapist, Johannesburg, South Africa
Antigona Segura. PhD, Post-Doctoral Researcher in Astrobiology, Penn State University
Carlos Haubi Segura. PhD, DVM, Veterinarian, Animal Nutritionist, Mexico City
C. Grier Sellers. M.S. Biology, Seattle, Washington
Jeremy Selvey. Hypnotherapist, Director, Project AIDS International, Los Angeles
Alexandre Semionov. MD, Medical Geneticist, Montreal, Canada
Eugene Semon. BChE, PE, Chemical Engineer, Englewood, NJ
Bhavana Sen. MBBS, D.O, DNB Ophthalmologist, Mumbai, India
Fikeni E.M.K. Senkoro. Associate Professor, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Senior Fellow, Rockefeller African Humanities Institute, Fellow, W.E.B. Du Bois Institute for Afro-American Research, Harvard University
D’jahma Sentwali. Poet, novelist, New York City
Zachary Senwo. PhD, Associate Professor of Environmental BioScience and Toxicology, Alabama A&M University
Valter Sergo. Professor, Materials Engineering and Applied Chemistry Dept., University of Trieste, Italy
Alessandro Sermoneta. Screenwriter, Rome, Italy
Francis Serrano. MD, Manila, Philippines
Lesiba Job Seshoka. International Relations Officer, Democratic Nursing Organisation of South Africa (DENOSA)
Siegbert Setsevits. Attorney, Berlin, Germany
Serdal Sevinc. PhD, Post-Doctoral Fellow, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Canada
Abdulalim A. Shabazz. M.Sc, M.I.T., PhD, Cornell Univ.; Distinguished Prof. of Mathematics, Lincoln University, Pennsylvania. Former chair, Mathematics Dept., Atlanta Univ.; American Assn. for the Advancement of Science “Mentor Award” (1992); National Assn. Of Mathematicians Distinguished Service Award; 1995 recipient of the QEM/MSE “Giants in Science” Award
Muslim Shahid. Inorganic chemist, research and development scientist, inventor, Houston, Texas
Inbar Shai. PhD, Brookline, Massachusetts
Frank Shallenberger. MD, former professor, University of California School of Medicine at Davis and John F. Kennedy University in Orinda, California; Secretary, Orthomolecular Medical Society; Medical Board of Directors, Huxley Institute for Biosocial Research; Founding Director of the International Bio-Oxidative Medicine Foundation
Amir Shariff. MD, Chicago, Illinois
Mohammad Mehdi Sharifi. ND, MSc, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, Doctor of Naturopathy, Master of Holistic Applied Nutrition
Ramesh Sharma. Gandhi Peace Foundation, India [Says the entire Aids campaign in India is profit-driven]
Marla Shauer. Nurse, Washington, DC
Valerie Sheehan. MSW, certified psychotherapist and hypnotherapist, New York
Jack Sheehy. Nutritionist, Sunshine Coast, Australia
Sevl Sheldon. Psychiatrist, Pennsylvania
Michelle Sheldrake. M.Sc., PhD Candidate Medical Anthropology, Health Researcher, Brisbane, Australia
Joan Shenton. M.A., Meditel Productions, England. Medical journalist and producer of over 100 TV documentaries which won her company seven international awards as well as the British Royal Television Society Award and the British Medical Association Award
James T. Shepherd. MD, Port Arthur, Texas
David Sherwood. PhD, Psychotherapist, Poughkeepsie, New York
Vasant V. Shevale. DDS, Mumbai, India
John G. Shiber. PhD, University of Kentucky, Prestonberg, Kentucky
Alden Shiers. PhD, Professor of Economics, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Nagesh Shirgoppikar. MD., AIDS specialist, Salvation Army Clinic, Mumbai, India [Says Hiv+ patients, if treated holistically, remain in perfect health without Aids drugs]
Joshua Shome. L.Ac, MSTOM, Acupuncturist, Oriental Medicine Practitioner, New York City
Ivy Shoots. PhD student, Miskatonic University, Massachusetts; Fulbright Scholar
James H. Shott. M.Ed, Bluefield, Virginia, Editorial Writer
Eric Shragge . PhD, Professor of Social Work, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Author, Community Economic Development: In Search of Empowerment and other books
David Shugar. PhD, Prof. Biophysics, Univ. Warsaw, Editor, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Poland
Mark Shulgasser. Playwright, Author, New York
Severin Sibailly. MD, physician, Abidjan, Cote dIvoire [Says many Hiv-negative women in Africa have Aids]
Yannis Sideris. Professor of Social Sciences, Merchant Marine Academy, Thessaloniki, Greece
Irving P. Silberman. O.D., Hyde Park, New York
Nick Silikas. DDS, Research Associate, University of Manchester Dental School, UK
Fernando Silva. MD, Gynecologist, Madrid, Spain
Ernest G. Silver. PhD, Radiation Biologist, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Thula Simpson. Postgraduate research student, University of London, UK
Beldeu Singh. M.Sc., Malaysia
Henri Sirio. Physiotherapist, osteopathy student, Saint Louis, France
Linda Sisson. RN, Director Support Coalition Northwest, Eugene, Oregon
Roy Skidmore. D.C., Chiropractor, San Jose, California
Roy Skodnick. Writer, art historian, New York City
Cynthia Skovgard. Doctor of Chiropractic, San Marcos, California
Steve Slaton. Fort Collins, Colorado, former PhD candidate in Immunology
Jason Slot. Biochemistry Research Technician, Boston, Massachusetts
April Smith. Medical Student, Oklahoma City
Casey Marie Smith. Licensed Acupuncturist and Certified Doula, Topanga, California
Lyle J. Smith. M.S. Ag Econ Univ. Calif. Davis; Biology Student; San Jose, California
Marcia Smith. ND, PhD, Nutrition, Fairfax, California
Tony Smith. CAGS, New York, NY
Sunyata Smith. Grad. Student in molecular biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York
Stacie Smith. M.A., L.P.C., Psychotherapist, Atlanta, Georgia
James P. Snyder. PhD, Glenview, Illinois
David Sobers. PhD, Albuquerque, New Mexico
Michal Sobkowski. PhD, Chemistry, Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences
Wilmer Soler Terranova. MD, M.Sc., Profesor, Departamento de Fisiologa y Bioqumica, Facultad de medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medelln, Colombia
Mavo Solomon. M.Sc., Energy Analyst, Eskom Megawatt Park, Cape Town, South Africa
Eddie Solorzano. Hiv counselor, Pasadena, California Health Department, HIV Prevention Education Program
Xin Song. Computer Scientist, Universitt Trier, Germany
Joseph Sonnabend. MD, New York, founder of the American Foundation for AIDS Research (AmFAR) [Says Aids is multifactorial, AZT is a disaster and that heterosexual transmission is a hoax.]
Carlos Sonnenschein. MD, Professor, Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts
David M. Sonntag. PhD, MSPH, Environmental Toxicologist, Cincinnati, Ohio
Faith Sood. ex-chairman, Poona District Indian Red Cross Blood Bank (First in India to test blood for particles associated with hepatitis and AIDS), Pune, Maharashtra, India
Christian Sorflaten. Electrical Engineer, Fairfield, Connecticut
Manuel Garrido Sotelo. MD, Cangas Pontevedra, Spain
David Sotnik. Documentary Film Maker, New York City
Leon Southgate. Registered Nurse, London, England
Bruno Spagnoli. PhD candidate, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides, Toulouse, France
Anne H. Spencer. PhD, Founder and Director, International Medical and Dental Hypnotherapy Assoc. and Infinity International Institute of Hypnotherapy, Royal Oak, Michigan
Marie Madeleine Spencer. PhD, Post-doctoral Research Associate in Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee
Jean Pierre Spinosa. MD, Gynecologist, Lausanne, Switzerland
Susie Spivey-Tilson. M.Sc., Decatur, Georgia
Maria Spizzica. Grad. Student in Mental Health, Monash University College of Medicine. Melbourne, Australia
Dr. Heinz Spranger. PhD, DDM. German Nosologist and Semiotist, and Practitioner in Periodontology and Oral Medicine. Former founder and Dean of the Faculty of Oral Medicine at the University Witten/Herdecke, former head of the Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main. Recipient of the German Ribbon of the Order of the Distinguished Service Cross for his humanitarian scientific efforts
Charles Ssali. MD, Ugandan physician and researcher in both western and traditional herbal medicines; Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in London
John St. John. D.C., Chiropractor, Chagrin Falls, Ohio
Peter Staheli. Engineer, Currumbin, Australia
Kurt Stampfli. MD, Study Group on Nutrition and Immunity, Bern, Switzerland
Udo Stanglmeier. Bonn, Germany. Author, Myrobalan, The Elixir of life: A Life-prolonging Fruit of the Himalayas
Mark S. Stanley. PhD, Dept. Biol. Sciences, Univ. North Texas, Denton, Texas
Rita Stanley. PhD, Director, Northwest Lyme Disease Support Network, Portland, Oregon
Audrey Stanton. Medical Student, Oklahoma State University
Phillip Staple. DDS, Dental Surgeon, Kingston, Jamaica
Marcelle Stastny. MD, Psychiatrist, Cape Town, South Africa
David Steele. Attorney, San Francisco, California
Charles Stein. PhD, Instructor, Bard College, New York. Author, Secret of The Black Chrysanthemum and other books. Editor: Being = Space x Action: Searches for Freedom of Mind in mathematics, Art and Mysticism
Ralph R. Stephens. LMT, NCTMB, Certified Sports Massage Therapist, Certified Neuromuscular Therapist, Author, Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Randall L. Stephenson. Dept. of Philosophy, University of Toronto
Wendell Stephenson. PhD, Philosophy, Fresno City College, California
Kim Stephenson. Writer, Portland, Oregon
Henry Stephenson. D.C., Naturopathic Physician, Yelm, Washington
Alejandro Ortiz Stern. Medical Student, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico
Rachel Stern. MPP, Masters in Public Policy, Tujunga, California
Erin Steuter. PhD, Assoc. Professor, Mount Allison University, New Brunswick, Canada
Gordon Stewart. MD, Emeritus Professor of Public Health, University of Glasgow. Former Consultant Physician (Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine) to National Health Service (UK) and WHO
John Stewart. Film Director of The Asylum and other films, London, UK
Roberto P. Stock. PhD, Research Scientist, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico
Cheryl Stoeber. MFT, RN, BCETS, Licensed Psychotherapist, Westlake Village, California
Jennifer Stonier. Womens Health Interaction, Quebec, Canada. Certifie Numavik. Co-author, Uncommon Questions: An Alternative Feminist Exploration of AIDS
Frank Stoppenbach. M.A., Mathematics, Columbia University
Philip Stowell. MB, BS, F.A.C.N.E.M., Physician, Brisbane, Australia
Howard Straus. Founder, Cancer Research Wellness Network; Author, Dr. Max Gerson: Healing the Hopeless. Carmel, California
John Strausbaugh. Journalist, former editor, The New York Press
James Strohecker. Executive Editor, Alternative Medicine: The Definitive Guide, author of many books on health and co-author of You Don’t Have to Die: Unraveling the AIDS Myth
Richard Strohman. PhD, Professor Emeritus of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley; former Director of the Health and Medical Sciences Program at UC Berkeley
Remo Strotkamp. Grad., Princeton University, Researcher, C&C Research Laboratories, Princeton, New Jersey
Eric Strzepek. Research Assistant, Environmental Issues, Competitive Enterprise Institute, Washington, DC
Harry Stulemeijer. Pharmacist, Schagen, Netherlands
Maria Grainne Beatrix Stumpfl. Engineer, Paris, France
Elsa Suarez. PhD, Bucaramanga, Colombia
Juan Carlos Surez Bermejo. PhD, Professor of Engineering, Universidad Politcnica de Madrid, Spain
David Subik. Sociologist, Brno, Czech Republic
Michael B. Sullivan. Graduate student in Psychology at Mississippi State University
Jeff Sullivan. MSW, Albany, New York
Peter J. Sullivan. M.A., New Milford, New Jersey
Richard Sunder. Psychotherapist, VP, Association Franaise de Pansmiotique, Paris, France
Kathryn Suslov. Medical and MPH student, Columbia University, Drexel University
Mattias Svensson. PhD candidate, Biotechnology, University of Lund, Sweden
Melvyn Sydney-Smith. MB BS, PhD. Adjunct Assoc. Professor, School of Health, University of New England; Director, Australian College of Holistic Medicine, Brisbane
Jean Symes. Institutional Program Coordinator, Inter Pares, the Canadian Social Justice Organization, Ottawa
John Szczubelek. JD, Assistant Attorney General, State of Michigan
Slawomir Szymanski. PhD and D.Sc. in Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
Utis Taechaprut. PhD Student, Kings College, London, UK
Edward Tagoe. MD, Heidelberg, Germany
Djamel Tahi. Science Journalist, France
Julie Talavera. Medical Student, Tulane University. Recipient of the Francis M. Taylor award for Chemical Engineering
Walter Tarello. Veterinary Surgeon, Perugia, Italy
Carl Taylor. PhD, Professor and Director of Youth Development, Michigan State University Institute for Children, Youth and Families
Dr. Anne Taylor. PhD, Aberdeen, Scotland. Former postdoctoral research fellow in physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology at Penn State University, Edinburgh University and Aberdeen University
Djeukam Tchameni. MBA, Computer Scientist, Chairman, Free Cameroon Movement, 2004 Cameroon Presidential Candidate
Charles Blaise Tchapdeu. M.Sc., Berlin, Germany
Abdoullah Bertrand Tchouangeup. Dipl.- Engineering, Naval Architect, Member, Royal Institution of Naval Architects. Emden, Germany
Elisabeth Tejerina. MD, Barcelona, Spain
William F. Tell. Senior Analyst, Health Care Advisory Board, Washington, DC
Nemen M. Terc. Nuclear Physicist, Hallandale, Florida
Silvio Terra. M.Sc. Student, Oregon State University
Michael Theroux. Director, Borderland Scientific Research Foundation
Dion Thevarge. Registered Nurse, North Vancouver, BC, Canada
Ralf Thomaier. Engineer, Frankfurt, Germany
Charles Thomas. PhD, former Professor of Biochemistry, Harvard and Johns Hopkins Universities. Former chair of the Cell Biology Department, Scripps Research Institute
Joe Thomas. PhD, ICMR-WHO Proj. on AIDS, Calcutta, India
Charles B. Thomas. PhD, Chair, Dept. of Sociology, Anthropology and Criminal Justice, University of Michigan at Flint
Stuart A. Thomson. Director, Gaia Research Institute, Knysna, South Africa
Sherry Thorup. M.Sc., Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida
Rawson M. Thurber. MFA, Movie Director, Los Angeles, California
Michael Tierra. Acupuncturist, herbalist, author, Santa Cruz, California
Omkar Tilak. Homeopathic Doctor, Pune, India
Muriel Tillinghast. Executive Director of Head Start, long-time civil rights activist, and 1996 US Vice Presidential candidate of the Green Party
Alan Tillotson. PhD, Author, Director Chrysalis Natural Medicine, Wilmington, Delaware
John Tindall. MCSP BAc MBAcC, Physiotherapist, Acupuncturist, Chinese Herbalist, London, UK. Previously an Aids specialist with Britain’s NHS. Co-author, Acupressure for Common Ailments
Apolinar Tiongson. MD, Pathologist, San Jose, California
Wilhelm Tischler. MD, Bad Hall, Austria
John Tatini Titantah. PhD, Physicist, L’Universit Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
Frederick Tobin. PhD, Gorke, Australia
Dominique Tobler. PhD Student, Geochemistry, Bern, Switzerland
Ivn Tobn Restrepo. MD, Universidad de Antioquia, Medelln, Colombia
Peter G. Tocci. MT, Holistic wellness consultant and health writer, Leominster, Massachusetts
Kathleen Tolliver. RN, New Haven, Connecticut
Marcio Murilo Tomasoni. Pharmacist and Biochemist, Florianopolis, Brazil
Eriberto Tontodonati. Astronomer, Ragusa, Italy
Sharon E. Toole. Certified Psychotherapist, Toronto, Canada
James Tooley. PhD, Professor of Education Policy, University of Newcastle, UK. Consultant to the UN, World Bank, UK Government; Director of the Education Program at the Institute of Economic Affairs; Author of many books including Reclaiming Education and co-author of HIV and Aids in Schools: The Political Economy of Pressure Groups and Miseducation
Denijal Topcic. PhD Student, University of Melbourne, Australia
Gustavo Torres. Dental Surgeon, File, Peru
Nicola Tosi. Professor of Geophysics, Milan University, Italy
Obediah Totimeh. Nurse, Coon Rapids, Minnesota
John R. Totter. PhD, Director, Atomic Energy Commission Division of Biology and Medicine (1967-72); Former Associate Director of Biomedical and Environmental Science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; former Professor of Chemistry and Chairman of the Division of Biological Science at the University of Georgia
Michael Tracey. PhD, Director, Centre for Mass Media Research, University of Colorado at Boulder
Bernard Trink. Journalist, Author and Columnist, Bangkok Post
George B. Trinkaus. Author, How the [SF] Chronicle Invented Aids.
La Trombetta. Burzynski Research Inst., Houston, Texas
Dawn Trook. MFA, Author, Instructor, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, Texas
Gene Trosper. Quality Assurance specialist for a major medical device manufacturing company. Also chairman of the Riverside County (California) Libertarian Party
Dick Trostler. Engineer, Claremont, California [ ]
Adam B. Troy. PhD candidate, Clinical Psychology, University of Miami, Florida
Ray Trujillo. DDS, San Diego, California
Oupa Tsheko. PhD, Lecturer, University of Botswana
Xin M. Tu. PhD, Harvard University School of Public Health, Associate Professor, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania [Says 90% of positive Hiv tests in low risk populations are false positives]
Ionel Tudor. Mathematician, Giurgiu, Romania
Dr. Shungu M. Tundanonga-dikunda. PhD, Public & Policy Affairs Consultant, Berlin, Germany
James Turner. Engineer, Azusa, California
Valendar Turner. MD, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia
Meredith Turshen. PhD, Professor of Urban Studies and Community Health, Rutgers University, New Jersey
Richard A. Tuscher. D.O., Portland, Oregon
Teresa E. Tutt. MS, PhD candidate: Medical Radiation Physics, College Station, Texas
David H. Tyson. Mathematician, electrical engineer, Eugene, Oregon
Craig Michael Uhl. MD, former U.S. Navy physician, Monarch Beach, California
Marie Ukpong. Medical Microbiologist, affiliated with The Nigerian Association of Microbiologists
Friedrich Ulmer. PhD, Professor of Mathematics and Statistics, Bergische University, Wuppertal, Germany
Werner Ulrich. DVM, Veterinarian, Public Health Inspector, Sta. cruz De Tenerife, Spain
Jean Umber. Professor of Organic Chemistry, Acadmie de Nancy-Metz, Lorraine, France
John J. Umile. Medical Virology Researcher, Union County College, New Jersey
Howard Urnovitz. PhD, Microbiologist and Immunologist, Science Director, Chronic Illness Research Foundation, co-founder and CEO, Chronix Biomedical. Dr. Urnovitzs team developed the only FDA-licensed urine-based diagnostic test for antibodies to HIV
Roser Urreizti. PhD student in Genetics, Barcelona, Spain
Cristian Vaccari. Ph.D. candidate, IULM University, Milan, Italy
Gabriela Vachino. Architect, Barcelona, Spain
Francois Vachon. MD, University of Paris 7, France [Says Hiv is not transmitted by penile-vaginal sex]
Eleonora N. Vacilotto. Nurse, Porto Alegre, Brazil
Vladimir Valderrama. MD, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota, Colombia
Larry Valencia. M.S. Pharmaceutical Science, writer, Wyoming, Rhode Island
Gian Paolo Vallati. Architect, Writer, Rome, Italy
Joan Valls. MD, Arbucies, Spain
A. Van Beveren. PhD, Biochemist/Physiologist, Director, Health Integration Center, Skillman, New Jersey
Jean Van Camp. M.A., New Martinsville, West Virginia
Marcus Van Dam. MD, Scarborough, UK
Tine Van Der Maas. Prof. Nurse, Cape Town, South Africa
Steven Van der Merwe. Journalist, Times Media Ltd, Johannesburg, South Africa
JP Van der Veen. L.LB, Durban, South Africa
Karen Van Hoek. PhD, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Dewald Van Niekerk. Head of the African Centre for Disaster Studies at North-West University, South Africa. Co-author, Governance, Politics, and Policy in South Africa, Oxford, 2001
M.H. Van Sligtenhorst. MD, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Reinder Van Tijen. Industrial engineer. Founder of the non-profit industrial design foundation Demotech. Dieren, Netherlands
Albertus Van Wyk. Journalist, Johannesburg, South Africa
Darren Van Zyl. Paramedic and educator, Johannesburg, South Africa
Hernn Vanegas. Journalist, Medellin, Colombia
Kurt Vanquill. Ophthalmologist, Harvard graduate, San Francisco
Alex Varden. M.A., Los Angeles, California
CJ Varghese. Homeopathic physician, Taliparamba, India
Paul Varkonyi-Wallerstein. MD, Author, Das AIDS Dilemma; Forschung in der Sackgasse [The AIDS Dilemma; Research at a dead end]. Saarbruecken, Germany
Christopher Derick Varn. Managing Editor, Milkwood Review
Ricardo Vasquez-sandoval. MD, M.Sc., Prof. of Immunology, Universidad de Concepcion, Chillan, Chile
Antonieta Vazquez. Pharmacist, Maracaibo, Venezuela
Jorge Vega Bravo. MD, Universidad de Antioquia, Medelln, Colombia
Raul Vergini. MD, Predappio, Italy
Vivienne Vermaak. Broadcast Journalist, South Africa
Michael Verney-Elliott. Journalist, London, UK
Dr. Eduardo Verzini. MD, Argentina
Claudio Viano. Engineer, Turin, Italy
Goats up an Argan tree, or HIV doubters eating of the fruit of wisdom while watching out for rabid HIV defendersTerry S. Vibbert. DDS, Evansville, Indiana
Ana Vidal. Medical Student, University PUC-SP, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Gonzalo Vidal. D.C., Hayward, California
Gernot Vielkind. MD, Government Medical Officer, Lichtenau, Austria. Previously Assistant to Prof. KH Spitzy, Dept. of Chemotherapy, University Hospital, Vienna, Austria
Dr. Alberto Vigano. Milan, Italy
Carlos Villamizar Mantilla. Engineer, Bogot, Colombia
Jacques Siegfried Visser. Administrator, Aids Research Foundation of South Africa, Pretoria
K. Viswambharan. Founder of Natural Health Foundation, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India
Higinio Vital. Engineer, Madrid, Spain
Higinio Vital. Engineer, Madrid, Spain
Marta Vives. MD, University of Barcelona, Spain
Barend Vlaardingerbroek. PhD, Senior Lecturer, Dept of Mathematics and Science, University of Botswana
Janie Vohland. Registered Nurse; First Aid/CPR Instructor, Salem, Oregon
Giovanna Volpe. MA, Sydney, Australia
Peter-anton Von Arnim. Lecturer, Weimar Summer Courses, Germany. Author, Der grne Baum des Lebens and Goethe und der Islam
Eberhard Von Goldammer. Professor of Biophysics and Cybernetics, FH-Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany
Caroline Von Taysen. Psychological Case Worker, Berlin, Germany. Author, Autismustherapien – Grundhaltungen in der psychotherapeutischen Praxis im Zusammenhang mit der Therapie von autistischen Kindern und Jugendlichen (Autism therapy – basic attitudes in psychotherapeutic practice in connection with the therapy of autistic children and young people)
Bi Roubolo Vona. Ph.D., Asst. Professor of Mathematics, Clark-Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia
Aajonus Vonderplanitz. Nutritionist, speaker and writer, Venice, California. Author, We Want to Live and The Recipe for Living Without Disease
Erik VonHausen. Managing Editor, QNortheast Magazine, Utica, New York
Karl Voogd. Pharmaceutical Technician, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, Washington
Valerije Vrcek. M.Sc., Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Riyad Vinci Wadia. Indian writer/director of Fearless: The Hunter Wali Story, A Mermaid Called Aida and BOMgAY
William Wagener. PhD, Associate Professor, Microbiology, Clinical Laboratory Science, West Liberty State College, West Virginia
Allene R. Wahl. PhD, C.N.C., Founder: International Resource Center for Chemically Induced Immune Disorders, Franklin Park, Illinois
M. Wainwright. PhD, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, UK
Kinefe Walde-miskel. M.A., Koln, Germany
Martin Walker. Journalist and author of Dirty Medicine
Michele Walton. Documentary Film Maker, St. Louis, Missouri
Ronald Elly Wanda. Engineer; President, Pan African Society, London, UK
Ernest Wandera. M.Sc., Health Care Admin, Elizabeth, New Jersey
Theodore L. Wansley. M.Sc., University of Florida
James H. Warner. LLD, Rohersville, Maryland
Patricia Nell Warren. Author, Publisher, Los Angeles, California
Emmy Wasirwa. MD, Kampala, Uganda
Eugene Watson. Manufacturer of Scientific Instruments, Laramie, Wisconsin
Edward J. Wawszkiewicz. PhD, Chicago, Illinois
Col. Douglas J. Wear. MC USA, Chairman, Department of Infectious and Parasitic Disease Pathology. Department of Defense Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC [salutes Duesbergs dissent and admits that Hiv has only a possible causative role in Aids]
Charles Weaver. graduate student, Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York
Robert Weaver. MD, Chicago, Illinois
Yeh Da Wei. MD, Hsin-Chu City, Taiwan
Nicolas Weiland. Homeopath, Montreal, Canada
Hannes Weinbauer. Medical Student, Graz, Austria
Elisabeth Weinberger. Bad Ems, Germany. Co-author, Neue Punktuelle Schmerz- und Organtherapie
Sonya Weir. Journalist, Vancouver, Canada. Editor, Shared Vision Magazine
Barnett J. Weiss. CSW, HEAL Board Member, Brooklyn, New York
Darrell G. Wells. PhD, Emeritus Professor, Plant Sciences, Brookings, South Dakota
Jonathan C. Wells. PhD, Fairfield, California
Martin Welz. Editor, Noseweek, Cape Town, South Africa
Cyrille Onyumbe Wemakoy Wombo. Writer, Pretoria, South Africa
Adrian M. Wenner. PhD, Dept. Biol. Sciences, University of California at Santa Barbara
Louise Wentzel. Complementary Health Practitioner, Cape Town, South Africa
Rudolf Werner. PhD, Professor of Biochemistry, University of Miami School of Medicine
Jeremy R. Werner. L.Ac., MTOM, RMT. Acupuncturist, Master of Traditional Oriental Medicine, Beverly Hills, California
Jim West. Science journalist, Chairman of the Science Committee for the NoSpray Coalition in New York City
Manfred Wetter. PhD, Copperbelt Univ., Kitwe, Zambia
James Whitehead. writer and researcher for Continuum Magazine and Meditel Productions
Mark Whittaker. M.Phil, University of Glasgow, Copenhagen, Denmark
Thomas Whittier. Acupuncturist, Former Analytical and Research Chemist for Smith Kline & French, Former VP and Quality Control Director for Sterling Drug
Kenneth D. Wicker. MD, Physician, Internal Medicine, Jefferson City, Tennessee
Theodor Wieland. PhD, Max Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany
Jens Wielobinski. Physiotherapist, holistic medicine practitioner, Dresden, Germany
Frank Wiewel. Founder, People Against Cancer, Member, Advisory Board, National Institute of Healths Office of Alternative Medicine
Jon Wilcox. Physician, MBChB, DipObst, FRNZCGP, Auckland, New Zealand. Also served on government committees dealing with pharmaceuticals and classification of pharmaceuticals
David J. Wilder. MD, Physician, Augsburg, Bavaria, Germany
Karl Wilder. Nutritionist, New York
Ivor F. Williams. Project Manager, Botswana, Population Services International
Winthrop Williams. PhD, Physics, University of California at Berkeley
Kate Williams. PhD candidate, University of Michigan; B.Sc., MIT, MBA, University of Chicago
Beth E. Williams. Grad. Student, Teaching Assistant in Biology and Chemistry, Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania. Awarded a fellowship from the National Science Foundation
Annette Willmott. Registered Nurse, certified midwife, Sydney, Australia
Robert E. Willner. MD, PhD, author of Deadly Deception
Ashley Wilson. Engineer, Milano, Italy
Geoffrey Wilson. Atmospheric Scientist, Nederland, Colorado
Melanie Windover. Journalist, Toronto, Canada
Zev Winicur. PhD, Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder
Dan Winterrowd. M.A., Pilot Hill, California
Wade Wofford. Addictions Counselor, Birmingham, Alabama
Jacek Wjcik. PhD, Chemist, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland
Thomas E. Wojtaszek. Attorney, Brooklyn, New York
Susan Woledge. Remedial Therapist, Student of Naturopathy, Te Aroha, New Zealand
Derek A. Wolfe. DBM, North Devon, UK
Gerald T. Wolke. Pharmacist, Vallejo, California
Lee Marc G. Wolman. Civil Engineer, Belmont, Massachusetts, B.A., B.E., Johns Hopkins University, M.S., Harvard University
Ambroise Wonkham. MD, Faculty of Medical Genetics, University of Geneva Medical School, Switzerland
Croft Woodruff. MH, Vancouver, Canada
L.B. Work. MD, Monterey, California
James L. Worthington. Registered Nurse, Director of Nursing, Central Florida Rehabilitation Complex, Mount Dora, Florida
Gillian Wray. Dip.Hom.Med., Dublin, Ireland
Michael Wright. recipient of four federal grants from the US Public Health Service. Two of these grants supported the development and testing of software for Hiv risk assessment
James Wu. MD, Foster City, California
Cristiane Wu. MD, So Paulo, Brazil
Hung-Hsi Wu. PhD, Professor of Mathematics, University of California at Berkeley
Hannelore Wurst . Psychotherapist, Reinach, Switzerland
Leanne Wylet. Founder and President, Patients for Alternative Medicine (PfAM)
Markus Wyser. Dipl. Naturarzt and Drogist, Zug, Switzerland
Chun Xu. MD, PhD, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Jos Antonio Yaez-Martinez. Naturopathic Doctor, Monterrey, Mexico
David W. Yarbrough. MFA, Silver Spring, Maryland
Steven Haywood Yaskell. Science writer, Sweden. Co-author, Maunder Minimum and the Variable Sun-Earth Connection
Gisle Yasmeen. PhD, Director, BC & Yukon Office, The Council for Canadian Unity; Research Associate, Sustainable Development Research Institute & Institute of Asian Research, University of British Columbia; co-author, “Work, Space and Place in the Cities of the East Asian Pacific Rim” in Kim, Douglass and Choe (eds.) Culture and the City in East Asia, Oxford University Press 1997
Wai Yeung. MD, Orinda, California
Donald Yewah. Engineering Graduate Student, University of Munich, Germany
John Yiamouyiannis. PhD, Biochemist. Biochemical editor for Chemical Abstracts Service, Science Director of the National Health Federation. Co-editor of the scientific journal, Fluoride. Co-author of AIDS: The Good News is that HIV Doesnt Cause It; The Bad News is that Recreational Drugs and Medical Treatments Like AZT Do
Dje Yobouet. PhD, Director of Chemistry, Food Safety Net Services, Ltd.; Scientist, Agricultural Experimental Station, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Susan Yorke. MSW, RSW, Counselling And Development Centre, York University, Toronto, Canada
Risha Yorke. Playwright, Vancouver, Canada
Ian Young. Author The Stonewall Experiment (and other writings), Toronto, Canada
William Young. PhD, Genetics, Lansing, Michigan
Robert O. Young. Author, The pH Miracle: Balance Your Diet, Reclaim Your Health, and Sick and Tired? Reclaim Your Inner Terrain
Syed Zainulabedin. PhD, Neurobiologist, Freie Universitt, Berlin, Germany
Vladimir Zajac. PhD, Oncovirologist, Geneticist, Cancer Research Institute, Czech Republic
Doretta Zanella. Veterinarian, Torino, Italy
Vladimir Zaninovic. MD, Emeritus Professor of Neurology, Universidad del Valle, Santiago de Cali, Colombia
Jennifer F. Zea. D.C., Austin, Texas
Michael (Mickey Z.) Zezima. Editor, Wide Angle monthly; Author, The Seven Deadly Spins, Saving Private Power, The Murdering of My Years and other books. Has lectured at Yale and MIT
Zakhe Zondo. National Democratic Institute For International Affairs, Johannesburg, South Africa
Michael Zonta. Journalist, San Francisco. Author, The Men in My Life: A Therapeutic Autobiography
Hamadou Zourmba. Engineer, Wemblingden, Germany
Mark Zuhrbrigghen. PhD, Orthomolecular Nutritionist, Cape Town, South Africa
Winstone Zulu. Lusaka, Zambia, Consultant to WHO and UNAIDS. Member, President Mbekis AIDS panel. Founder of Alive & Well, Zambia
Musa Zuma. Researcher, South African Human Rights Commission, Johannesburg, South Africa
Andrs-amado Zuno-arce. Homeopath, Guadalajara, Mexico
Stanley J. Zyskowski. PhD, Farmington Hills, Michigan

There you have it. No handful of wild-eyed conspiracy theorists. No right-wing racists, as the Aids industrys spinmeisters would have you believe. Just 2,183 very serious, concerned, highly educated people from every corner of the globe who sense that an enormous tragedy is unfolding due to the medical establishments unwillingness to face the evidence that the Hiv-Aids theory is a mistake.

The people on this page were intellectually curious enough to have sought out and studied the arguments that discredit the Hiv-Aids theory. Since the mass media and professional journals censor these arguments, the vast majority of doctors and scientists, although decent people who want to do the right thing, have never been exposed to them, and so accept the biased conclusions of politicized bureaucracies like the CDC and WHO, whose coziness with the drug industry is legendary and whose recommendations always seems to dovetail perfectly with drug industry marketing plans.

Were it not for the massive media blackout of information that contradicts the Hiv theory, this list, long as it is, would be many times longer.

The next time you hear the media say, only a handful of scientists doubt Hivs role in Aids, refer them to this page. Explain to them that it is wrong to misrepresent the fact that there is enormous dissent to the Hiv-Aids paradigm.

The next time you hear the media drone, Hiv, the virus that causes Aids, remind them that journalists are supposed to distinguish between what is a theory and what is a fact. That Hiv-Aids is only a theory and has never been proven, is admitted by top scientists even in the Aids establishment.

The next time the media announce that tens of millions of people are dying from Hiv in Africa, ask them how they know that. Remind them that journalists are supposed to question dubious assertions from powerful, drug-industry funded agencies like the WHO, not parrot them as if they were indisputable. Ask them why they report these numbers as if they were actual Aids cases, when in fact they are projections made by WHOs computer programs, based on very questionable statistical methodologies and contradicted by many facts including the continual large population increases experienced in the countries supposedly worst affected.

Request that the media stop twisting the truth in support of a politicized, entrenched Aids establishment that profits financially by terrorizing people, pokes its nose shamelessly into peoples private sex lives, compels people to submit to inaccurate tests and literally forces mothers and babies to swallow toxic, unproven chemotherapy drugs with horrific, often-fatal side effects.

Explain to them that this is irresponsible, and that such actions cause needless anxiety, shatter peoples lives, tear families apart, destroy hope and trigger countless suicides. And that while we realize that sensational headlines about killer viruses sell newspapers, the social cost of these profits is unacceptable.

Make the media understand that keeping people in the dark about the large number of credentialed dissenters to the Hiv-Aids dogmas, and the financial conflicts of interest that are rampant among Hiv-Aids scientists and NGOs, is a violation of everyones human right to informed consent and freedom of information.

AFRICAN RAINBOW CIRCLE, P.O. Box 832, Waterfal 3652, KZN, South Africa
Email: information@arc.org.za Fax: +27 (0)31 765 6480
entry.

David Brooks’ fantastical view of Africa

June 12th, 2005

The newest addition to the Times Op Ed lineup has been mightily impressed by his tour of southern Africa last week, courtesy of the AIDS priests in that resource-challenged part of the world.

Today (Sun Jun 12) we are treated to a column from Mozambique, which paints the African health picture in lurid terms as a conundrum of moral, sociological, psychological and cultural issues, which the mighty technical prowess of modern science is powerless to solve.

“In the week I have spent traveling around southern Africa,” says Brooks, “I have been struck by how much technical knowledge we have brought to bear combating AIDS. You give us a problem that can be solved technically—like creating the medicines to treat the disease—and we can perform mighty feats.”

He is also aware of of the importance of condoms to prevent the spread of AIDS, it seems, and is very happy to visit a church made of stocks, ten yards long and with a tin roof, where he finds women and their pastor fully apprised of this important tenet of his and their faith.

But then he details the cultural-moral-political-psychological factors which confound this simple palliative. Apparently in Africa men are often polygamous, beat their HIV positive wives, won’t accept “no” for an answer, get drunk and/or in the “throes of passion” and force themselves on their women. Miners have sex with prostitutes and then their wives. Teachers trade grades for sex, “sugar daddies have sex with 14 year old girls in exchange for cell phone time…. Small gangs of predatory men knowingly infect women by the score without a second thought in the world.”

As an example of the thoughtless fantasy which streams from the pens of moral-cultural-psychological-political commmentators who are let out of their East Coast zoo to roam the unfamiliar moral-cultural-psychological-political landscapes of Southern Africa it is a prize specimen.

Brooks, not unlike some greenhorn provincial touring the Soviet Union in the charge of one of Stalin’s guides, seems to have swallowed everything he is told in one gulp without tasting any of it, and then spat it out as a monster grown tenfold, like some inflated bottomfeeder.

But on top of that, it seems that offered a rare chance to moralize on the incontrovertible basis of deadly threat of disease, he is not going to miss the opportunity.

“This is an AIDS crisis about evil,” he cries, launching further fire and brimstone about a southern Africa that bhas “ten Jobs per acre” and in desperate need of a “language that governments and N.G.O’s rarely speak” which connects words like “faithful” with “abstinent”, sewn together in the fabric of “some larger creed”.

All of this oratory from the pulpit is based on one premise which Brooks apparently never thought to question, despite the experience over two decades of AIDS in his home nation, which has seen absolutely no visible spread to heterosexuals of this supposedly same disease agent rampant in southern Africa. For heterosexuals, HIV is a swiftly catching microbe on the continent he is visiting, whereas it bats close to zero in the US in the same game.

Here is another column Brooks write earlier in the week. In Namibia and elsewhere, Brooks detects a Silicon Valley-type boom in small clinics springing up everywhere as drugs become increasingly availanle and work their wonders.

Once again, scientific critics of the paradigm in AIDS are faced with anecdotes of delighted patients who feel much better after they take their doses. How could all this be wrong?

That is a hard question best dealt with in a separate post. But for now, it seems that skeptics would have to redouble their emphasis on the psychology of HIV positivity, where the assurance of death has powerful debilitating effects and when it is replaced by the assurance of salvatio, patients are equally powerfully boosted—especially when what they are worrying about does not in fact exist, as such, and they may not be suffering from anything else:

The New York Times

June 9, 2005

In Africa, Life After AIDS

By DAVID BROOKS

Windhoek, Namibia

Bobwalla is a black woman born in Cape Town and raised under apartheid. She lived in a shack with her husband, who drank and beat her for the first nine years of their marriage. Then she tested positive for H.I.V., and cried for days. It was a death sentence.

But she was lucky enough to find a clinic that could give her antiretroviral drugs. She persuaded her husband, who is also H.I.V.-positive, to get treatment. He stopped drinking as part of the treatment, and has stopped abusing her and sleeping around. Now she counsels pregnant women on how not to pass H.I.V. on to their babies.

“For some, H.I.V. brings death,” she says. “For me, H.I.V. brought life into my home.”

You come to Southern Africa to visit AIDS hospitals, and you expect, or at least I expected, to find unrelieved sadness. But something positive has happened recently because of the confluence of three factors. The first is the spread of antiretroviral treatment programs. Second, some African governments have gone on the offensive against the disease. And third, the U.S. and other countries are pouring in money to pay for treatments.

So now you run across health workers who have been laboring for years and watching people die, but who suddenly have the means to offer life. You have, amid the ocean of despair, this archipelago of hope, hospitals that are ramping up treatment programs as fast as they can, even while bursting out of their walls. In Namibia, for example, only 500 people were receiving treatment in January 2004. Now over 9,000 people are, and the number is rising rapidly.

Here in Windhoek, Namibia’s capital, you run into people like a 6-year-old who was born to parents who were both H.I.V.-positive. They gave her the name Haunapawa, which reflected their mood at the time. It means, “There is no good in the world.” But the parents are both still alive, and the girl, once racked by pneumonia, is thriving on the medicine.

You run into scenes like the one I saw at Oshakati Hospital in northern Namibia, by the Angolan border, where a young Zimbabwean doctor, Gram Mutandi, works at his clinic. Patients can wait for eight hours to receive treatment and counseling.

One woman, Josephina, had been dying of AIDS. Her mother had already died. So had her sister and brother-in-law, and she was looking after their children. Then she got on the treatment program, and now she has the irrepressible joy of someone who has come back from death.

Next to her was a woman who showed a photograph of herself at the depths of her disease, frail and emaciated. With treatment, she’s robust now. “I want to thank Dr. Mutandi,” she said. “You saved my life.”

You can imagine what this has done for the morale of the health workers. You can imagine how it has helped them in their efforts to get more people tested for H.I.V. Now a positive test is not a death sentence. Something can be done.

Obviously there’s a long way to go. You can still go out and visit children in mud huts who are raising themselves because their parents, aunts and uncles are all dead. Only a small fraction of those who need treatment are getting it. At the Lutheran Hospital in Onandjokwe, Namibia, the staff tested 858 women in the first quarter of this year, but could get only five of their male partners to even come in for testing.

But there’s something perversely akin here to Silicon Valley in the early 1990’s. All these little treatment facilities are trying to get really big really fast. Thanks in part to American money, they’re building new wings and desperately scrounging for qualified staff.

They’re facing the problems start-ups face: how to offer treatment to hundreds when you have only one sink and one phone, how to use the survivors who suddenly have the rest of their lives to lead.

I came here expecting despair, but now realize that we should be redoubling our efforts out of a sense of opportunity. I came here aware of controversies about abstinence versus condoms in AIDS prevention programs, about U.S. aid versus multilateral aid, and now realize that all that nonsense is irrelevant on the ground.

This is a world of people trying everything, of doctors from Russia, Egypt, Cuba, Germany and Zimbabwe. Many are backed by money from the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, finally doing the work they’ve always dreamed of doing.

We could be on the verge of a recovery boom.

Of course, Brooks is as underresearched and underinformed as any other full time talking head in the US media on any topic he addresses, especially on a whirlwind tour of Africa, and it is unlikely that he would ever set his research assistants to work to nail down the inconsistencies in AIDS. But his inability to catch the simplest fundamental anomaly is striking, even with jet lag.

But then again, the mind works much harder to force inconsistencies to conform to the mental framework in place, than it does to change the framework to encompass a larger truth. Our pontificator Imagining that there might be something simply wrong about the mental projections of his guides and their medical masterminds is evidently too much to ask, for whatever reason.

What would be ideal, if unimaginable, would be for all columnists visiting southern Africa these days to be given a copy of David Rasnick’s “But What About Africa?” to read on the plane, without any access to alternative reading material.

First published as a paper presented to the Second Conference on Science and Democracy at the the Institute of Philosophical Studies, in the Palace of Serra di Cassano in Naples in 2003, Rasnick’s run down on the blatant impossibility of African AIDS as normally understood seems as persuasive as when it was delivered two years ago.

Anyone who credits the many points Rasnick makes can be relieved of the obligation to follow David Brooks, Brad Pitt, Diane Sawyer and other media stars into a fantasy of Africa as being inhabited by a race from another planet, whose magical ability to transfer HIV through heterosexual conjugation is matched only by their evilly corrupted social attitudes, recalling the darkest imaginings of the white European explorers and hunters when they first fearfully returned to the Dark Continent that spawned them eons before.

The url is at the Science and Democracy Conference Website and unfortunately nested inside frames. This makes it hard for google to find, unfortunately (someone should tell Web designers that if they want something to be seen by search engines, Don’t Use Frames).

The first page to go to to choose the language is Science and Democracy Conference: Choose Italian or English. Once clicked this leads to the full information page, where you should choose the papers from teh Second Conference, Contributions to SD2, one of which is David Rasnick’s “But What About Africa?” in both HTML and PDF.

Interestingly it also deals with the basic contentions of the Durban Declaration, which it refutes point by point, and with the widespread notion that antiretrovirals enable ailing AIDS patients to leap out of bed and climb mountains, or at the least go back to work from their sickbed.

The story is, sadly, otherwise, according to Rasnick. Click (more) for his refutation:

II. But, arenÂ’t people living longer because of the drugs?

Martin Delaney of Project Inform says that, “the multi-drug combinations have dramatically reduced death rates and greatly extended the lives of those [HIV-positive people] using such therapies” . This is a very common assertion made these days about the wonderful life-saving benefits of the admittedly highly toxic anti-HIV drugs. Let’s take a look at the evidence and see if Delaney’s unrestrained enthusiasm for the antiretrovirals is justified.

First, we must look at the CDC’s HIV/AIDS Surveillance Reports to see how AIDS has changed in the USA over the past two decades. The CDC data show that AIDS peaked in 1992 and has been going down steadily ever since (Fig. 7). The mortality rate from AIDS is dropping because AIDS has been declining in the USA since 1992, years before the introduction in 1996 of Highly Active AntiRetroviral multi-drug combinations (HAART) that Delaney touts. The apparent life-saving benefits of the HIV-protease inhibitor-containing cocktails is a consequence of the simple fact that these drugs have appeared on the scene long after AIDS peaked in the USA, during a period when the mortality due to AIDS was naturally in decline .

Another reason for the decline in AIDS deaths is the CDC’s re-definition of what constitutes AIDS in the USA. As of 1993, all you needed to qualify as an AIDS case were results from two lab tests: be immune to HIV, that is have antibodies to the virus, and have fewer than 200 CD4 cells per microliter of blood or a CD4 percentage less than 14 . The CDC has a rule that an AIDS case is classified according to the earliest definition that applies. Consequently, in 1997, 36,634 people (61% of all new AIDS cases) were classified under this non-disease category. Because the majority of new AIDS cases in the USA are classified according to the non-disease criteria of the CDC’s 1993 definition change, they do not have any of the colossal list of AIDS diseases—from diarrhea to dementia, pneumonia to cervical cancer—required by earlier definitions. Thus, the majority of new AIDS cases since the mid 1990s are disease-free (healthy) people. However, we can no longer follow the nationwide trend of including healthy people as AIDS cases after 1997 because the CDC stopped listing the AIDS-indicator diseases and conditions (formerly Table 12 ) in its HIV/AIDS Surveillance Reports.

Nevertheless, San Francisco continues to report AIDS cases according to specific AIDS-defining diseases. The San Francisco Quarterly AIDS Surveillance Report for 2000 shows in Table 10 on page 8 that 47.7 percent of all AIDS cases from 1980 through 2000 were diagnosed with AIDS according to the two lab tests of the 1993 definition change . Since this is a cumulative number, which combines all AIDS cases under four different definitions of AIDS, well over half of all people (mostly gay men) in San Francisco that are currently being labeled as AIDS cases have no AIDS-defining disease. In spite of the 1993 definition change, with its inclusion of large numbers of healthy people as AIDS cases, Fig. 8 (taken from reference ) reflects the national picture showing that the number of new AIDS cases in San Francisco has steadily declined since a peak of 760 in 1992 to below 50 in 2000, the same low level as in 1982. The number of new AIDS cases in San Francisco are now so few you could know them all by name.

As a consequence of the CDC’s 1993 definition of AIDS, over half of the people now being treated with the anti-HIV drug cocktails since 1996 (the year the HIV protease inhibitor cocktails became available) were healthy when they started taking the drugs. Delaney, mainstream AIDS researchers and the AIDS press are crediting HAART with prolonging the lives of these healthy people. Sadly, these healthy people taking HAART don’t stay healthy long. They eventually get sick from the drugs and die if they stay on them long enough .

On Africa, Rasnick concludes quite simply that

Thus, there is no evidence that HIV is spreading through sexual intercourse (or any other way) in Africa or anywhere else. Combined with the evidence that Africa is not currently being devastated and depopulated by an AIDS epidemic, the inability to document a sexually transmitted epidemic of HIV shows that a future HIV-caused AIDS apocalypse in Africa is unlikely.

The crumbling ethics of scientists

June 10th, 2005

Bad news today (Thu Jun 9) in Nature for those of us who like to believe that science is one of the last remaining bastions of resistance to lying, cheating and fraud, even if as we all know the professional pressures have risen to new heights with every decade that passes.

According to a Minnesota study of 3,200 young and mid-career US scientists three years ago, while few admitted to falsifying data, a third of them confessed to stealing credit, or changing the results of a study to suit a sponsor.

The lead author is Brian Martinson, a sociologist at the HealthPartners Research Foundation in Bloomington, and as he says the bad behavior amounts to more than “just a few bad apples”.

Apparently this comes as a shock to some, who haven’t yet cottoned on to the fact that that scientists are human, too, and when they have to compete for grants and sponsors and produce results they are going to behave just like other communities in business and in universities.

Possibly all the decent folk who have found this kind of ethical deterioration hard to imagine will finally realize that even science is capable of producing it Enrons and WorldComs, and look a little harder at fields such as AIDS where the science is unproven and the stakes very large.

What is equally surprising is that this is the first time such a study has been carried out. This surely reflects the high level of trust that has been accorded scientists up to this point. Or the naivete of the few sociologists who study them.

Or at least, the fact that those who are aware of the inside story of science have managed to keep it to themselves.

One-third of scientists admit to research violations

One-third of scientists admit to research violations

Maura Lerner, Star Tribune

June 9, 2005 BADSCIENCE0609

One-third of scientists admit to research violations

A third of the scientists in a nationwide survey admitted to violating some

of the bedrock rules of scientific research, according to a report by a team of Minnesota researchers.

The survey, of more than 3,200 U.S. scientists, found that hardly anyone

admitted to falsifying data outright.

But a surprising 33 percent confessed to other kinds of misconduct — such as claiming credit for someone else’s work, or changing results because of

pressure from a study’s sponsor.

The survey indicates that the misconduct involves more than a “few bad

apples,” said the lead author, Brian Martinson.

Martinson is a sociologist at the HealthPartners Research Foundation in

Bloomington.

“Our findings suggest that U.S. scientists engage in a range of behaviors

extending far beyond falsification, fabrication and plagiarism that can damage the integrity of science,” the authors report in today’s issue of the British journal Nature.

The researchers surveyed young and mid-career scientists throughout the

United States in 2002. They asked about a long list of questionable actions, from making up data to improper relationships with research subjects.

Among the findings: only three-tenths of 1 percent admitted to “falsifying or cooking research data.” Slightly more, 1.4 percent, said they had potentially

improper relationships with students or subjects. The survey did not define

improper, but researchers said it could include such things as hiring relatives or having an affair. A significant number –15 percent — said they had changed the design, methods or results of a study in response to pressure from a financial sponsor.

In addition, 7 percent admitted ignoring “minor” rules for protecting human subjects. And 6 percent said that they failed to report data that contradicted their previous work.

Martinson said this was the first survey of its kind, so it is not known

whether the conduct is growing more common.

If anything, he said, the survey probably underestimates the misconduct,

because some scientists may have feared discovery if they admitted their actions.

The survey also suggested that younger scientists (average age 35) were less likely to admit to most types of misconduct than their colleagues in

mid-career (average age 44).

Scientists, Martinson said, are “one of the hardest-working groups of people that I know.” But he said there may be something about their working environment — the mountains of rules, the pressure to compete for grants and to produce results — that leads them to compromise their ethics.

“A lot of other professions engage in a lot of misbehavior — look around at

corporate America,” he said. “There’s been this kind of idea that scientists

… are super-humans or something, that they’re immune from these kinds of

pressure. But scientists are human.”

The survey results came as a surprise to R. Timothy Mulcahy, vice president for research at the University of Minnesota. He called it “a very important study,” but said that some of the categories of misconduct may not be as black or white as they seem.

“I think there are a lot of gray zones,” he said. Scientists may not always

realize they’re crossing a line, he said, and universities should do a better

job training them in research ethics.

A top official with the Association of American Medical Colleges, which

represents major research institutions, declined to comment on the findings, saying she hadn’t had time to study them.

But Susan Ehringhaus, the group’s associate general counsel in Washington, D.C., praised the researchers for raising the issues. “Of course, it’s a matter that should be taken seriously,” she said. “I am glad to see the questions engaged, and look forward to the debate that I’m sure that they will produce.”

The survey was conducted jointly by Martinson and two researchers from the University of Minnesota, Melissa Anderson, an associate professor of higher education, and Prof. Raymond de Vries of the university’s Center for Bioethics.

The crumbling ethics of scientists

June 9th, 2005

Bad news today (Thu Jun 9) in Nature for those of us who like to believe that science is one of the last remaining bastions of resistance to lying, cheating and fraud, even if as we all know the professional pressures have risen to new heights with every decade that passes.

According to a Minnesota study of 3,200 young and mid-career US scientists three years ago, while few admitted to falsifying data, a third of them confessed to stealing credit, or changing the results of a study to suit a sponsor.

The lead author is Brian Martinson, a sociologist at the HealthPartners Research Foundation in Bloomington, and as he says the bad behavior amounts to more than “just a few bad apples”.

Apparently this comes as a shock to some, who haven’t yet cottoned on to the fact that that scientists are human, too, and when they have to compete for grants and sponsors and produce results they are going to behave just like other communities in business and in universities.

Possibly all the decent folk who have found this kind of ethical deterioration hard to imagine will finally realize that even science is capable of producing it Enrons and WorldComs, and look a little harder at fields such as AIDS where the science is unproven and the stakes very large.

What is equally surprising is that this is the first time such a study has been carried out. This surely reflects the high level of trust that has been accorded scientists up to this point. Or the naivete of the few sociologists who study them.

Or at least, the fact that those who are aware of the inside story of science have managed to keep it to themselves.

One-third of scientists admit to research violations

One-third of scientists admit to research violations

Maura Lerner, Star Tribune

June 9, 2005 BADSCIENCE0609

One-third of scientists admit to research violations

A third of the scientists in a nationwide survey admitted to violating some

of the bedrock rules of scientific research, according to a report by a team of Minnesota researchers.

The survey, of more than 3,200 U.S. scientists, found that hardly anyone

admitted to falsifying data outright.

But a surprising 33 percent confessed to other kinds of misconduct — such as claiming credit for someone else’s work, or changing results because of

pressure from a study’s sponsor.

The survey indicates that the misconduct involves more than a “few bad

apples,” said the lead author, Brian Martinson.

Martinson is a sociologist at the HealthPartners Research Foundation in

Bloomington.

“Our findings suggest that U.S. scientists engage in a range of behaviors

extending far beyond falsification, fabrication and plagiarism that can damage the integrity of science,” the authors report in today’s issue of the British journal Nature.

The researchers surveyed young and mid-career scientists throughout the

United States in 2002. They asked about a long list of questionable actions, from making up data to improper relationships with research subjects.

Among the findings: only three-tenths of 1 percent admitted to “falsifying or cooking research data.” Slightly more, 1.4 percent, said they had potentially

improper relationships with students or subjects. The survey did not define

improper, but researchers said it could include such things as hiring relatives or having an affair. A significant number –15 percent — said they had changed the design, methods or results of a study in response to pressure from a financial sponsor.

In addition, 7 percent admitted ignoring “minor” rules for protecting human subjects. And 6 percent said that they failed to report data that contradicted their previous work.

Martinson said this was the first survey of its kind, so it is not known

whether the conduct is growing more common.

If anything, he said, the survey probably underestimates the misconduct,

because some scientists may have feared discovery if they admitted their actions.

The survey also suggested that younger scientists (average age 35) were less likely to admit to most types of misconduct than their colleagues in

mid-career (average age 44).

Scientists, Martinson said, are “one of the hardest-working groups of people that I know.” But he said there may be something about their working environment — the mountains of rules, the pressure to compete for grants and to produce results — that leads them to compromise their ethics.

“A lot of other professions engage in a lot of misbehavior — look around at

corporate America,” he said. “There’s been this kind of idea that scientists

… are super-humans or something, that they’re immune from these kinds of

pressure. But scientists are human.”

The survey results came as a surprise to R. Timothy Mulcahy, vice president for research at the University of Minnesota. He called it “a very important study,” but said that some of the categories of misconduct may not be as black or white as they seem.

“I think there are a lot of gray zones,” he said. Scientists may not always

realize they’re crossing a line, he said, and universities should do a better

job training them in research ethics.

A top official with the Association of American Medical Colleges, which

represents major research institutions, declined to comment on the findings, saying she hadn’t had time to study them.

But Susan Ehringhaus, the group’s associate general counsel in Washington, D.C., praised the researchers for raising the issues. “Of course, it’s a matter that should be taken seriously,” she said. “I am glad to see the questions engaged, and look forward to the debate that I’m sure that they will produce.”

The survey was conducted jointly by Martinson and two researchers from the University of Minnesota, Melissa Anderson, an associate professor of higher education, and Prof. Raymond de Vries of the university’s Center for Bioethics.

Africa through Brad Pitt’s eyes

June 7th, 2005

What with the second Durban AIDS Conference this week, ABC’s 20/20 tonight (June 7 Tues) shows Brad Pitt and the blonde star interviewer Diane Sawyer treading the slum back alleys of an Ethiopian townships seeking out the sufferers of the scourge of Africa, that is to say, AIDS.

Even when some unfortunate, stick-thin mother lying on her sickbed is acknowledged to have TB, while the family display a few pitiful morsels of dried bread – “injara” – as their coming evening meal after the multi–millionaire visitors leave, and the pathways to the tin roof hovel force them to step carefully to avoid the running sewage, it is all laid at the door of AIDS, of course.

Luckily America is saving many of the delightfully vivacious children the glamorous duo, their guides, aides and their camerapersons meet (Brad teaches the excited black children the hip “American style handshake”) by shipping them helpful drugs, we gather, even if for some unexplained reason not all in South Africa are getting these as yet.

One good thing is that the children and other happy beneficiaries of US munificence are punctual in taking their drugs each day at six o’clock sharp. Brad is told by one schoolchild in striped tie and sweater that after the kid watched “Days of our Lives” he takes his drugs precisely at six o’clock. “Well done!” says Brad giving him an American handshake. How many do so, he asks a doctor. “What is the rate of success?” Almost 100%,” says the doctor. He means, of course, success at persuading them to take the drugs efficiently, and not what probably most viewers heard, which was that the drugs had a nearly 100% cure rate.

While nearly all of them in Africa given the drugs, says Diane in a phrase which tells more than she knows, take them “religiously”. Not so in the US. The deplorable fact is that nearly a third of AIDS sufferers in the United States abuse their global privilege by not taking these medications “religiously”, she tells us.

Brad Pitt behaves very well, kissing the dying mother on the cheeks with very loud Umwah! Umwah!s – “So nice to see you again!” – as she struggles to rise from her mattress and show him some pages she keeps close, perhaps a letter he wrote her after a previous visit Her pretty little daughter Helena has one ambition. To get five dollars from somewhere, and buy schoolbooks and thus help her mother.

The pre-teen Helena, one has to say, looks a good deal more thoughtful by nature than either of her patronizing visitors. Could it be that she has medical texts in mind, and will find out when she is grown that her mother died of neglect driven by fantasy? If so, what kind of gratitude will she ultimately feel for the ministrations of Americans?

Certainly if it is all a fantasy used to peddle useless and lethal Western drugs (which is what the unanswered, high level peer reviewed scientific critique says it is) what we are watching is an obscene theater of well intentioned but meddlesome, smug, ultra-privileged beings being welcomed as saviors by the poor and dying for the sake of a 20/20 photo op on behalf of AIDS Incorporated, when in fact all they need is a few dollars to clean up their shanty town and eat some decent food. Did Brad and Diane leave money in their wake? One can only hope so.

Or is it possible that it is all true, and her mother and other Africans did not die as fast as they otherwise would have done if they had simply been treated for TB with penicillin, hunger with food, sickness with sanitation, and poverty with a few of Brad’s and Diane’s infinite dollars, rather than with the AIDS drugs for which those who have faith in the wisdom of the white man are pleading in that part of the world?

Will we ever know? One begins to think that if this is all wrong, it will never be righted. Such is the power of media queens and Hollywood superstars blinding us with all this dazzling wattage, who will ever be able to correct it?

Brad himself is bewildered and admits it, standing against the mud wall of a hut with his stylish aviator shades parked on top of his head. Though he is deeply empathetic he cannot fathom lives so distant from his own unthinking ability to sit down at night and eat whatever he wishes with a friend, only a few feet from another room with a comfortable bed and clean sheets in it. “I try to picture what the evenings are like there. I can’t fathom it.”

“Think of the difference if the countries who have drugs to spare could offer more of a helping hand!” says Diane.

“The degree to which a small amount in Africa can save millions and millions of lives in something staggering to behold”, confirms the earnest Jamie Drummond, executive director of a campaign to get the rich nations to give a little bit more.

Jamie exudes do-gooder decency, concern, and brisk executive helpfulness from every pore, but one imagines that his actual experience of sick individuals encompasses scores or hundreds at most, and not the millions and millions he has expanded this into in the fertile fields of his imagination. And all of that personal experience was viewed through the spectacles of the current religion in all African sickness, which interprets almost any ailment now as a “symptom of AIDS”.

Come to that, what does he imagine is the problem with Helena’s mother, that his wonder drugs which can “save millions and millions” have had no helpful effect over the last five months, when she has gone from ill but standing to lying dolefully in her sick bed with TB, which Diane explicitly warns us will likely turn it into a deathbed soon enough?

There is one ray of light one can detect in this segment, however. Not all the emphasis is on AIDS. TB is allowed to make an independent entry onto the stage two or three times, as mentioned. Another example is the end of segment comment on th first segment, above (later segments are on Brad’s exciting personal life).

“The cost of just one sandwich and soda in America would fund six months of a drug to cure a child in Africa of TB,” says Diane.

Surprisingly, she (or rather, the ABC producers, the people who are the political windsocks at the network) shifted the focus to TB from AIDS.

One can only hope that this is a sign of things to come, where if the paradigm of infectious AIDS remains as scientifically bankrupt as the literature indicates, the shift to dealing with other diseases in their own name and their own right, and with the health and economic infrastructure in African nations, can only be welcomed as a new and improved direction for aid.

For the moment, however, it adds up to yet another propaganda coup for the prevailing paradigm, for which the US media almost uniformly act as if they were paid public relations spokespeople.

New York Sun front pages the LA Times “superbug” critique

June 6th, 2005

The New York Sun is a conservative daily started three years ago which has established a reputation for reporting and criticism which is often more incisive than the New York Times in politics and the arts. But it has seemed as hamstrung as other mainstream media when it comes to dealing with issues in science.

Today (Mon June 6) however, it picks up a story from the Los Angeles Times criticising the alarmist and publicity seeking behavior of scientists in the notorious “Superbug” affair, a scare based on a single case of the supposed new variety of HIV resistant to all the usual medications, which has since fizzled in the absence of any confirming evidence at all.

What’s interesting is that the Sun places this story top right on the front page with large headlines, including the rather damning subhead, “Warning, Says Doctor, Was Raised ‘Without a Shred of Evidence’.

Is it possible that the Sun might bring its magnifying glass closer to the overall story of AIDS if ecnouraged with a little background briefing, perhaps an op-edit? After all, conservative publications have always been

the ones that have carried the skeptical view on AIDS, just as they have on other liberal-progressive scientific sacred cows such as human caused global warming.

On the other hand, the New York Times—notoriously an establishment fellow traveler in AIDS as in other scientific issues—ran the same skeptical story a week or two after the Super HIV story broke (see Self-Serving Alarm at the Fierce Virus Feb 27 post below). It slammed the health officials and David Ho in much the same terms—well, perhaps more gently.

Here’s the full piece if you want to read it. Note that it reports that strains of HIV that don’t respond to many of the medications are common, and that the episode is treated as an opportunity to make self-promoting remarks by most of the sources consulted.

June 6, 2005 Edition > Section: New York > Printer-Friendly Version

Doubts Now Emerging About AIDS Superbug Reported in February

Warning, Says Doctor, Was Raised ‘Without a Shred of Evidence’

NYC’s Announcement is Called Naive, Alarmist

BY CHARLES PILLER – Los Angeles Times

June 6, 2005

URL: http://www.nysun.com/article/14901

The announcement from New York health officials in early February was chilling: A single patient had progressed from HIV infection to AIDS in months rather than years, and his strain of the HIV virus seemed impervious to normally effective medicines.

The patient, a gay man in his 40s, had unprotected anal intercourse with scores of partners. Headlines of a potential new killer spread around the world.

“This case is a wake-up call,” New York City’s health commissioner, Dr. Thomas Frieden, said at a news conference where he issued a warning for physicians to prepare for a possible new phase in the epidemic.

Yet several AIDS experts immediately questioned the importance of the case and the strategy of publicizing it so widely.

Months later, those doubts seem to have been confirmed.

No super-strain has emerged. The patient, whose name has been withheld, has responded to drug therapy. No one – not even the man’s known sexual partners – was found to be infected with the same HIV strain.

Some AIDS specialists now say the New York announcement was scientifically naive and needlessly alarmist – risking the effectiveness of future prevention efforts.

“Does it do good to [mislead] people and exaggerate?” the co-discoverer of the virus that causes AIDS, Dr. Robert Gallo, asked. He condemned Dr. Frieden’s far-reaching conclusions as “scientifically, completely invalid, without a shred of evidence.”

Dr. Frieden and the director of the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center in Manhattan, Dr. David Ho, where much of the patient’s lab work was done, declined interview requests.

But Dr. Frieden recently defended his decision in a letter to the journal Annals of Internal Medicine.

“We did not issue an alert to cause fear, nor do we think this was the primary result of our announcement,” Dr. Frieden wrote. “It would not have been appropriate to await additional cases before making an announcement. The goal of public health is to prevent, not describe, outbreaks.”

The patient’s condition did seem to encompass a frightening confluence of factors.

The presence of HIV in the patient’s blood reached high levels and essential immune system cells were severely depleted within 20 months after he was infected, rather than the typical several years. Three of the four major classes of antiretroviral drugs proved ineffective.

The patient was a user of crystal methamphetamine, an illegal drug that loosens inhibitions and can suppress immune response.

The seriousness of the alert was bolstered by the stature of the doctors behind it, some of whom were among the most respected in AIDS research. Dr. Ho, Time magazine’s 1996 Man of the Year for his AIDS work, lent a stamp of scientific certainty.

The February announcement included caveats about assuming too much from a single case. But scientific uncertainty can be a hard sell to the press, and the event seemed suffused with the subtext that this could be a turning point in the epidemic.

Hundreds of articles and broadcasts followed. Some took a hysterical tone – perhaps an overreaction by press outlets that were criticized for ignoring early cases of AIDS more than 20 years ago.

“New AIDS Super Bug – Nightmare Strain Shows Up in City,” trumpeted the New York Post. “New AIDS Peril Puts America on High Alert,” was how the Hindu, one of India’s large national newspapers, played the story. The New York Times headlined one of its several stories: “Chilled by Findings, Investigators Dreaded the Mounting Evidence.”

The problem, however, was that for many experienced AIDS workers, none of the conditions were new or particularly rare.

The director of the Center for AIDS Research at the University of California, San Diego, Dr. Douglas Richman, said resistance to three classes of AIDS drugs was relatively common.

“Rapid progression occurs in a subset of people,” Dr. Richman, lead author of a study that showed widespread drug resistance similar to that of the New York patient’s, said. “High rates of promiscuity among men who have sex with men, especially those who abuse methamphetamines, is frighteningly high.”

“I didn’t see this as a new, master virus that posed a threat of a new epidemic,” Dr. Richman said.

Dr. Gallo, director of the Institute of Human Virology at the University of Maryland, said the New York officials might have jumped to the conclusion that a single virulent infection would be easily transmitted.

The infection may say more about the individual’s susceptibility to the virus than about the virus’ ability to spread easily.

Canadian researchers Dr. Julio Montaner and Richard Harrigan at the British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS detected two similar cases in 2001, and those patients apparently did not pass along the virus.

“It wasn’t clear that there was a real public health benefit from the way the announcement was made, as opposed to investigating more details in advance,” the director of the Center for AIDS Research at UC San Francisco, Dr. Paul Volberding, said.

The New York case has reflected the fractured perspectives about how to combat AIDS in an era when the epidemic has lost some of its urgency.

Once AIDS was a virtual death sentence. Today, with appropriate care and drug treatments, most people in this country with HIV or AIDS live relatively long lives. But the improvement has fed a growing complacency among high-risk populations and the general public.

At the same time, widespread use of crystal meth and its tendency to promote unsafe sex has undermined recent progress – a message that advocacy groups and health officials have tried to convey with limited success.

The New York case offered a rare megaphone to wake people up. Several health officials and AIDS support groups agreed with the high alert.

“The time to issue a warning is when something bad might take place,” the AIDS prevention director for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dr. Ronald Valdiserri, said. “I don’t think it was counterproductive.”

Gay Men’s Health Crisis, a major New York service and advocacy group that receives health-department funding, was a key participant in the New York announcement.

Dr. Frieden “handled the announcement prudently,” the director of an AIDS prevention program for the Gay Men’s Health Crisis and Aids Project Los Angeles, George Ayala, said.

“We want to be mindful of where the epidemic is going and use these situations to remind ourselves about the seriousness of HIV and AIDS,” Mr. Ayala said.

But the executive director of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, Matt Foreman, said the announcement was irresponsible and had damaged the credibility of the effort to combat AIDS.

“It had a very salacious overtone,” Mr. Foreman said. “What it did was feed stereotypes about gay men and their sexual behavior. … Another two weeks or three weeks to really understand the science and the implications of these findings would have been appropriate – not this rush to judgment.”

June 6, 2005 Edition > Section: New York > Printer-Friendly Version

Malaria, the true scourge of sub-Saharan Africa, can be prevented

June 5th, 2005

Malaria infests 300 million people a year on the planet, and kills 1 to 3 million. But it gets very little media coverage compared with the more dramatic and sensational�and politically fashionable plague of AIDS.

The Los Angeles Times draws attention to malaria, however, in a series it begins today, and deserves credit for that.

When the sun goes down in Africa, death stalks the children. It seldom comes from jungle cats or venomous snakes, but often from bugs smaller than a toddler’s thumbnail. Every year, their deadly sting kills more people than at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, more than December’s tsunami in Asia, more than the combined Union and Confederate casualties in the Civil War. If a biblical plague slaughtered every man, woman and child in Philadelphia, it would not equal some estimates of the death toll from malaria in the last 12 months.

…Yet the U.S. government spends about half as much on malaria per year as it spends in one day in Iraq. It also places a lower priority on malaria than other diseases, spending 30 to 40 times more in the fight against AIDS than on malaria, maybe because Americans get AIDS but not malaria…

… in the case of malaria, negligence is especially immoral given the cost and effectiveness of available treatment. Anti-malaria combination therapies cost about $2 a treatment in Africa…

Just about everyone living in sub-Saharan Africa gets malaria at least once a year. Most survive but suffer from anemia, recurring fevers and physical weakness. Many children also survive an infection, but with impaired physical and cognitive development….

Deadly as it is, malaria is rightly considered among the more soluble diseases plaguing Africa, one that can be fought effectively at comparatively low cost, which is why this killer bug is once again drawing so much attention. But unless data are presented showing that anti-malaria programs work, that money will quickly dry up.

Here is the url of this malaria article at the LA Times: The Killer Bug

Here is the full text of The Killer Bug malaria article:

latimes.com

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http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/opinion/la-ed-malintro5jun05,1,3190985.story?coll=la-news-comment&ctrack=1&cset=true

MALARIA: THE STING OF DEATH

The Killer Bug

There are solutions, but most come down to one thing: commitment.

June 5, 2005

When the sun goes down in Africa, death stalks the children. It seldom comes from jungle cats or venomous snakes, but often from bugs smaller than a toddler’s thumbnail. Every year, their deadly sting kills more people than at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, more than December’s tsunami in Asia, more than the combined Union and Confederate casualties in the Civil War. If a biblical plague slaughtered every man, woman and child in Philadelphia, it would not equal some estimates of the death toll from malaria in the last 12 months.

Well, some might say, the world is full of tragedy. We can’t cure all disease or save all lost children. But these acres of graves are the needless legacy of a disease that we have known how to cure for a century. And each life might have been saved for about $2 � less than the price of a latte.

Public health authorities can only guess how many people die of malaria because most of the victims never make it to a clinic; the estimates range from 1 million to 3 million a year. Most of the dead are children under age 5, and 90% had the misfortune to be born in sub-Saharan Africa, a land trapped somewhere between the modern world and the Stone Age.

A Timeless Disease

Malaria’s origins can’t be traced to a specific time period; the disease may be as old as civilized man (some speculate that it arose around the time humans started clustering in agricultural communities). A Chinese medical text from 2700 BC describes its symptoms. It is a bug carried by a bug � a parasite carried in the salivary glands of the anopheles mosquito. Humans and mosquitoes live in a vicious circle of infection. The mosquito gets the parasite by stinging a human who is already infected with it, then stings an uninfected human and passes it on.

The word malaria means “bad air” in Italian, because for centuries people thought that fetid vapors, particularly from swamps, were responsible for its spread. Then, in 1897, a Nobel Prize-winning British physician named Ronald Ross discovered that the mosquito was responsible.

The response around the world was to attack the bloodsuckers where they lived. One of the most successful programs started in 1904, when the U.S. military began draining swamps in the Panama Canal Zone � malaria and yellow fever were killing or disabling so many workers that the completion of the canal was in jeopardy.

In the 1930s, a similar approach was taken in the American South, where the parasite was thriving. During World War II, DDT was developed and sprayed in millions of U.S. homes. The drugs primaquine and chloroquine were added to the older quinine as effective treatments, and, by 1953, malaria was all but eradicated in the United States.

It was a heady time. The world had seemingly conquered a disease that had shadowed man’s footsteps for millenniums; anything seemed possible. In the late 1950s, the World Health Organization led a campaign to eliminate malaria from the rest of the world, pumping the equivalent of billions of today’s dollars into the quest � an amount that, given today’s politics, seems almost incomprehensible. Workers armed with DDT sprayers descended like Blackhawks over Baghdad on the huts and houses of the Third World.

But the malaria parasite is one of nature’s more perfect killers, and this eradication effort was largely a failure. Malaria rates were reduced in some parts of the world, but in places with a more severe problem than this country had ever faced, the mosquitoes simply started developing resistance to the insecticide. And the DDT armies didn’t even try to fight the bugs in sub-Saharan Africa, where the problem was deemed so severe that such efforts would be pointless. Today, malaria kills more people than ever.

A Very Modest Goal

The WHO failure discouraged ambitious anti-malaria programs for decades. Then, in 1998, the WHO and the World Bank established the Roll Back Malaria partnership. In 2000, the G-8 club of industrialized nations identified three pandemics that it would work to cure, and in 2002 established the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.

A very modest anti-malaria goal was set in 2000 by the United Nations as part of its Millennium Development Goals: to halt and begin to reverse the rise in the incidence of malaria by 2015. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (whose president is married to the editor who supervises this page) also focuses on malaria eradication, further attracting attention to the disease.

Yet the U.S. government spends about half as much on malaria per year as it spends in one day in Iraq. It also places a lower priority on malaria than other diseases, spending 30 to 40 times more in the fight against AIDS than on malaria, maybe because Americans get AIDS but not malaria.

It is absurd, of course, to argue that one global epidemic is more deserving of attention than others. But fighting one disease need not divert resources from the battle against another. And, in the case of malaria, negligence is especially immoral given the cost and effectiveness of available treatment. Anti-malaria combination therapies cost about $2 a treatment in Africa (though that is still far too expensive for large numbers of Africans to afford).

The Sick Continent

Sub-Saharan Africa is an economic sinkhole, stuck in what Columbia University economist Jeffrey Sachs calls a “poverty trap.” Other poor corners of the globe, such as India and East Asia, are making progress, showing marked improvement in per capita income over the last decade and a half. Sub-Saharan Africa is standing still, if not getting poorer. Is it that its governments are too corrupt, or its farming methods too ancient, or its ethnic tensions too corrosive?

These are all factors. But none is unique to sub-Saharan Africa, and other places with these problems still have managed to reduce poverty. What is unusual about this region is the burden of disease, more intense than anywhere else on Earth. And one of the most insidious is malaria. The WHO estimates that the disease costs the African economy about $12 billion a year. Just about everyone living in sub-Saharan Africa gets malaria at least once a year. Most survive but suffer from anemia, recurring fevers and physical weakness. Many children also survive an infection, but with impaired physical and cognitive development.

Among the more cruel paradoxes of malaria is that this disease that kills millions of children also fuels overpopulation. In countries with high infant mortality, parents have a grim way of playing the odds, knowing they have to have a lot of children to make up for the ones who won’t make it past the age of 5.

Looking Ahead

The malaria parasite is remarkably complex and adaptable. As soon as scientists discover a new drug to fight it, the parasite starts developing resistance. Ditto for the mosquitoes that carry it, which eventually build resistance to poison sprays.

As a result, many health experts, particularly those who remember the WHO failure of the 1950s and ’60s, are skeptical that malaria can ever be eradicated. But no one doubts that its toll on humankind can be substantially reduced. And even achieving only the U.N.’s millennium goal of reversing the rise of the disease would save thousands, if not millions, of lives.

There won’t be a magic bullet � the solution will involve a combination of drugs, better availability of treatment, bed nets, insecticide spraying and, ideally, a vaccine. The Gates Foundation is in the process of selecting one country in which it will provide all the available resources, and measure the results. That kind of measurement is critical. Deadly as it is, malaria is rightly considered among the more soluble diseases plaguing Africa, one that can be fought effectively at comparatively low cost, which is why this killer bug is once again drawing so much attention. But unless data are presented showing that anti-malaria programs work, that money will quickly dry up.

In the coming months, The Times will examine some of the key challenges in the battle against malaria. There are solutions, but most come down to one thing: commitment. Most of the world’s richest countries made lofty promises to fight malaria at the turn of the millennium. In the years since, these pledges have not been met.

The result of this failure is a sting of death afflicting millions. The United States and other rich nations have it in their power to easily prevent this sting, and we will have it on our conscience if we fail to do so.

Copyright 2005 Los Angeles Times

Let’s repeat in boldface:

Just about everyone living in sub-Saharan Africa gets malaria at least once a year. Most survive but suffer from anemia, recurring fevers and physical weakness. Many children also survive an infection, but with impaired physical and cognitive development….

Now ask yourself, how likely is it that these symptoms will be interpreted as “AIDS” in an area where tests are never done (or if they are, they seem to be virtually meaningless, since they cross react with malaria?

********************************************************

Warning to travelers to the AIDS Conference in Durban this week.

Do not forget your malaria pills. If you do, and get malaria, then do not confuse the aftermath of malaria with AIDS, for which you will likely test HIV positive.

********************************************************

What Bill Gates unfortunately doesn’t seem to have been told is that according to the best literature in science malaria exists but AIDS appears to be nothing more than relabeling of conventional diseases and toxicities as “AIDS” caused by “HIV”, and mismedicated accordingly in ways which soon produce the symptoms of “AIDS”.

If this conclusion is true (and it is the one which the best and most hostile peer reviewers in science have been unable to prove faulty in the pages of journals which are the bibles of science) then every penny spent on AIDS drugs in Africa is a penny wasted on causing disease rather than curing the twin scourges of sub-Sahara, tuberculosis and malaria.

Of course, malaria was originally cut down by DDT, which killed off the mosquitoes which carry the disease from an infected human to another, uninfected one. Michael Crichton in his recent novel “State of Fear”, which criticizes environmental alarmism, says that the ban on DDT has “killed more people than Hitler”. Now many argue for the return of DDT, at least for use in Africa which is hot and disintegrates the chemical rapidly.

On the other hand, insects evolve rapidly to become immune to any chemical, and there will always be that limit on DDT use. A judicious op-ed article on the topic appears today at the Washington Post by May Berenbaum, head of the department of entomology at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign..

Click on (more) below for the full text of the Washington Post op-ed or go to this url If

washingtonpost.com

If Malaria’s the Problem, DDT’s Not the Only Answer

By May Berenbaum

Post

Sunday, June 5, 2005; B03

In the pantheon of poisons, DDT occupies a special place. It’s the only pesticide celebrated with a Nobel Prize: Swiss chemist Paul Mueller won in 1948 for having discovered its insecticidal properties. But it’s also the only pesticide condemned in pop song lyrics — Joni Mitchell’s famous “Hey, farmer, farmer put away your DDT now” — for damaging the environment. Banned in the United States more than 30 years ago, it remains America’s best known toxic substance. Like some sort of rap star, it’s known just by its initials; it’s the Notorious B.I.G. of pesticides.

Now DDT is making headlines again. Many African governments are calling for access to the pesticide, believing that it’s their best hope against malaria, a disease that infects more than 300 million people worldwide a year and kills at least 3 million, a large proportion of them children. And this has raised a controversy of Solomonic dimensions, pitting environmentalists against advocates of DDT use.

The dispute between them centers on whether the potential benefits of reducing malaria transmission outweigh the potential risks to the environment. But the problem isn’t that simple. This is a dispute in which science should play a significant role, but what science tells us is that DDT is neither the ultimate pesticide nor the ultimate poison, and that the lessons of the past are being ignored in today’s discussion.

The United Nations Environment Program has identified DDT as a persistent organic pollutant that can cause environmental harm and lists it as one of a “dirty dozen” whose use is scheduled for worldwide reduction or elimination. But some DDT advocates have resorted to anti-environmentalist drama to make their case for its use in Africa.

They have accused environmental activists of having “blood on their hands” and causing more than 50 million “needless deaths” by enforcing DDT bans in developing nations. In his best-selling anti-environmentalist novel “State of Fear,” Michael Crichton writes that a ban on using DDT to control malaria “has killed more people than Hitler.”

Such statements make good copy, but in reality, chemicals do not wear white hats or black hats, and scientists know that there really are no miracles.

Malaria is caused by a protozoan parasite that is transmitted by mosquitoes. For decades, there have been two major strategies for curbing the disease: killing the infectious agent or killing the carrier. Reliably killing the protozoan has proved difficult; many older drugs are no longer effective, new ones are prohibitively expensive, and delivering and administering drugs to the susceptible populace presents daunting challenges. Killing the carrier has long been an attractive alternative.

And DDT has been an astonishingly effective killer of mosquitoes. DDT (which stands for the far less catchy dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) is a synthetic chemical that didn’t exist anywhere on the planet until it was cooked up for no particular purpose in a German laboratory in 1874. Decades later, in 1939, Mueller pulled it off a shelf and tested it, along with many other synthetic substances, for its ability to kill insects. DDT distinguished itself both by its amazing efficacy and its breadth of action — by interfering with nervous system function, it proved deadly to almost anything with six, or even eight, legs. And it was dirt-cheap compared to other chemicals in use — it could be quickly and easily synthesized in chemical laboratories from inexpensive ingredients.

Soon after its insecticidal properties were discovered, DDT was put to use combating wartime insect-borne diseases that have bedeviled troops mobilized around the world for centuries. It stemmed a louse-borne typhus outbreak in Italy and prevented mosquito-borne diseases in the Pacific theater, including malaria and yellow fever, to almost miraculous effect. This military success emboldened governments around the world to use DDT after World War II to try to eradicate the longtime scourge of malaria. And in many parts of the world, malaria deaths dropped precipitously. This spectacular success is why many people are calling for the use of DDT specifically for malaria control.

At the same time that malaria deaths were dropping in some places, however, the environmental persistence of DDT was creating major problems for wildlife, as famously documented in Rachel Carson’s classic 1962 book, “Silent Spring.” By 1972, the pesticide had become the “poster poison” for fat-soluble chemicals that accumulate in food chains and cause extensive collateral damage to wildlife (including charismatic predators such as songbirds and raptors), and a total ban on the use of DDT went into effect in the United States.

What people aren’t remembering about the history of DDT is that, in many places, it failed to eradicate malaria not because of environmentalist restrictions on its use but because it simply stopped working. Insects have a phenomenal capacity to adapt to new poisons; anything that kills a large proportion of a population ends up changing the insects’ genetic composition so as to favor those few individuals that manage to survive due to random mutation. In the continued presence of the insecticide, susceptible populations can be rapidly replaced by resistant ones. Though widespread use of DDT didn’t begin until WWII, there were resistant houseflies in Europe by 1947, and by 1949, DDT-resistant mosquitoes were documented on two continents.

By 1972, when the U.S. DDT ban went into effect, 19 species of mosquitoes capable of transmitting malaria, including some in Africa, were resistant to DDT. Genes for DDT resistance can persist in populations for decades. Spraying DDT on the interior walls of houses — the form of chemical use advocated as the solution to Africa’s malaria problem — led to the evolution of resistance 40 years ago and will almost certainly lead to it again in many places unless resistance monitoring and management strategies are put into place.

In fact, pockets of resistance to DDT in some mosquito species in Africa are already well documented. There are strains of mosquitoes that can metabolize DDT into harmless byproducts and mosquitoes whose nervous systems are immune to DDT. There are even mosquitoes who avoid the toxic effects of DDT by resting between meals not on the interior walls of houses, where chemicals are sprayed, but on the exterior walls, where they don’t encounter the chemical at all.

The truth is that DDT is neither superhero nor supervillain — it’s just a tool. And if entomologists have learned anything in the last half-century of dealing with the million-plus species of insects in the world, it’s that there is no such thing as an all-purpose weapon when it comes to pest management. DDT may be useful in controlling malaria in some places in Africa, but it’s essential to determine whether target populations are resistant; if they are, then no amount of DDT will be effective.

We have new means of determining whether populations are genetically prone to developing resistance. DDT advocates are right to suggest that DDT may be useful as a precision instrument under some circumstances, particularly considering that environmental contamination in Africa may be less of a problem than it has been in temperate ecosystems because the chemical can degrade faster due to higher temperatures, moisture levels and microbial activity. Moreover, resistance evolves due to random mutation, so there are, by chance, malaria-carrying mosquito species in Africa that remain susceptible to DDT despite more than two decades of exposure to the chemical.

But environmentalists are right to worry that the unwise use of DDT, particularly where it is likely to be ineffective, may cause environmental harm without any benefit. In 2000, I chaired a National Research Council committee that published a study titled “The Future Role of Pesticides in U.S. Agriculture.” Our principal recommendation is germane to discussions of malaria management: “There is no justification for completely abandoning chemicals per se as components in the defensive toolbox used for managing pests. The committee recommends maintaining a diversity of tools for maximizing flexibility, precision, and stability of pest management.”

Overselling a chemical’s capacity to solve a problem can do irretrievable harm not only by raising false hopes but by delaying the use of more effective long-term methods. So let’s drop the hyperbole and overblown rhetoric — it’s not what Africa needs. What’s needed is a recognition of the problem’s complexity and a willingness to use every available weapon to fight disease in an informed and rational way.

Author’s e-mail: maybe@uiuc.edu

May Berenbaum is head of the department of entomology at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

� 2005 The Washington Post Company

DDT advocates are right to suggest that DDT may be useful as a precision instrument under some circumstances, particularly considering that environmental contamination in Africa may be less of a problem than it has been in temperate ecosystems because the chemical can degrade faster due to higher temperatures, moisture levels and microbial activity. Moreover, resistance evolves due to random mutation, so there are, by chance, malaria-carrying mosquito species in Africa that remain susceptible to DDT despite more than two decades of exposure to the chemical.

But environmentalists are right to worry that the unwise use of DDT, particularly where it is likely to be ineffective, may cause environmental harm without any benefit. In 2000, I chaired a National Research Council committee that published a study titled “The Future Role of Pesticides in U.S. Agriculture.” Our principal recommendation is germane to discussions of malaria management: “There is no justification for completely abandoning chemicals per se as components in the defensive toolbox used for managing pests. The committee recommends maintaining a diversity of tools for maximizing flexibility, precision, and stability of pest management.”

Judging from this it seems possible that DDT will be used once again to fight what is one of the twin true killers of sub-Saharan Africa.

Malaria, the true scourge of sub-Saharan Africa, can be prevented

June 5th, 2005

Malaria infests 300 million people a year on the planet, and kills 1 to 3 million. But it gets very little media coverage compared with the more dramatic and sensational�and politically fashionable plague of AIDS.

The Los Angeles Times draws attention to malaria, however, in a series it begins today, and deserves credit for that.

When the sun goes down in Africa, death stalks the children. It seldom comes from jungle cats or venomous snakes, but often from bugs smaller than a toddler’s thumbnail. Every year, their deadly sting kills more people than at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, more than December’s tsunami in Asia, more than the combined Union and Confederate casualties in the Civil War. If a biblical plague slaughtered every man, woman and child in Philadelphia, it would not equal some estimates of the death toll from malaria in the last 12 months.

…Yet the U.S. government spends about half as much on malaria per year as it spends in one day in Iraq. It also places a lower priority on malaria than other diseases, spending 30 to 40 times more in the fight against AIDS than on malaria, maybe because Americans get AIDS but not malaria…

… in the case of malaria, negligence is especially immoral given the cost and effectiveness of available treatment. Anti-malaria combination therapies cost about $2 a treatment in Africa…

Just about everyone living in sub-Saharan Africa gets malaria at least once a year. Most survive but suffer from anemia, recurring fevers and physical weakness. Many children also survive an infection, but with impaired physical and cognitive development….

Deadly as it is, malaria is rightly considered among the more soluble diseases plaguing Africa, one that can be fought effectively at comparatively low cost, which is why this killer bug is once again drawing so much attention. But unless data are presented showing that anti-malaria programs work, that money will quickly dry up.

Here is the url of this malaria article at the LA Times: The Killer Bug

Here is the full text of The Killer Bug malaria article:

latimes.com

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http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/opinion/la-ed-malintro5jun05,1,3190985.story?coll=la-news-comment&ctrack=1&cset=true

MALARIA: THE STING OF DEATH

The Killer Bug

There are solutions, but most come down to one thing: commitment.

June 5, 2005

When the sun goes down in Africa, death stalks the children. It seldom comes from jungle cats or venomous snakes, but often from bugs smaller than a toddler’s thumbnail. Every year, their deadly sting kills more people than at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, more than December’s tsunami in Asia, more than the combined Union and Confederate casualties in the Civil War. If a biblical plague slaughtered every man, woman and child in Philadelphia, it would not equal some estimates of the death toll from malaria in the last 12 months.

Well, some might say, the world is full of tragedy. We can’t cure all disease or save all lost children. But these acres of graves are the needless legacy of a disease that we have known how to cure for a century. And each life might have been saved for about $2 � less than the price of a latte.

Public health authorities can only guess how many people die of malaria because most of the victims never make it to a clinic; the estimates range from 1 million to 3 million a year. Most of the dead are children under age 5, and 90% had the misfortune to be born in sub-Saharan Africa, a land trapped somewhere between the modern world and the Stone Age.

A Timeless Disease

Malaria’s origins can’t be traced to a specific time period; the disease may be as old as civilized man (some speculate that it arose around the time humans started clustering in agricultural communities). A Chinese medical text from 2700 BC describes its symptoms. It is a bug carried by a bug � a parasite carried in the salivary glands of the anopheles mosquito. Humans and mosquitoes live in a vicious circle of infection. The mosquito gets the parasite by stinging a human who is already infected with it, then stings an uninfected human and passes it on.

The word malaria means “bad air” in Italian, because for centuries people thought that fetid vapors, particularly from swamps, were responsible for its spread. Then, in 1897, a Nobel Prize-winning British physician named Ronald Ross discovered that the mosquito was responsible.

The response around the world was to attack the bloodsuckers where they lived. One of the most successful programs started in 1904, when the U.S. military began draining swamps in the Panama Canal Zone � malaria and yellow fever were killing or disabling so many workers that the completion of the canal was in jeopardy.

In the 1930s, a similar approach was taken in the American South, where the parasite was thriving. During World War II, DDT was developed and sprayed in millions of U.S. homes. The drugs primaquine and chloroquine were added to the older quinine as effective treatments, and, by 1953, malaria was all but eradicated in the United States.

It was a heady time. The world had seemingly conquered a disease that had shadowed man’s footsteps for millenniums; anything seemed possible. In the late 1950s, the World Health Organization led a campaign to eliminate malaria from the rest of the world, pumping the equivalent of billions of today’s dollars into the quest � an amount that, given today’s politics, seems almost incomprehensible. Workers armed with DDT sprayers descended like Blackhawks over Baghdad on the huts and houses of the Third World.

But the malaria parasite is one of nature’s more perfect killers, and this eradication effort was largely a failure. Malaria rates were reduced in some parts of the world, but in places with a more severe problem than this country had ever faced, the mosquitoes simply started developing resistance to the insecticide. And the DDT armies didn’t even try to fight the bugs in sub-Saharan Africa, where the problem was deemed so severe that such efforts would be pointless. Today, malaria kills more people than ever.

A Very Modest Goal

The WHO failure discouraged ambitious anti-malaria programs for decades. Then, in 1998, the WHO and the World Bank established the Roll Back Malaria partnership. In 2000, the G-8 club of industrialized nations identified three pandemics that it would work to cure, and in 2002 established the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.

A very modest anti-malaria goal was set in 2000 by the United Nations as part of its Millennium Development Goals: to halt and begin to reverse the rise in the incidence of malaria by 2015. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (whose president is married to the editor who supervises this page) also focuses on malaria eradication, further attracting attention to the disease.

Yet the U.S. government spends about half as much on malaria per year as it spends in one day in Iraq. It also places a lower priority on malaria than other diseases, spending 30 to 40 times more in the fight against AIDS than on malaria, maybe because Americans get AIDS but not malaria.

It is absurd, of course, to argue that one global epidemic is more deserving of attention than others. But fighting one disease need not divert resources from the battle against another. And, in the case of malaria, negligence is especially immoral given the cost and effectiveness of available treatment. Anti-malaria combination therapies cost about $2 a treatment in Africa (though that is still far too expensive for large numbers of Africans to afford).

The Sick Continent

Sub-Saharan Africa is an economic sinkhole, stuck in what Columbia University economist Jeffrey Sachs calls a “poverty trap.” Other poor corners of the globe, such as India and East Asia, are making progress, showing marked improvement in per capita income over the last decade and a half. Sub-Saharan Africa is standing still, if not getting poorer. Is it that its governments are too corrupt, or its farming methods too ancient, or its ethnic tensions too corrosive?

These are all factors. But none is unique to sub-Saharan Africa, and other places with these problems still have managed to reduce poverty. What is unusual about this region is the burden of disease, more intense than anywhere else on Earth. And one of the most insidious is malaria. The WHO estimates that the disease costs the African economy about $12 billion a year. Just about everyone living in sub-Saharan Africa gets malaria at least once a year. Most survive but suffer from anemia, recurring fevers and physical weakness. Many children also survive an infection, but with impaired physical and cognitive development.

Among the more cruel paradoxes of malaria is that this disease that kills millions of children also fuels overpopulation. In countries with high infant mortality, parents have a grim way of playing the odds, knowing they have to have a lot of children to make up for the ones who won’t make it past the age of 5.

Looking Ahead

The malaria parasite is remarkably complex and adaptable. As soon as scientists discover a new drug to fight it, the parasite starts developing resistance. Ditto for the mosquitoes that carry it, which eventually build resistance to poison sprays.

As a result, many health experts, particularly those who remember the WHO failure of the 1950s and ’60s, are skeptical that malaria can ever be eradicated. But no one doubts that its toll on humankind can be substantially reduced. And even achieving only the U.N.’s millennium goal of reversing the rise of the disease would save thousands, if not millions, of lives.

There won’t be a magic bullet � the solution will involve a combination of drugs, better availability of treatment, bed nets, insecticide spraying and, ideally, a vaccine. The Gates Foundation is in the process of selecting one country in which it will provide all the available resources, and measure the results. That kind of measurement is critical. Deadly as it is, malaria is rightly considered among the more soluble diseases plaguing Africa, one that can be fought effectively at comparatively low cost, which is why this killer bug is once again drawing so much attention. But unless data are presented showing that anti-malaria programs work, that money will quickly dry up.

In the coming months, The Times will examine some of the key challenges in the battle against malaria. There are solutions, but most come down to one thing: commitment. Most of the world’s richest countries made lofty promises to fight malaria at the turn of the millennium. In the years since, these pledges have not been met.

The result of this failure is a sting of death afflicting millions. The United States and other rich nations have it in their power to easily prevent this sting, and we will have it on our conscience if we fail to do so.

Copyright 2005 Los Angeles Times

Let’s repeat in boldface:

Just about everyone living in sub-Saharan Africa gets malaria at least once a year. Most survive but suffer from anemia, recurring fevers and physical weakness. Many children also survive an infection, but with impaired physical and cognitive development….

Now ask yourself, how likely is it that these symptoms will be interpreted as “AIDS” in an area where tests are never done (or if they are, they seem to be virtually meaningless, since they cross react with malaria?

********************************************************

Warning to travelers to the AIDS Conference in Durban this week.

Do not forget your malaria pills. If you do, and get malaria, then do not confuse the aftermath of malaria with AIDS, for which you will likely test HIV positive.

********************************************************

What Bill Gates unfortunately doesn’t seem to have been told is that according to the best literature in science malaria exists but AIDS appears to be nothing more than relabeling of conventional diseases and toxicities as “AIDS” caused by “HIV”, and mismedicated accordingly in ways which soon produce the symptoms of “AIDS”.

If this conclusion is true (and it is the one which the best and most hostile peer reviewers in science have been unable to prove faulty in the pages of journals which are the bibles of science) then every penny spent on AIDS drugs in Africa is a penny wasted on causing disease rather than curing the twin scourges of sub-Sahara, tuberculosis and malaria.

Of course, malaria was originally cut down by DDT, which killed off the mosquitoes which carry the disease from an infected human to another, uninfected one. Michael Crichton in his recent novel “State of Fear”, which criticizes environmental alarmism, says that the ban on DDT has “killed more people than Hitler”. Now many argue for the return of DDT, at least for use in Africa which is hot and disintegrates the chemical rapidly.

On the other hand, insects evolve rapidly to become immune to any chemical, and there will always be that limit on DDT use. A judicious op-ed article on the topic appears today at the Washington Post by May Berenbaum, head of the department of entomology at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign..

Click on (more) below for the full text of the Washington Post op-ed or go to this url If

washingtonpost.com

If Malaria’s the Problem, DDT’s Not the Only Answer

By May Berenbaum

Post

Sunday, June 5, 2005; B03

In the pantheon of poisons, DDT occupies a special place. It’s the only pesticide celebrated with a Nobel Prize: Swiss chemist Paul Mueller won in 1948 for having discovered its insecticidal properties. But it’s also the only pesticide condemned in pop song lyrics — Joni Mitchell’s famous “Hey, farmer, farmer put away your DDT now” — for damaging the environment. Banned in the United States more than 30 years ago, it remains America’s best known toxic substance. Like some sort of rap star, it’s known just by its initials; it’s the Notorious B.I.G. of pesticides.

Now DDT is making headlines again. Many African governments are calling for access to the pesticide, believing that it’s their best hope against malaria, a disease that infects more than 300 million people worldwide a year and kills at least 3 million, a large proportion of them children. And this has raised a controversy of Solomonic dimensions, pitting environmentalists against advocates of DDT use.

The dispute between them centers on whether the potential benefits of reducing malaria transmission outweigh the potential risks to the environment. But the problem isn’t that simple. This is a dispute in which science should play a significant role, but what science tells us is that DDT is neither the ultimate pesticide nor the ultimate poison, and that the lessons of the past are being ignored in today’s discussion.

The United Nations Environment Program has identified DDT as a persistent organic pollutant that can cause environmental harm and lists it as one of a “dirty dozen” whose use is scheduled for worldwide reduction or elimination. But some DDT advocates have resorted to anti-environmentalist drama to make their case for its use in Africa.

They have accused environmental activists of having “blood on their hands” and causing more than 50 million “needless deaths” by enforcing DDT bans in developing nations. In his best-selling anti-environmentalist novel “State of Fear,” Michael Crichton writes that a ban on using DDT to control malaria “has killed more people than Hitler.”

Such statements make good copy, but in reality, chemicals do not wear white hats or black hats, and scientists know that there really are no miracles.

Malaria is caused by a protozoan parasite that is transmitted by mosquitoes. For decades, there have been two major strategies for curbing the disease: killing the infectious agent or killing the carrier. Reliably killing the protozoan has proved difficult; many older drugs are no longer effective, new ones are prohibitively expensive, and delivering and administering drugs to the susceptible populace presents daunting challenges. Killing the carrier has long been an attractive alternative.

And DDT has been an astonishingly effective killer of mosquitoes. DDT (which stands for the far less catchy dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) is a synthetic chemical that didn’t exist anywhere on the planet until it was cooked up for no particular purpose in a German laboratory in 1874. Decades later, in 1939, Mueller pulled it off a shelf and tested it, along with many other synthetic substances, for its ability to kill insects. DDT distinguished itself both by its amazing efficacy and its breadth of action — by interfering with nervous system function, it proved deadly to almost anything with six, or even eight, legs. And it was dirt-cheap compared to other chemicals in use — it could be quickly and easily synthesized in chemical laboratories from inexpensive ingredients.

Soon after its insecticidal properties were discovered, DDT was put to use combating wartime insect-borne diseases that have bedeviled troops mobilized around the world for centuries. It stemmed a louse-borne typhus outbreak in Italy and prevented mosquito-borne diseases in the Pacific theater, including malaria and yellow fever, to almost miraculous effect. This military success emboldened governments around the world to use DDT after World War II to try to eradicate the longtime scourge of malaria. And in many parts of the world, malaria deaths dropped precipitously. This spectacular success is why many people are calling for the use of DDT specifically for malaria control.

At the same time that malaria deaths were dropping in some places, however, the environmental persistence of DDT was creating major problems for wildlife, as famously documented in Rachel Carson’s classic 1962 book, “Silent Spring.” By 1972, the pesticide had become the “poster poison” for fat-soluble chemicals that accumulate in food chains and cause extensive collateral damage to wildlife (including charismatic predators such as songbirds and raptors), and a total ban on the use of DDT went into effect in the United States.

What people aren’t remembering about the history of DDT is that, in many places, it failed to eradicate malaria not because of environmentalist restrictions on its use but because it simply stopped working. Insects have a phenomenal capacity to adapt to new poisons; anything that kills a large proportion of a population ends up changing the insects’ genetic composition so as to favor those few individuals that manage to survive due to random mutation. In the continued presence of the insecticide, susceptible populations can be rapidly replaced by resistant ones. Though widespread use of DDT didn’t begin until WWII, there were resistant houseflies in Europe by 1947, and by 1949, DDT-resistant mosquitoes were documented on two continents.

By 1972, when the U.S. DDT ban went into effect, 19 species of mosquitoes capable of transmitting malaria, including some in Africa, were resistant to DDT. Genes for DDT resistance can persist in populations for decades. Spraying DDT on the interior walls of houses — the form of chemical use advocated as the solution to Africa’s malaria problem — led to the evolution of resistance 40 years ago and will almost certainly lead to it again in many places unless resistance monitoring and management strategies are put into place.

In fact, pockets of resistance to DDT in some mosquito species in Africa are already well documented. There are strains of mosquitoes that can metabolize DDT into harmless byproducts and mosquitoes whose nervous systems are immune to DDT. There are even mosquitoes who avoid the toxic effects of DDT by resting between meals not on the interior walls of houses, where chemicals are sprayed, but on the exterior walls, where they don’t encounter the chemical at all.

The truth is that DDT is neither superhero nor supervillain — it’s just a tool. And if entomologists have learned anything in the last half-century of dealing with the million-plus species of insects in the world, it’s that there is no such thing as an all-purpose weapon when it comes to pest management. DDT may be useful in controlling malaria in some places in Africa, but it’s essential to determine whether target populations are resistant; if they are, then no amount of DDT will be effective.

We have new means of determining whether populations are genetically prone to developing resistance. DDT advocates are right to suggest that DDT may be useful as a precision instrument under some circumstances, particularly considering that environmental contamination in Africa may be less of a problem than it has been in temperate ecosystems because the chemical can degrade faster due to higher temperatures, moisture levels and microbial activity. Moreover, resistance evolves due to random mutation, so there are, by chance, malaria-carrying mosquito species in Africa that remain susceptible to DDT despite more than two decades of exposure to the chemical.

But environmentalists are right to worry that the unwise use of DDT, particularly where it is likely to be ineffective, may cause environmental harm without any benefit. In 2000, I chaired a National Research Council committee that published a study titled “The Future Role of Pesticides in U.S. Agriculture.” Our principal recommendation is germane to discussions of malaria management: “There is no justification for completely abandoning chemicals per se as components in the defensive toolbox used for managing pests. The committee recommends maintaining a diversity of tools for maximizing flexibility, precision, and stability of pest management.”

Overselling a chemical’s capacity to solve a problem can do irretrievable harm not only by raising false hopes but by delaying the use of more effective long-term methods. So let’s drop the hyperbole and overblown rhetoric — it’s not what Africa needs. What’s needed is a recognition of the problem’s complexity and a willingness to use every available weapon to fight disease in an informed and rational way.

Author’s e-mail: maybe@uiuc.edu

May Berenbaum is head of the department of entomology at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

� 2005 The Washington Post Company

DDT advocates are right to suggest that DDT may be useful as a precision instrument under some circumstances, particularly considering that environmental contamination in Africa may be less of a problem than it has been in temperate ecosystems because the chemical can degrade faster due to higher temperatures, moisture levels and microbial activity. Moreover, resistance evolves due to random mutation, so there are, by chance, malaria-carrying mosquito species in Africa that remain susceptible to DDT despite more than two decades of exposure to the chemical.

But environmentalists are right to worry that the unwise use of DDT, particularly where it is likely to be ineffective, may cause environmental harm without any benefit. In 2000, I chaired a National Research Council committee that published a study titled “The Future Role of Pesticides in U.S. Agriculture.” Our principal recommendation is germane to discussions of malaria management: “There is no justification for completely abandoning chemicals per se as components in the defensive toolbox used for managing pests. The committee recommends maintaining a diversity of tools for maximizing flexibility, precision, and stability of pest management.”

Judging from this it seems possible that DDT will be used once again to fight what is one of the twin true killers of sub-Saharan Africa.


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